Bussard class cruisers (1890)

SMS Bussard, Falke, Seeadler, Condor, Cormoran, Geier

The last German sailing Cruisers

In 1914, among the oldest vessels of the Reichsmarine were the remainder of late 1880s colonial "cruisers" of the Bussard class. All named after marine birds, these fourth class cruisers, were more gunboats-size as per WWI standards. They had a barquentine rig, ram bows, clipper stern, wooden sheating to diffuse the metal heat in tropical waters. Although plans were similar, they diverged among their builder yards, between Dantzig, Kiel, Blohm & Voss, Wilhelmshaven Dyd. Laid down in 1888 to 1893, they were launched in 1890-94, completed in 1890-95.

Falke and Condor were not rebuilt, the other being refitted in 1898-1909, two discarded in 1913, two (Seeadler and Condor) hulked in 1914, but SMS Cormoran was still active, caught in Tsingtao when the Japanese besieged the only Asian German port. She was scuttled on 28.9.1914 to avoid capture. In 1917, SMS Seeadler was a mine hulk, and blew up in the Jade by accident. SMS Condor survived the war. SMS Geier carried Adimral Graf Von Spee to the East Asia squadron and later arrived too late to do anything on the besieged Tsingtao. She was to sail to South America by ended in the Marshall Islands, an then Honolulu, interned. She served as USS Schurz until 1918, rammed and sank by the merchant ship SS Florida.

Design

Germany built two types of cruising vessels in the 1870-80s, either small and fast avisos used as fleet scouts and long-range screw and fully rigged corvettes designed for the growing German colonial empire. Two new cruisers were authorized under the 1886–1887 fiscal year for colonial service under General Leo von Caprivi (Chief of the Imperial Admiralty) participated in the early draft and specifications of the two Schwalbe-class unprotected cruisers, later forerunners of the larger Bussard class as known today by naval historians. The Schwalbe would be seen in a separate post in the 1890 German Navy.

The next Bussard class basic design was prepared in 1888. They were larger and faster than the Schwalbe class but with the same rigging, ram, general appearance, and battery, though with quicker-firing guns. These were also, and this needs to be underlined in contrast of many others navies including the USA, the last German fully rigged cruisers. The next Gefion was indeed steam-only.

In a general way, the five vessels had the basic same appearance and general design. They were versatile, small unprotected cruisers designed for colonial areas: Not superbly fast, range and adaptation to the tropical conditions were deciding factors here: They had economic steam engines, being decidely too slow for fleet service at 15 knots, but the rigging gave them this alternative power source extending their range.

Hull construction and general caracteristics

The cruisers' hulls were constructed with transverse steel frames, made with yellow pine planking, up to the upper deck. Muntz metal sheathing was applied to the external and internal hull, protecting the wood from shipworm. Stem and sternposts mixed steel and timber.

They had a bronze naval ram at the bow. Divided underwater comprised ten watertight compartments plus double bottom, but only below the boiler rooms. The crew comprised 9 officers and 152 enlisted men. They also had onboard small boats comprising a steam-powered picket boat, a cutter, two yawls, and two dinghies. There was an ample rifle reserve onboard to launch landing parties if needed, easily quelling rebellions on small islands. This was helped by the fact their 3.7 cm (1.5 in) Hotchkiss revolver cannon could be dismounted and carried on the boats, but there was no dedicated wheeled mount for them when inland.

The first serie: Bussard, Falke



During this large gap of time the design was revised. The first batch of three (Bussard and Falke) were 1,838 tons standard, 82.6 m overall by 12.5 and 4.45 m draught. All three had two shaft HTE (Horizontal Triple Expansion) steam engines rated for 2,800 hp for 15.5 knots. They were all armed the same way with eight 105 mm guns, 5 QF revolver cannons, and two 350 mm TTs (only on Falke).

The second serie Seeadler, Condor, Cormoran

The next batch, were wider at 12.7 m and with a larger draught at 5.35 m but other specs were identical. Their TTs were upgraded to 450 mm models. Their 105 mm guns were installed by pairs forward and aft and two on the broadsides. The revolver cannons were installed amidship, as it seems.

The last: SMS Geier

Geier was laid down after all the others, as a sixth and last ship, being narrower at 10.6 m, with 5.22 m draught, but longer at 83.9 m overall, 79.62 waterline. So was also redesigned to discard the badly vibrating sponsons, curing this issue in service.

Powerplant

They all had two horizontal 3-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines. Steam came from four coal-fired cylindrical fire-tube boilers and the whole was rated at 2,800 metric horsepower (2,800 ihp). Compartimentation meant they ere separated in their own engine rooms and boilers divided into two boiler rooms, trunked into a single funnel. Propellers were a pair of 3-bladed 3 m (9 ft 10 in) diameter bronze screws.

Also, their auxiliary schooner barque rig (856 to 877 m2, 9,210 to 9,440 sq ft in toral surface area) helped them reaching 7-8 knots when wind was strong enough and granting them virtually unlimited range. The last, more modern auxiliary power source were two electric generators producing 24 kilowatts (32 hp)/67 volts combined.

Steering was controlled by a single rudder. On trials, she showed themselves as good sea boats, but rolling badly while the sponsons vibrated much, compromising their main guns accuracy. They were agile an reposnive at the helm, but turned slowly into the wind when at low speed due to their sail drag.

Top speed was 15.5 kn (28.7 km/h; 17.8 mph) as designed, exceeded on trials for all six ships: 15.7 to 16.9 knots (29.1 to 31.3 km/h; 18.1 to 19.4 mph). Fo autonomy they carried between 170 to 205 t (167 to 202 long tons; 187 to 226 short tons) of coal in peacetime, and this could rose to 305 to 320 t when filling all additional storage rooms, enough for a range between 2,990 and 3,610 nautical miles (5,540 to 6,690 km; 3,440 to 4,150 mi) at 9 knots cruiser speed.

Armament

Armament diverged between vessels as stated above:

Main battery:

8x 10.5 cm K L/35 guns (single pedestal mounts) with 800 rounds total, 8,200 m (26,902 ft 11 in) range for SMS Bussard alone.
The five next received the more modern quick-firing SK L/35 version of the same, also reaching 10,800 m (35,433 ft 1 in). They were placed side by side on the forecastle, broadside, sponson and gun port, and two on the quarterdeck.

SMS Geier as seen above had no sponsons for the second pair amidships and they were placed on the upper deck.

Light Battery:

Light gun armament comprised five 3.7 cm (1.5 in) Hotchkiss revolver cannon for all ships.

Torpedoes:

The first five had two 35 cm (13.8 in) torpedo tubes, mounted on the deck.
Geier differed by having the larger 45 cm (17.7 in) model, but they all had five torpedoes in storage.

Bussard class
Author's illu of SMS Condor in 1914 after rebuilding.

⚙ Bussard class specifications

Dimensions82.60 x 12.50 x 4.45m (271 x 41 x 14 feets 7 in)
Displacement1,559 t standard, 1,868 t Full loaded
Crew9 officers, 152 ratings
Propulsion2 shafts TE 4 FT boilers, 2,800 shp.
Speed15.5 knots (28.7 km/h, 17.8 mph)
Range2,990 nm (5,540 km)@ 9 knots.
Armament8× 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/35, 5× 3.7 cm (1.5 in) Hotchkiss, 2× 35 cm (13.8 in)TTs
ProtectionNone

The Bussard class in action

S.M.S. Bussard

Die_Gartenlaube Bussard 1893

SMS Bussard was laid down at the Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (contract "C"), launched on 23 January 1890 and completed, then commissioned on 7 October 1890. She was planned for overseas stations and was sent promptly after a short baltic shakedown, to the East Asia Station, East Asia Division. In July 1893, with SMS Falke she assisted is quelling the Mata'afa Iosefo in German-held Samoa. They also joined HMS Curacao and other vessels shelling rebels to submission on 7 July. The Mata'afa were eventually chased off from the capital, Apia, as Bussard sent like other ships a vigorous landing party. She remained behind to ensure full demilitarization of the rebels.

In 1898, SMS Bussard was back home for an overhaul, entering in March the Elbe River with tropical birds onboard for the Berlin Zoo. She was drydocked at the Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig and reconstructed with her original barque rig cut down for a simpler top-sail schooner rig (which also reduced crew), alongside a larger conning tower and bridge structure. She was ready in 1900 and after a short post-refit trials and fixes, returned to the far east, heading directly for China with the Boxer Rebellion. On 6 August 1900 while en route however, she suffered a boiler room explosion, due as it appeared later to a blown out manhole gasket. She lost three, plus three wounded (and burned). After arrival, she took part in the multinational attack on the Taku Forts with SMS Seeadler and Geier. The landing party not the crew had any casualties during the whole campaign.


SMS Bussard in Dar es salam, 1907-14

In 1901, she was ordered to the East Africa Station (German East Africa) with the cruiser SMS Schwalbe and the gunboats SMS Habicht, Wolf stationed there already. She remained on this station in 1904, Schwalbe being replaced by Sperber. In 1908, Sperber was replaced by Bussard's sister ship SMS Seeadler, and she remained in Africa until 1910. When back home, it was for a second and final refit. She stayed in Germany however for a short time: New, more modern and far more impressive cruisers were in completion and needed a crew: SMS Bussard was therefore stricken on 25 October 1912, broken up in 1913 in Hamburg.

S.M.S. Falke

SMS Falke in Apia Harbor, 1900s, photo AJ Tattersall NZ
SMS Falke in Apia Harbor, 1900s, photo AJ Tattersall NZ

SMS Falke was ordered under contract name "D", launched 4 April 1891 and christened by Princess Irene, wife of Prince Heinrich, then commissioned on 14 September, starting her sea trials. While off Bornholm she ran aground but was pulled free, decommissioned in Kiel in late October for fixes and repairs, recommissioned on 14 August 1892 and participating in the the annual fleet training maneuvers until September. She was then assigned to the 3rd Division with SMS Siegfried.

Falke then was tasked to join the German West African colonies and departed Kiel on 16 October, trplacing the gunboat Habicht. She was based in Dahomey, to witness the Second Franco-Dahomean War and by December, her captain unsuccessfully tried to negotiate the release of two German merchants held by Dahomean soldiers. Next she was in Duala, Kamerun, joined here by the gunboat SMS Hyäne.

As borders of German South-West Africa were negociated by treaty with Portugal and Britain the coast line had been not surveyed and alke was tasked of this, and notably to find a suitable port for the capital at Windhuk. She was underway from Luanda on 23 January 1893, sailed off Cape Cross and surveyed the area, discovering along the way a Portuguese padrão placed there by Diogo Cão in the 15th century. After some rest on 14-16 March she was back to Kamerun, and Duala on 29 April.

Next, she headed for Liberia on 27 May due to unrest, being off Monrovia on 9 June and hosting by security Joseph James Cheeseman, the President. She was back to Duala by 22 July and wasn sent to Cape Town for an overhaul, quicky recalled to deal with the Khoikhoi rebellion in German South-West Africa, on 5 December, and was sent back to Cape Town. Meanwhile, the Admiralstab transferred her to New Guinea and she departed on 23 December, stopping at Melbourne (8 February) and Sydney.

She met Bussard and Möwe in Austrlia and all three proceeded to Apia, Caroline, on 16 April, and started gunnery training. SMS Falke stayed in Samoa until early October and was sent in Sydney for maintenance, which became a lengthy overhaul in March-July 1895. Until 10 November she was based in Samoa, surveying Salua, north of tUpolu. The governor of the Marshall Islands requested her and she sailed to Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, Matupi Harbor (January 1896) to meet SMS Möwe and a new overhaul in Sydney until 15 April 1896.

Back in Apia she was recammed at the end of August to Auckland, NZ, with Bussard and Möwe to supress the rebellion in the Marshalls in early November 1896. She was overhauled again in Sydney (18 February 1897) and was in Auckland on 23 April, stopping in Tonga, then returned in Apia (16 May). When in June Curt von Hagen, the governor and other officials were murdered in Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, SMS Falke was sent to Stephansort, south of Madang, on 24 June to try to hunt for the murderers with a police detachment and contributed a landing party.

On 10 November she was back to Apia, and departed for Sydney via Auckland, also greeting a new crew from Germany. On 24 April 1898, she made another tour of German colonies and back to Sydney to greet her new commander, Korvettenkapitän Victor Schönfelder.

On 1 October 1898 she left Sydney for Apia, visited the New Hebrides, Fiji, and Tonga and made her long trip back to Germany alone amidst rising international tensions due to the crisis in Samoa. In March 1899, her trip was cancelled and she was back to Apia to deal with unrest on the island and catch the ring leader, Mata'afa Iosefo. There, there were already the USS Philadelphia and HMS Royalist, HMS Porpoise, shelling rebels. However as they proceeded, some of their shells hit SMS Falke by accident. Schönfelder prevented his crew to answer by gunfire, avoiding a more serious diplomatic crisis and the Second Samoan Civil War was resolved by separating them with the Americans and Britain receiving other concessions.

SMS Falke was soon relieved there by Cormoran and resumed at last her journey back to Germany on 1 July 1899, stopping in Sydney, Batavia, Colombo, Mahé, and Lisbon along the way to Hamburg (14 October). There, her crew conducted a landing exercise demonstration. Kaiser Wilhelm II greeted the captain for his management of the crisis in Samoa. On 27 October, SMS Falke was sent to be modenrized in Danzig, decommissioned on 3 November 1899 and taken over by Kaiserliche Werft.

Bundesarchiv_Kreuzer_SMS_Falke

She left the drydock on 2 October 1901, and was reassigned to the Americas station. She joined SMS Vineta deasling with unrest in the Caribbean and South America, stopping in Saint Lucia on 14 November. She visited several ports and joined Moltke, Stein and Gazelle, later steaming up the Amazon River via the Pará River on 7 March 1902. She arrived in Manaus on 23 March, meeting several German steamers here but went on upriver, lacking accurate maps and river pilots, but reached San Ignacio, Peru on 17 April after an up riverine trip of 5,200 nmi (9,600 km; 6,000 mi). Coal shortage stopped her. Her rigging was not sufficient to resume the trip further, and she was back on 30 April at the mouth of the river, setting a record for German warships.

On 8 May, she was in Port of Spain, Trinidad before patrolling the coast of Venezuela during unrest and stopped en route in Fort-de-France, Martinique, to carry food and medical supplies to recuse displaced people after Mont Pelee eruption. She went to La Guaira, the Carúpano, Venezuela, protect German nationals and in June, evacuated German and French nationals to Saint Thomas. She was based later in Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands. She returned to Carúpano, La Guaira, and Puerto Cabello and visited Willemstad, Curaçao. On 30 September, she was in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, protecting German nationals during the revolution, later sending a landing party to protect the German consulate in Gonaïves.

The situation in Venezuela worsening, she patrolled off the coast, ready to protect foreign nationals. In December, she ran aground when leaving Willemstad but was pulled free. On 16 December, the East American Cruiser Division was established with flagship SMS Vineta (A Victoria Luise class cruiser). She was constantly patrolling during the Venezuela Crisis of 1902–1903 with British Royal Navy and Regia Marina vessels, compelling the Venezuelan government to make reparations over 10 years grievances started when a British merchant ship was boarded and its crew arrested.



On 28 February 1903, Falke was sent for maintenance in the Royal Naval Dockyard, British North America, West Indies Station, Ireland Island (Bermuda) until 13 March. Until November 1905 she had a new CEO, Paul Behncke and in January 1904 visited New Orleans with Vineta, Gazelle, and Panther, then Newport News (26 May-16 June), and several Brazilian ports, in 7 July followed in September by Buenos Aires, rounded the Cape Horn, arrived in Peru and stopp ed along the way in several Chilean ports (like Valparaiso on 20 December 1904, spending Xmas there). However the the East American Cruiser Division was disbanded and in January 1905 she went to Colombia, and visited Central American ports until reaching San Francisco in June. On 10 July she went to Canada and southern Alaska.



SMS Falke in the floating drydock and Great Wharf HM DY Bermuda 1903

On her return voyage, she toured the Gulf of California and spent Christmas in Mazatlán, Mexico, also stopping in Callao. While off Chile, she was damaged by a severe storm and was repaired in Talcahuano. After an earthquake struck Valparaiso she carriedthere food and medical supplies and stayed until 2 September. Back to Chile for the inauguration ceremony of President Pedro Montt (18 September) she completed repairs in Talcahuano and sailed afterwards to Punta Arenas, staying there until 15 December. Rounding the the cape to rejoin the Atlantic she was in Montevideo in January 1907, ordered there to come back to Germany.

She stopped in Dakar, Las Palmas, Lisbon on her way back, and was visited by Frederick Augustus III of Saxony before arriving in Danzig on 15 April, being decommissioned on 20 January, inspectors reporting she was too worn out for modernization or overhaul and she was stricken on 25 October 1912, BU at the Kaiserliche Werft in Danzig, after a colorful and busy career of twenty years.

S.M.S. Seeadler




SMS Seeadler was launched at the Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig on 2 February 1892 (originally she was ordered as "Kaiseradler" or Eastern imperial eagle. It's the shipyard director, Kapitän zur See Aschmann, ttat gave the launching speech and she was completed by 27 June 1892, renamed Seeadler on 17 August when commissioned since Kaiser Wilhelm II in between rename his first yacht 'Kaiseradler'. Sea trials went on but on 25 October, she was accidentally rammed by the armored corvette Bayern in Kiel. She entered service on 15 March 1893 and was imediately setup for a long trip abroad.

She was to replace the older SMS Schwalbe in the East African Station, German East Africa. She steamed with SMS Kaiserin Augusta for a goodwill visit to the United States, for the 400th anniversary of Columbus's first voyage, leaving Kiel on 25 March, but due to an error when supplying coal, she ran out while en route and was taken en route by Kaiserin Augusta to Halifax to be resupplied. The two reached Hampton Roads on 18 April, greeted by nine other navies, before heading for New York harbor, visited here by Pdt Grover Cleveland, impressed by her yacht-like appearance and lavish tropical wood fittings.



Next she sailed to the Azores, and the Mediterranean Sea, then Red Sea, meeting SMS Schwalbe in Aden on 20 June before the two proceeded to Bombay for routine maintenance until 21 August. Seealder arrived on station on 2 September 1893, in Zanzibar, meeting there SMS Möwe in the East Africa Station. On 9 September, they proceeded ti Kilwa to deal with a group of slave traders attacking a police detachment, and assisting the lack of colonial army (Schutztruppe) by sending a landing party to assist police troops. The slavers were shelled to submission and scattered.

SMS Seeadler headed for Lourenço Marques (Portuguese Moçambique) next to help dealing with a rebellion threatening German nationals, evacuated to Zanzibar (15 November). Möwe was ordered to New Guinea, but Seeadler was soon reinforced by Condor and Cormoran, the latter on her way to the Pacific, but remaining in the area temporarily. The three were also deployed for a show of force, to prevent British encroachment on Delagoa Bay, a supply port to the independent Transvaal.

In January 1895, Condor relieved Seeadler and she departed for Bombay to have her boilers repaired and cleaned up, plus a major drydock overhaul assisted by workers from the Kaiserliche Werft sent there in supervision. On 31 May she was back in East Africa, and was deployed again notably to watch the British Jameson Raid into the Transvaal (December 1895). It indeed threatened some 15,000 German nationals, there plus a 500 million gold marks investment there. The German governor called Seeadler's landing force to protect the German consulate in Pretoria. However the Jameson Raid failed, but she remained until tensions cooled. By mid-February 1896, she was drydocked in Cape Town.

On 28 April she was sent in South-West German Africa, assisting Schutztruppe suppressing a local rebellion. She also was tasked to stopped British shipment of weapons to the rebels. She operated from Swakopmund on 5 May with the gunboat Hyäne, defending the city. Later that year she returned to East Africa, Zanzibar, taking aboard the deposed Sultan Khalid bin Barghash, carried to Dar es Salaam after the Anglo-Zanzibar War. On 20 December, she was back in Lourenço Marques to protect consul Graf von Pfeil, attacked by Portuguese colonial police. Condor joined her here on 2 January 1897 for a show of force. This was followedby her yearly overhault in Cape Town.


SMS Kaiserin Augusta and Seeadler in the US, 1890s

In May 1898, she was recalled to Germany, leaving Dar es Salaam for Aden (31 May), meeting Schwalbe which revieved her and was in Kiel on 26 June, later recommissioned for a major overhaul in Danzig. On 3 October 1899, recommissioned, she was ordered to reliev SMS Falke on the South Seas Station, German New Guinea. She departed Kiel on 19 October, stopped in Tangiers, forcing the hand of the the Moroccan government for damage to German interests there along the way, and arirved in south-Pacific colonies on 15 November.

Sh was first in the Admiralty Islands, 18 January 1900 show her guns after a European businessmen was murdered by natives, and started a tour of German holdings in the area, in Caroline and Mariana Islands recently purchased from Spain. In May she arrived in Samoa, meeting Cormoran there, touring the islands with governor Wilhelm Solf, and the Samoan chief, Mata'afa Iosefo. In July 1900, the Boxer Rebellion had her on her way to assist the suppression, arriving in Tsingtau, Kiautschou Bay concession joining the East Asia Squadron, with Fürst Bismarck and Hertha.

On 24 April 1901, she was back in Yap, Carolines, assisting the stranded steamer SS München, assisting with repairs to her hull. She was back to East Asia, patrolling Chinese waters and visited for the first time Japanese harbors until the end of 1902. On 2 January 1903 she was relieved by Bussard and was back to the South Seas Station, being overhaul in Uraga in Japan (3 August-14 September).

She became observer during the Russo-Japanese War, recalled to Tsingtau in case of hostilities involving Germany, with SMS Condor and the survey vessel Möwe. In early 1905 she made a goodwill visit to the Philippines and Dutch East Indies. On 28 June the decisive Japanese victory saw her sent back to the South Seas Station. Underway she was ordered to Africa while in Ponape on 20 August. She was requesting helping to quell the Maji Maji Rebellion in July. She ran aground twice (Labuan and Singapore) while underway, without serious damage and arrived in Dar es Salaam on 1 October.

In October she sent a landing party to Samanga, protecting the coastal telegraph line and was back in December ti Dar es Salaam, then sailed to Kilwa (17 January 1906) and back on the 24. She was overhauled at Cape Town and replaced SMS Thetis sent back to Germany. She remained in the East Africa Station until October 1907, under command of Korvettenkapitän Hugo Meurer, until June 1909, assisted by SMS Bussard in 1908. She sailed next to German South-West Africa, stopping at Walvis Bay and Swakopmund.

SMS Seeadler back in Germany
SMS Seeadler back in Germany, 1914

She cruised in these waters with the gunboat Panther in March-April before being back to Dar es Salaam, overhauled in Bombay. By early November 1911, she pulled the SS Irmgard free after running aground off Quelimane. She was visited in 1913 and 1914 by some notables. By 9 January 1914, she departed for Germany after 13.5 years abroad, a German reocrd for overseas service, relieved by Geier. She stopped in Aden and arrived Kiel on 18 March, then Danzig to be examined, judged in poor state and decommissioned.

On 6 May 1914 she became a gunboat and August 1914, to free her crew, reduced as an a unnamed hulk (The name was given to a famous corsair), storing naval mines, and later towed to Wilhelmshaven. While achored in the outer roadstead on 19 April 1917 she exploded, being destroyed, but there was no casualty. Her wreck is still there.

S.M.S. Condor


SMS Condor, date unknown

SMS Condor was ordered to replace the gunboat SMS Eber sunk by a hurricane in Apia in 1889, to Blohm & Voss shipyard, Hamburg. Her construction was stopped suring an outbreak of Cholera in Hamburg but she was launched on 23 February 1892, christened by Kaiserliche Werft director Kapitän zur See von Bodenhausen while the speech was given by Vizeadmiral Wilhelm Schröder, Baltic Station. She in fact accidentally launched herself due to the earlier tide and completed on 9 December, commissioned with trials started on 15 December.

On 2 October 1894 she was sent to German East Africa, Dar es Salaam station, relieving SMS Möwe. Her presence was also a show of force, to pressure Britain threatening the Boer Transvaal and Orange Free State in which Germany had strong interest. She indeed frequently moved back and forth between German East Africa and the eastern coast until 1899 especially after the Second Boer War broke out. She was also sent to Lourenço Marques (Mozambique, see above). On 27 June, she was with Cormoran in Delagoa Bay, later overhauled in Durban until 16 November, later relieving Seeadler.

By late December 1895 she was mobilized during the Jameson Raid into Transvaal. She was again in Lourenço Marques in January 1896. In June, she was in Mahé, Seychelles to rest her crew, called back to East Africa and in August-November was stationed off Cape Town, and then back in Mozambique at the request of the German consul, Count von Pfeilk, until 2 February 1897, with SMS Schwalbe. On 3 January 1901 she was back to Germany, stopping en route in the North Sea to help the German steamer Mawska.

drydock for an overaul of her hull and boiles she sailed two years later for the Pacific, relieving there SMS Cormoran at the South-Seas Station. On 26 June 1903 she stopped in Singapore and served with Seeadler and Möwe, converted as a survey ship. She helped quelling unrest in German Samoa and in May was in Sydney for a short overhaul. She carried the governor of German Samoa Wilhelm Solf on a visit to Hawaii until 14 September. By October 1907, she made gunnery training off the southern Ralik Chain, also a show of force for the local tribal chief.

With the gunboat Jaguar, she also dealt with unrest in the Marshall Islands until October 1908, carrying and deploying a contingent of Melanesian infantry to Pohnpei due to war between rival factions. By early 1909 she dealt with unrest in Apia, with Leipzig, Arcona and Jaguar. In August she tried to locate the lost government steamer Seestern on her way to Brisbane. Later she met the armored cruiser Scharnhorst, Nürnberg and Emden from the East Asia Squadron, back in Apia in July 1910. By January 1911 she was again sent to Pohnpei this time against the Sokehs Rebellion with Leipzig and Cormoran.

Until October 1911, she was in China, overhauled at the newly completed Kaiserliche Werft of Tsingtau. The Agadir Crisis in November saw her moved to Yap in case of war with France, and was sent later in maintenance in Sydney until 18 April 1912. Her survey staff was enlarged to map German protectorates. On 8 January 1913, she was reclassified as a gunboat after after overhaul in Tsingtao by May, she was judged in bad condition and ordered back to Germany, stopping to help the German steamer Zanzibar from hostile Moroccans after she ran aground.

Arrived in Danzig on 30 March 1914, she was decommissioned and thus, took no part in WWI. In 1916, she became a mine hulk off Friedrichsort, Kiel. Discarded in 1918, she was formally stricken on 18 November 1920, sold for BU on 8 April 1921, scrapped in Hamburg.

S.M.S. Cormoran


SMS Cormoran in Brisbane, Australia

SMS Cormoran emerged from the Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig and was trialled, then declared ready for service on 22 September. She was assigned like her sister to colonial duties, initially on 2 October to the East Asia Station, relieving SMS Wolf,but tensions in South Africa had her sent instead to German East Africa. On 16 October she left with Condor, stopping in Lourenço Marques, Mozambique, on 15 December, remaning there for seven months. In January 1895, she towed the stranded cruiser Afonso de Albuquerque back to Lourenço Marques.

In July, Condor arrived there to replace Cormoran so she was free to return to East Asian waters, stopping in Muscat (Oman) underay, visited by the sultan. On 5 August, while in the Strait of Hormuz she had a safety valve on ger starboard engine low-pressure cylinder damaged. She stopped in Bushehr, Persia for repairs. Next she resumed her trip to Basra via the Shatt al-Arab, being visited by the German consul and Turkish authorities. On 13 September 1895, she arrived in Singapore, East Asia Division under Rear Admiral Hoffmann (flagship SMS Kaiser).

In July 1896, she assisted the stranded gunboat SMS Iltis and by November 1897, steamed up the Yangtze River to Hankow, also assisting in the occupation of the Kiautschou Bay concession. She also was an observer during the 1898 span-am war in the Philippines (May 1898), being disuaded to close on Cavite by USS Raleigh. In November 1898 she towed SMS Kaiser from Samsah Bay (Fujian) to Hong Kong for repairs. Soon the situation degrading in Samoa prompted her to reinforce Bussard and Falke dealing with the rebellion.


Captain H. Emsmann (State Library)

While en route on 23–24 March 1899 she ran aground on the Whirlwind Reef (north of New Pomerania), her bow sticking about a meter out of the water. She was lightened by removing coal and ammunition, but remained stuck and her captain Hugo Emsmann sent a steam pinnace and dinghy to Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen 162 nm away. They met the steamer Stettin and came back on 29 March. Again, all remaining coal and ammunition were either thrown overboard or deposed nearby, and and fore and mainmast were cut down, stern guns dismounted. At last she was able to float free. The crew re-stowed supplies ashore and moved to Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, Tsingtau for repairs. This was instead done in Sydney, for a full dry-docking inspection, repaired going on untl June.

SMS Cormoran had later her crew replaced in China, as they were sent as a landing party deep inland to deal with the Boxer Rebellion. On 2 October, she was in Apia, starting a tour of German Pacific colonies. After her yearly Sydney overhaul, she teamed with SMS Hansa to represent Germany at the first Parliament of Australia, in Melbourne. She stopped in Samoa, and St Matthias Islands (Bismarck Archipelago) to punish the islanders after the searcher Mencke had been murdered with his assistant during his survey. On 28 July she was back to Apia and proceeded to make survey work around.


SMS Cormoran's stern in drydock, Auckland's drydock New Zealand

In 1902, she visited the Bismarck and Marshall Islands, making another tour of Pacific colonies from 23 September. While in Sydney by mid-March 1903, she was ordered back to Germany, arriving in Kiel on 13 September, seeing little service with the Hochseeflotte and later modernized in 1907-1908 at the Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig, notably obtaining brand new J W Klawitter boilers and having a lighter sailing rig, larger conning tower and bridge. By May 1909 she was recommissioned and setup to sail to the Pacific.

As she was in Malta on 8 June 1909, orders were received to move to Asia Minor due to unrest in Turkey, in particular against Armenians, joined there SMS Stettin and Lübeck, taking some 300 aboard. On 9 July, while in Port Said, she was ordered to resume her trip to the Pacific. SMS Cormoran stopped in Jeddah to repairs her boilers ad in the Pacific made a new survey cruise, while delivering landing parties and punitive expeditions against cannibals in Kaiser-Wilhelmsland. She participated newt to two ceremonies.

On 13 November, she carried the Herbertshöhe governor to Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen, Hansa-Hafen, and Kaiserin-Augusta River on a 183 nautical miles trip up river. On 22 November she was at the mouth of the river and in January 1910, was back in Apia. While underway to Hong Kong, she was hot by a hurricane, her sides pushed in by the massive waves, all of her boats destroyed or damaged. She stop in Nouméa, New Caledonia for short repairs, and was back in Hong Kong on 3 May.

On 15 July 1910 she was back in Apia, with SMS Condor, Scharnhorst Emden and Nürnberg, East Asia Squadron. On 13 December the fleet was in Rabaul and then Ponape, dealing with the Sokehs Rebellion. On 22 February, Cormoran, Emden and Nürnberg landing shore parties to support the Polizei-Soldaten from German New Guinea. On 23 March she went to Sydney for her overhaul and later resumed her colonial cruising duties, later assisting the steamer Planet pulling free the Norwegian barque Fram.






After a major overhaul in Tsingtau in May 1912, and a surveying cruise until 10 January 1913, she learned she was reclassified as a gunboat on 24 February. From 4 June to 5 July, she was overhauled in Sydney, stopping at Bougainville to deal with tribal feuds and landing a shore party. On 30 May she was back in Tsingtau. There in July, Fregattenkapitän Karl von Müller (SMS Emden) ordered her repairs to be accelerated and in August, Emden captured the Russian steamer Ryazan, brought back to Tsingtau, Cormoran being decommissioned and her crew transferred to Ryazan (plus some guns), becoming the auxiliary cruiser Cormoran, completed by men from the gunboats Iltis and Vaterland. The rest of the weaponry of the three shups was removed to strengthen the shore defenses, made ready for the attack on 6 August 1914. The ex-Cormoran was then scuttled in the harbor on 28–29 September 1914.

S.M.S. Geier


SMS Geier off shore postcard

SMS Geier was ordered under the contract name "F" and built at the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven, launched on 18 October 1894, commissioned on 24 October 1895 and started sea trials, completed on 21 January 1896, decomm; and recomm. on 1 December 1897, assigned to the West Indies.

Prewar colonial duties: Carribean, China, East Africa.

The West Indies station was the least well protected colonial sector of the German Navy, until then using only school ships to protect German nationals here. With rising tensions in Haiti, the Admiralstab sent SMS Geier to the Caribbean, replacing the old ironclad Oldenburg, at first scheduled. The ironclad König Wilhelm, now rebuilt as an armored cruiser, was sent in addition. Based in Charlotte Amalie, Danish West Indies from 3 January 1898, Geier met later Charlotte and Stein, which were sufficient to deal with the Haiti insurrection, so that she dropped anchor at Santiago de Cuba until 6 April, before being ordered to visit Pernambuco, Bahía Blanca and recalled to Cuba with the Spanish–American War.

On 6 May, she was in Saint Thomas, to sail to Santiago de Cuba and San Juan, arriving there on 13 May, as observer of Admiral William T. Sampson attack. The US government allowed Geier to to evacuate twenty civilians of all nationalities to Veracruz. The captain of Zaragoza visited her for some practice torpedo launches, followed by the German ambassador, which in returned invited the crew to Mexico City, received by President Porfirio Díaz. On 16 June, Geier was in Cienfuegos in Cuba, and made two evacuations, in late June and eary August.

She visited New Orleans on 14 October, and was back to the Caribbean before resuming her tour of South America, typically stopping in ports having a strong German immigrant community. She crossed the Straits of Magellan on 20–23 February 1899 for Valparaiso, Callao, and eventually Panama then in May Puerto San Jose (Guatemala), settling financial disputes with the government. Next she stopped in Corinto, Guayaquil, Puntarenas, and due north to Canada via San Francisco for a boiler overhaul.

Geier-collier-Bochum_DADG
Geier's collier Bochum of the DADG

On 18 September 1899, she she departed for Vancouver, via Esquimalt and started her voyage south, she was off Chile in January-February 1900, but was reassigned to the new West American station. While in Acapulco, on 9 July, she was called to sail to the Pacific to join the Eight Nation Alliance in the Boxer war. She stopped in Yokohama via Honolulu in Hawaii and arrived in Chefoo on 29 August 1900, patrolling the Bohai Sea and dropping anchor in Tsingtao by October. On the 28th she departed for Shanghai, based there until February 1901.

SMS Geier steamed up the Yangtze to Chungking, relieving Bussard and was back to Tsingtao, then returned this time in central China to relieve Seeadler and back to Tsingtao on 18 July. She then toured Korean and Japanese ports with SMS Fürst Bismarck. By October 1902, she reached the Dutch East Indies and Singapore. She was overhauled back in Nagasaki in March 1903 and later was formally assigned to the East Asia Squadron. By February 1904 she became an observer of the Russo-Japanese War, based in Chemulpo, captured by the Japanese. For her major overhaul, she was recalled to Germany, leaving Tsingtao on 14 January, arriving in Kiel on 16 March and recomm. in early 1911.


Kaiser Wilhelm II aboard SMS Geier

She was reassigned to relieve SMS Sperber on the East African Station, German East Africa, Dar es Salaam reached on 9 July and meeting there SMS Seeadler. Later she was recalled in the Mediterranean Sea, as the Italo-Turkish War had broke out, along with SMS Lorelei, based in Constantinople. She was also there for the aftermath of the Agadir Crisis (July 1911) and as back in East Africa, departing for Germany on 2 October via Piraeus (until January 1912), before being reassigned to the Mediterranean Division with SMS Goeben.

Until mid-July 1912 she provided humanitarian assistance in Libya, Palestine, and the Red Sea and escorted the Kaiser's yacht Hohenzollern off Corfu by May. On 17 July 1912 she was overhauled in Trieste until 30 September. Next she cruised eastern Mediterranean ports and was in Haifa on 31 January 1913. There, a coal dust explosion killed two. In August she was ordered to replace SMS Breslau blockading Montenegro (Second Balkan War), staying there until 14 October and being overhauled again in Trieste. From January 1914, she was ordered back to the East Africa Station, surveying Tanga and by May, being reclassified as a gunboat. She was relieved by SMS Königsberg on 5 June and reassigned to the South Seas Station, relieving Condor.

The gunboat SMS Geier in WWI

Geier's captain learned about the events while en route to the Pacific, stopping in Singapore on 25–29 July and proceeded through the Gaspar Strait, then receicing new orders off Batavia (1 August) to join von Spee's East Asia Squadron at Yap. She adopted also along the way a commerce raiding stance, coaling at Jampea from Elmshorn and sailing through the Buton Strait, then coaling off Celebes with the steamer Bochum, now assigned as her permament collier.

Since she was worn out, some repairs were made to her engines and boilers until she reached the Palau Islands, under tow of Bochum to spare coal. On 20 August, she contacted SMS Emden, detached from the Squadron and in her own rampage. She instructed Geier to meet her at Anguar, but she could never be there in time, although Emden stopped and eventually met her at sea. Captain Curt Graßhoff met Emden's cojnterpart to confer about the situation and next moves, and while Emden departed for the Molucca Strait, Geier proceeded back to Anguar, coaling from Tsingtau with the same instructions of reaching the East Asia Squadron in the central Pacific. She passed the Bismarck Archipelago, Kusaie, capturing on 4 September the British freighter SS Southport. She was not sunk but her engines were believed sabotaged. Instead the crew managed to repair them and sailed to Australia, reporting Geier.

On 11 September, Geier was off Majuro, missing the squadron. Her engines were so worn out after all these years she was unable to reach Tsingtao, already besieged by the Japanese. Options like commerce raiding or converting captured fast steamers as auxiliary cruisers were judged impossible and Graßhoff followed the East Asia Squadron to South America now at 8 knots, and towed along the way by the steamer Locksun into the Marshall Islands, with some maintenance done in 17-20 September.

The gunboat's supplies were quite low to the point she was barely able to reach Hawaii, reached on 15 October, the Americans asking she was interned. In betwee, the battleship Hizen and armored cruiser Asama were patrolling the area and learned about the Geier's arrival, taking albush positions outside the three mile limit. Graßhoff delayed the internment until 7 November, helped by the poor weather and pretexting repairs. However ultimately, the US Navy interned Geier. The crew was authorized to make it back to Germany.

As USS Schurz (1917-18)



When the US entered war on 6 April 1917, Geier was seized, refitted for service in the USN as USS Schurz, recommissioned on 15 September 1917 (Captain Arthur Crenshaw). USS Schurz departed Pearl Harbor on 31 October to lead Submarine Division 3 in San Diego (K-3, K-4, K-7, and K-8) until December. She crossed the Panama Canal to Honduras. and in January 1918 carried the American consul from Puerto Cortes to Omao and anchored in Key West. She was based later in New Orleans and Charleston, drydocked for maintenance.

She was part of the American Patrol Detachment and patrolled for two months, between escort duties, even towing missions north and south of the Caribbean. While en rout for Key West at 04:44 on June 21, SW of Cape Lookout lightship, she was rammed by the SS Florida on her starboard side. The bridge was mushed in, the well and berth deck penetrated by 12 feet, as the bunker no.3, forward boiler room one killed and twelve injured. Crippled and flooded, she was abandoned and sank after three hours, struck officially on 26 August 1918.

Read More

Books

Clowes, William Laird; Markham, Clements; Mahan, Alfred Thayer; Wilson, Herbert Wrigley & Roosevelt, Theodore (1903). The Royal Navy
Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Vol. I: Major Surface Vessels. Naval Institute Press
Hildebrand, Hans H.; Röhr, Albert & Steinmetz, Hans-Otto (1993). Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe
Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger & Kolesnik, Eugene M. (eds.). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905
Marley, David (2008). Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflict in the Western Hemisphere. Santa Barbara
Nottelmann, Dirk (2020). "The Development of the Small Cruiser in the Imperial German Navy". Warship 2020. Osprey
Nunez, Severo Gómez (1899). The Spanish–American War: Blockades and Coast Defense. DC: Washington, Govt. Print.
"Schurz". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department
Sondhaus, Lawrence (1997). Preparing for Weltpolitik: German Sea Power Before the Tirpitz Era.
Vego, Milan N. (1996). Austro-Hungarian Naval Policy, 1904–14. Frank Cass Publishers.

Links



On german-navy.de
CC photos
On historyofwar.org
On worldnavalships.com
Notes on the spanish-am war
wiki

Model kits


Scalemate: SMS Geier 1892

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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