IJN Ryūjō (1931)

Japanese Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Fleet Light Aircraft Carrier

IJN Ryūjō was a light IJN carrier of 8,000 metric tons displacement designed to exploit Washington treaty's limitations loopholes under 10,000 tonnes. Contrary to her style, narrow with a cruiser bow and no island, she was not a converted cruiser but was designed in effect. However the would remained the only one, as the loophole was addressed by the 1930 London treaty. Despite of this, she carried 48 planes and served alongside Kaga, Akagi and Hosho during the Sino-Japanese war, with the feared Kido Butai. She was very active in WW2, participating in the Philippines, Malaya, and the Dutch East Indies campaigns, Second Battle of the Java Sea, Indian Ocean raid, Battle of the Aleutian Islands, but met her fate in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on 24 August 1942.

Development of a Japanese light Washington Carrier


Colorization of IJN Ryujo, bow view, by irootoko jr.

The Imperial Japanese Navy Ryūjō was planned already in 1926 as a light carrier of circa 8,000 metric tons (7,900 long tons) in standard displacement to play with the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. The latter indeed stated that under 10,000 long tons of standard displacement a ship carrying planes was no longer regarded as an "aircraft carrier". Seeing an opportunity the admiralty at that time wanted to create a serie of standard, light fleet CVs and several designs were studied.

IJN Ryūjō construction was eventually voted and started with the laying down of her keel at Mistubishi Yard in Yokohama, on 26 November 1929. The global market crash and ensuing economical crisis did not affect her but in between a Japanese delegation signatory of Washington was also sigatory of the follow-on London Naval Treaty of 1930. It had a newly added Article Three, specified aicraft carriers below 10,000 tons whould also be limited and feiniong a global tonnage. This closed the aforementioned loophole and therefore, the IJN was found capped in this area. Therefore, IJN Ryūjō remained the only light aircraft carrier of this type. When light CVs were created afterwards, they were all escort vessels converted from existing hulls. This made IJN Ryūjō a singular vessel with some design issues and far less plans onboard than Kaga or Akagi, although Japanese doctrine did not stressed large air groups as much as in the USN in the early 1930s.


Colorization of IJN Ryujo in 1936 by irootoko jr.

Design of IJN Ryūjō

Ryūjō was planned as a "light carrier" targeting 8,000 metric tons of standard displacement to exploit the Washington Naval Treaty disregarding any vessel below 10,000 tons as an "aircraft carrier". Ryūjō was already under construction, when the London Naval Treaty making this illegal. In the end, Ryujo was designed over a light cruiser hull, and was only 179.9 meters (590 ft 3 in) overall, with however a larger beam of 20.32 meters (66 ft 8 in) at the waterline, so almost 1/9 ratio, because of stability concerns and having a sizeable hangar above. It had a a draft of 5.56 meters (18 ft 3 in). At the end of the design, confirmed by construction, her displacement was calculated at 10,150 metric tons in normal load. Her crew was about 600.

Hull & protection


Constructin in Yokohama in 1931

Ryūjō's low weight dictated a lightly built hull and no armor but some protective plating over the most sensible parts: Abreast the machinery spaces and magazines, and this was mostly splinter decks, with around 10-15 mm protection (0.4-0.6 in) with high-tensile steel. Also contrary of previous conversions, she was built with a single hangar, which also helped to keep her overall height limited. However the initial planned an extremely low profile (4.6 meters (15 ft 1 in) freeboard amidships, just 3.0 meters (9 ft 10 in) aft), similat to the later Zuiho class. However during the time she was laid down in 1929 and launched in 1931, the admiralty wanted double the amount of aviation onboard, and the stowage requirement, around 28 planes, turned to 48 for a more capable air group. Games helped the admiralty to reach the same conslusion than their American counterparts.

But this soon became an engineer's nightmare, while the ship was already in construction. Their only solution was to built another hangar atop the first one, deck level. It raised the freeboard to 14.9 meters (48 ft 11 in) but since the hull still had the same narrow beam, she became hardly stable in rough seas as calculated. In all her flight deck was 3,600m² (38,750 ft square) in surface, with a lenght of 156.5 m and a width of 23.0m (111 x 75 feets). Her upper and lower hangars were served by two lifts or unequal size and shapes: One fore was 11.1 m x 15.7m (36 x 51 feets) and the one aft made 10.8 m x 8.0m (35 x 26 feets).



Profile As completed, 1933F (ctds navypedia)


Profile in 1936


Profile in 1940

First refit, 1934


1935 ONI depiction of the ship (library of congress)

The first act was to add Sperry active stabilizers, but her hull needed both strenghtening and additions. In between, the famous Tomozuru Incident of 12 March 1934 (a latter demonstrated top-heavy torpedo boat capsized and broke in two in heavy weather) had the admiralty reconsider its ship's stability across the board. In June-September 1933, IJN RYUJO made her sea trials and training at 29 knots and soon problems appeared: She was very, very wet, even under under moderate sea conditions. She was indeed plowing heavily enough for her front hangar so seep in massive quantities of seawater, while she rolled and rcked quite heavily, showing a clear lack of stability.

On Ryūjō, this meant massively increasing hull strength. So as soon as she was in service, she went back to Kure Naval Arsenal for modifications. Engineers worked out her keel notably, adding ballast, mounting shallow torpedo bulges and raising the waterline (so her draft). On another note, recent lessons from aicraft carriers in service urged in the same refit to have her funnels were moved higher up curved downward, in order to keep smoke away from the deck. Also it was made clear her flight deck ineffective as her small areas did not allow to carry proper runway operations with more than six aircrafts simultaneously (with the new generation of aircraft especially), severely hampering her air group.

Second refit, 1936


Refits profiles history 1933-42 Was that sufficient ? Soon, IJN Ryūjō was caught in a typhoon, on 25 September 1935, while maneuvering. This became the "Fourth Fleet Incident", in whih many vessels were lost. Her bridge, flight deck and superstructure were all damaged by massive waves and her hangar flooded and devastated. During another refit, her forecastle was completely rebuilt to avoid being submerged. It was raised from one entire deck while her bow was remodelled. She had more flare to sea handling, whereas both beam increased, up to 20.78 meters (68 ft 2 in) while her draft ended at 7.08 meters (23 ft 3 in), displacement now jumped from 10,600 to 12,732 metric tons, way above the former Washington limit. The crew grew to 924 officers and enlisted men to serve the additional planes and AA. Also her flight deck had roounded edges, wider aft but shorter by 2 m (6.5 ft), new arrestors cables were set in place to stop 6,000-kg (13,000 lb) aircraft, bridge modified (rounded). This was over in May 1936.


Final profile of the vessel in 1940, showing her raised forecastle.

3rd and 4th refits 1939-42

She was refitted again in 1939, (starting 15 November) in Kure, until January 1940 with various repairs, fixes and a redesign of her flight deck: It was narrower back as in the original design width, starting from a postion approx. the forward 12.7-cm (5.0”)/40 Type 89 gun mount and forward elevator.

Her last refit was On 28 April 1942, also for maintenance after extensive service. This mostly consisted in a massive AA upgrade. It was completed in May 1942, her six-quad Type 93 13.2 mm MGs replaced by six-triple Type 96 25mm guns, in addition to her amidships two-twin Type 96.

IJN Ryujo's Refits in brief:

Powerplant


Close view of the Funnels after completion


Myoko turbine set configuration Ryujo was given basically the same powerplant as the Myoko class heavy cruisers but scaled down: Two geared steam turbine sets producting a total ouptut of 65,000 shaft horsepower (48,000 kW) with its own propeller shaft. They were fed by the steam provided by six Kampon water-tube boilers. Ryūjō's design speed was 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph), but she reached 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h; 33.9 mph) on sea trials, with a total output of 65,270 shp (48,670 kW). For long range operations in the pacific she carried 2,490 long tons (2,530 t) of fuel oil for 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph). Her boilers uptakes were trunked to her starboard side amidships, exhausted horizontally below the flight deck level with two small funnels. Tests were made to improve both gases extraction and avoid smoke interfecrence problems, an issue dealt with since Hosho in 1919.

Armament


25 mm Type 96 AA -Six twin-gun mounts, three per side, equipped with 40-caliber 12.7-centimeter Type 89 dual-purpose guns. They were mounted on projecting sponsons, but high enough t cover the other side of the flight deck. Lessons were learned since the conversion of Kaga and Akagi. Range: 14,700 meters (16,100 yd), ceiling of 9,440 meters (30,970 ft), rate of fire 14 rpm, 8 sustained. The twenty-four anti-aircraft (AA) Type 93 13.2 mm Hotchkiss HMGs were also in sponsons along the flight dekc in twin and quadruple mounts. As a short range weapons they dealt with planes approachinag at 700–1,500 meters (770–1,640 yd) and capable of a 425 and 475 rpm on paper, but loading the 30-round magazines made a real 250 rounds per minute ratio.

The 1934–36 refit, saw two of the 5.0 in mounts exchanged for two twin-gun Hotchkiss 25 mm Type 96 light AA guns instead, largely required to reduce toweight (this saved circa 60 long tons) and improve stability. The 25 mm had severe design shortcomings and was largely ineffective. It was mostly the result of a slow-moving mount and could not be trained or elevated fast enough. Also sights were inadequate for high-speed targets. It was also plagued by vibration problems and the crew was blinded by the muzzle blast. These could still provided a larger defensive bubble, at 1,500–3,000 meters (1,600–3,300 yd) with a ceiling of 5,500 meters (18,000 ft) but a 110-120 rpm cycle due to the use of manually loaded fifteen-round magazines.

Air group

For her sea trials she already had a relatively small air group (making also flying qualifications), consisting of 9 Mitsubishi Type 13 B1M2 (+3 spares) attack aircraft and 3 Nakajima Type 3 (+2 spares) A1N1 fighters. They was plenty of room in both hangars for more. On December 1933 this comprised 5 A1N2 and 12 B1M2, and an unknown number of other models. In Jylu 1937 her air group comprised for certain 12 Nakajima A2N and A4N, and 15 D1A2, plus again, unknown complement. After her third refit, when the war broke out wit the US in December 1941 the air group comprised 22 A5M4 "Claude" fighters and 16 B5N2 "Kate" torpedo bombers. In August 1942 after her fourth and last refit, she carried 22 A6M2 "Zeke" and 6 B5N2 "Kate", showing she was used a bit like the USN Independence class as a "fighter carrier" with a symbolic strike air group.


Nakajima B5N1 "Kate", 4th Koku Sentai, Ryujo, 1941

Mitsubishi B1M2, Nakajima A1N1, Nakajima A2N & A4N1, Mistubishi A5M2 "claude", Nakajima B5N2 "Kate"

Facilities


Flight deck in 1936

IJN Ryūjō had no island superstructure to avoid interference in deck operations, so her navigating and control bridge was situated just under her flight deck forward "lip". There was a long "greenhouse". Its wall was curved and sloped downards, set back 23.5 meters (77 ft 1 in) from the stem, making an open bow. With 156.5 m x 23 m (513 ft 5 in x 75 ft 6 in) her flight deck extended well beyond the aft end of the superstructure. It was supported by two pillars aft. The aft deck was criss-crosse dby six transverse arrestor cables. In 1936 they were swapped for much stronger models able to stop a 6,000 kg (13,000 lb) aircraft. The two hangars measured 102.4 meters (335 ft 11 in) long overall for 18.9 meters (62 ft 0 in) in width (3,871 square metres, 41,667 sq ft). Although there was no room to store an aircraft under the ceiling, but only parts, both could store 24 aircraft in all, making a total of 48, but 37 could operated, many were jus stored replacements. Ryūjō's bridge flight deck leading edge were were rounded off, streamlined for heavy weather, reducing the flight deck lenght, but modified again later. The aircraft were brought to the flight deck using two elevators, one forward (15.7 by 11.1 meters, 51.5 ft × 36.4 ft) one aft (10.8 by 8.0 meters, 55.4 ft × 26.2 ft). The latter appeared too small and unable to deal with the latest torpedo planes of the IJN, and was only use to brinh up fighters or supplies. However the Nakajima B5N "Kate" torpedo bomber could still barely fit at an agnle wings folded on the forward one. This single-elevator capability gravely hindered transfer of her air group, notably for rearming and refueling.
Author's profile of IJN Ryujo

⚙ 1940 Specifications

Displacement10,600 long tons, 13,450 long tons FL
Dimensions179.9 m oa x 20.8m x 7m ( x 23 feets)
Propulsion2 shafts Kampon geared turbines, 6 Boilers, 65,000 shp ()
Speed29 knots (55 km/h; 34 mph)
Range? nmi () at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Armament4x2 5 in (127 mm), 4x 25 mm AA, 48 aircraft
ArmorSee notes
Crew924

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Video

The models corner

Chibimaru Ship Series Ryujo Fujimi 1:Egg 42204
IJN Aircraft Carrier Ryujo After the First Reconstruction DX Fujimi 1:700
IJN Aircraft Carrier Ryujo Second Refit (with 33 Navalised Aircraft / Second Battle of the Solomon Sea) Fujimi 1:700
Aircraft Carrier Ryujo SD Aoshima 1:700
Aircraft Carrier Ryujo Second Upgrade Aoshima 1:700
Aircraft Carrier Ryujo (Battle of The Eastern Solomons) STD Waterline Series No. 230 Aoshima 1:700
IJN Aircraftcarrier Ryujo (2.upgrd) Flight Deck Tetra Model Works 1:700

IJN Ryūjō in action:

Early career (1933-37)


Ryujo in trials, 1933

Laid down at Yokohama on 26 November 1929 in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Dockyard, Ryjo was launched on 2 April 1931. her named signified "Prancing Dragon". On 25 April 1931 she was towed to Yokosuka Naval Yard for fitting-out. On 1st December 1931, her first captai (later Rear Admiral) Matsunaga Toshio took command. He was formerly on the IJN AKAGI, as Chief Equipping Officer for the completion. On 9 May 1933, IJN Ryujo was at last commissioned and Captain Matsunaga was appointed as Captain, for her sea trials, which took place between June and September 1933, followed by training exercises for her air group. It comprised at the time 9 Mitsubishi Type 13 B1M2 and 3 Nakajima Type 3 A1N1 plus spares, and the ship conducted launches and recuperations at 29 knots to see if practicable. However it soon was found the ship was wet under moderate sea conditions, particularly from the bow. She also dangerously lacked stability, rolling and rocking badly. Se then team trained with Hosho in Ise Bay.


Underway, 6 Sept. 1934

On 20 October 1933 Captain Matsunaga is relieved by Captain Kuwabara Torao and on 12 March 1934 took place the Tomozuru incident, which triggerred a committee to inspect stability of all IJN vessels. On 26 May 1934, Ryujo entered Kure Naval Yard for a refit and modifications, until 20 August 1934. Until October 1934 she made post-refit trials showing still seaworthiness limitations. her new air group cormprises 9 Mitsubishi B1M2, 6 Nakajima A1N1, 6 Nakajima A2N1. On 15 November 1934 CaptainOno Ichiro (formerly foremerly on KAGA) takes command and the carrier start a flagship career under Rear Admiral Wada Hideho and his CarDiv 1 (Ryujo, Hosho, and DesDiv 5).

By December 1934 Rujo tests qualifications flights for carrier-based dive-bombing tactics with 6 (+2 spares) Nakajima 90 E4N3-C bombers and 6 Yokosuka Type 92 B3Y1 plus 12 Nakajima Type 90 A2N1 fighters and spares. It's its largest air group so far. By February 1935, the tests ended and the E4N3-C is rejected as too fragile for the task. Soon the Aichi D1A1 replace it and is also intensively tested from Kure Naval Base, becoming in effect the fist true Japanese dive-bomber. By September 1935 Ryujo's CarDiv 1 took part in the first large Combined Fleet's Great Manoeuvers, as part of “Red Fleet in the NW Pacific, as far as the Kuriles. On 25 September 1935 takes place the "Fourth Fleet Incident”, a massive storm off Hokkaido. Both Ryujo, Hosho, several cruisers and destroyers suffer extensive wave damage, Ryujo being heavily flooded as well.



Stern and bow in 1935

On 11 October 1935 she entered Kure's drydock for repairs, and modifications from October 1935 to May 1936 while Captain Kira Shunichi takes command as captain. In June-August 1936 she made her post-refit trials, confirming she met her seaworthiness objectives in all conditions. She returned to bomb-diving tactics exercises, with 12 (+4 spares) Aichi Type 94 D1A "Susy" bombers, all satisfactory. She also carried as complement 24 (+8 spares) Nakajima A4N1 fighters, so 36 total, a far cry to her theoretical 48.

By September 1936 she returns as flagship (but under Rear Admiral Sato Saburo) CarDiv 1 with Hosho, and her air group is modified again to comprise also Yokosuka Type 92 B3Y1 and Nakajima Type 90 A2N1, now close to 48. On 29 October 1936 fleet maneuvers near Kobe are so successful the admiralty decided to make RYUJO a specialist in dive-bombing but nebertheless she was seen as a training carrier for such operations and her dive bombers are transferred to other carriers. On 16 November 1936 Captain Abe Katsuo takes command and on 7 July 1937 it's the The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, marking the start of the Sino-Japanese war.

Sino-Japanese War (1937-41)


Ryujo in China, 1935

On 11 August 1937 CarDiv 1 departs Sasebo for China and arrived off Shanghai on 13 August 1937, soon joining CarDiv 2’s (Kaga, Akagi) in the East China Sea under overall orders of Vice Admiral Hasegawa Kiyoshi (3rd Fleet) for air supporting during ground operations in central China and along the coast around Shanghai. In total 80 carrier-based planes are used, Ryujo committing 15 D1A1 bombers and 12 A4N1 fighters. On 16 August 1937 a major joint strike is launched again Chinese airfields near Shanghai. Ryujo in particular destroys Hia-King Airfield NW of Shanghai but they are intercepted by Chinese Curtiss Hawks IIIs, shooting down two for no loss. Another raid targets a railroad bridge between Shanghai and Sou-Tcheou, but aborted due to bad weather conditions.All along August 1937, operations targets the Chinese HQ building located in Shanghai, Ten-Ji College, Cha-Hsing Airfield, shooting down 5 Hawks near Pao-Shan and later the same plus Boeing 281 , claiming 2. Next artillery troops barracks NW of Shanghai is bombed, but a biomber is lost. On 1st September 1937, Ryujo departs for Sasebo to be resupplied with spare aircraft and ammunition, refueled, and back to the south chna sea on 21 September 1937, this time to operate near Canton. 12D1A1 escorted by 9 A4N1 attacked the city and are intercepted by Curtiss Hawk III, claiming six kills; and another later that day. On 22 to 30 September 1937 operations against Canton goes on, until departure to Shanghai.


Underway in September 1938

On 6 October 1937, her air group is relocated to Kunda Airfield for inland aerial protection between the Shanghai-Nanking area of operaton, and they are back on the carrier on 17 October 1937. By November 1937, Ryujo returns to Japan and by December CarDiv 1 is temporarily dissolved, followed by training in home waters, and arrival of Captain Okada Jisaku in command. In January 1938 she is attached to CarDiv 2 under Rear Admiral Mitsanumi Teizo (with IJN SORYU). In February she received her first Mitsubishi A5M4 "Claude" fighters and in March 1938 returnes in Chinese waters, around the Canton area, operating until 5 April 1938 in support of the offensive against Canton. In December Captain Kosaka Kanae takes command and she stays in position until 15 November 1939 when she departs for Kure, reserve for drydock modifications and maintenance, and passation to capt. Hasegawa Kiichi.

Until January 1940, Ryujo underwent, repairs, modifications of her flight deck, and until July 1940, she trained her crew and air group, practicing takeoff exercises with the 12th Combined Air Group. On 21 June Captain Sugimoto Ushie (on SORYU previously) takes command, and by November Ryujo returns as flagship, Rear Admiral Kakuta Kakuji (CarDiv 3), First Fleet with her old companion hosho and DesDiv 34. By that time, her air group was remodelled, with 18 B5N1 "Kate", 16 A5M4 "Claude" but no dive-bombers, in part due to her mediocre aft elevator.


IJN Ruyjo and Hosho, for long together in the Carrier Division 3

On 10 April 1941 as the First Air Fleet is created, as Flagship (Rear Admiral Kuwabara Torao) CarDiv 4 she is now part of the famous "Kido Butai", in Yokohama by April. In May she departs for Eniwetok in the Marshalls and for Kwajalein and back to Yokosuka. In June she was back in Kwajalein to reinforce the garrison and base, before proceeding to Truk, in the Central Carolines, then Saipan in the Marianas and return to Tokyo Bay. On 7 July and until October 1941 she trained in the indland sea with the rest of the 1st air fleet for upcoming operations. In between, Rear Admiral Kakuta took command of CarDiv 4.

Ryujo during WW2:

The Philippines Campaign

On 11 August 1941 with her new escort DesDiv 3 (Shiokaze, Hokaze) she trained extensively, and on 1st September Rear Admiral Kakuta takes command of CarDiv 4. On 22 October 1941, she departs for Takao in Formosa and later and Mako in the Pescadores. In November, she is in Kure and tactically assigned to Southern Philippines's Air Attack Force. She departs Saeki for Koror in the Palaus. On 2 December 1941 she receives the famous signal "Climb Mt. Niitaka 1208" from the Combined Fleet on the start of hotilities on 8 December. On the 5th, her air group is now complete for operations, with 12 (+4 spares) Mitsubishi A5M4 “Claude”, 14 (+4 spares) Nakajima Type 97 B5N “Kate”, so 34 planes. On 6 December 1941 she took part in Operation "M", the Attack on the Southern Philippines. Indeed with Hosho she was found a bit slow with a small aor group, too much to be attached to the Kido Butao for the attack on pearl Harbor. Instead, she would speahead the invasion of the Philippines, from the Palau. First, she covered the landings at Davao and Legaspi under Vice Admiral Takahashi Ibo third Fleet, Southern Force. In addition to her destroyer escort, she was also given CruDiv 5 (Nachi, Myoko) and Rear Admiral Tanaka Raizo's attack group led by the light cruiser Jintsu and DesDiv 15, DesDiv 16 destroyers units.

She supported operations by launching sorties against objectives in Davao and Mindanao on the morning of 8 December. Ryūjō's first airstrike comprised 13 B5Ns, escorted by nine A5Ms. She lauinched another wave later that day, with just two B5Ns and three A5Ms. Apart destroying two Consolidated PBY seaplanes on the ground they did little, and one B5N, one A5M were lost to AA fire and aviation. During the landing at Davao on 20 December, she coverred operations with her B5Ns attacking a British oil tanker. In January 1942, she started a round of operation in the Malay Peninsula.

Indian Ocean Operations (Jan-March 1942)

By mid-February 1942, during the erly phase against Singapore (Long after Force Z has been destroyed), she launched patrols to spot and strike evacuating ships from Singapore. Her air group claimed eight ships damaged, three burnt, four sunk. Her planes also covered convoys of troopships to nearby Sumatra. The aicraft carrier was attacked by a wave of Bristol Blenheim (No. 84 Squadron RAF) on 14 February, but all missed. In retaliation, two waves of B5Ns (13) attacked HMS Exeter, previously spotted, but they mostly missed. Only damage was the onboard Supermarine Walrus seaplane. Another wave followed that day, also without hit. Two days later however Ryujo's B5Ns sank the Dutch destroyer HNLMS Van Ghent which ran aground in the Gaspar Strait, abandoned two days prior (so no human losses). Operations over Saigon in French Indochina followed, from 20 February. IJN Ryujo was stationed off Saigon for a week and later she sailed to cover a troopships convoy to Jakarta for the occupation of Java. Her air group participated in the Second Battle of the Java Sea on 1st March 1942. Six B5Ns sank the destroyer USS Pope, after evacuation. Six others bombed Semarang harbour, and destroyed a merchantman.

Malaysia-Burma campaign (March-May)


IJN Ryujo, colorized by Irootoko Jr.

IJN Ryūjō was back in Singapore waters on 5 March, to support landings in Sumatra, convoys to Burma and the Andaman Islands. On 1st April the Japanese admiratlty decidd to gather all the 1st Air Fleet for a major raid in the Indian Ocean. The "Malay Force" was established, consisting of IJN Ryūjō as its centerpiece, six cruisers and four destroyers. This force left Burma to attack merchant shipping in the Bay of Bengal. Her B5Ns damaged one on 5 April, but not finidng enough targets meant the force soon split into three groups. Ryūjō's aviations bombed and strafed the ports of Cocanada and Vizagapatam (southeastern coast of India) but damage was light, no ship reported sunk. However later that day her her group claimed two freighter sunk, six damaged. Escorted by IJN Yura and Yugiri she also co-claimed three more ships (by gunfire). Malay Force in all, sunk 19 ships (circa 100,000 GRT). On 11 April it was back to Singapore and on the 18, B5Ns started torpedo training. Later on the 23, the carrier was back at Kure for a well-deserved maintenance and a short refit. In April also, Captain Sugimoto is relieved by Captain Kato Tadao, formerly on AKAGI. She was her last captain, but survived her (see later).

Aleutians campaign (Summer 1942)

IJN Jun'yō, newly commissioned, joined Carrier Division 4 (Rear adm. Kakuta), teaming with IJN Ryūjō on 3 May 1942. This became the core of the 2nd Carrier Strike Force, Northern Force. It was tasked to attack the Aleutian Islands. This was to provide advance warning in case of an American attack from the Aleutians, targeting the Japanese Kurile Islands during the operations around Midway. Ryūjō at that time after her refit in Kure where her AA was bolstered, gained new fioghters, 12 A6M2 Zeros, while retaining her squadron of 18 B5Ns (two spares for each, so 34 planes in all). She arrived in Mutsu Bay on 25 May before heading for Paramushiro on 1 June and then proceed to ht e long trip north to the Aleutians.

At dawn on 3 June, nine B5Ns took off escorted by six Zeros. Their objective: Dutch Harbor, Unalaska Island. One B5N crashed on takeoff, but the rest wet through the appealingly bad weather, and soon spotted and destroyed two PBYs. They blasted oil storage tanks, barracks and facilities on the harbour. The carrier launched a second airstrike later that after a group of US destroyers has been spotted by aircraft from the first wave. They were never found again. One Zero was damaged by a Curtiss P-40, crash landing on Akutan. Crucially, it was late captured by US Forces, largely intact, bringing considerable intel to US Forces during the war. Repairs and tested, its determined weak points helped to devise better tactics to US Pilots, participating in turning the situation in the Pacific. On 4 June, Ryujo and Junyo launched a combined airstrike (15 Zeros, 11 D3As, 6 B5Ns) against Dutch Harbor again. However in between, the Americans attacked both carriers with aviation. A single Martin B-26 Marauder, a PBY and a B17 (By AA) were shot down by Zeros from their combined CAP.

Ryūjō then sailed back to Japan, Mutsu Bay, arriving on 24 June for resupply. She departed for the Aleutians on the 28, covering a troopship convoy to Attu and Kiska. She covered them until 7 July to prevent any counterattack. She was back in Kure on 13 July, this time for a comprehensive refit, before transfer to Carrier Division 2.

Battle of the Eastern Solomons


A disabled Ryūjō (top center) under attack from high altitude, by B-17 bombers on 24 August 1942: IJN Amatsukaze (lower left) is moving away from Ryūjō at full speed and Tokitsukaze (faintly visible, upper right) is backing away from Ryūjō's bow while bombs are raining.

Landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi on 7 August saw Ryūjō transferred hastily to bolster Carrier Division 1, departing for Truk on 16 August and teaming with Shōkaku and Zuikaku, the remanant of the decimated Kido Butai, absent at Midway. Her air group of 24 Zeros, nine B5N2s plus spares was made ready tio take order under Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, C-in-C of the Combined Fleet. In fact Truk was bypassed and the fleet headed towards a spotted USN CV off the Solomon Islands on 21 August. On 24 August during the night, Nagumo (Mobile Force) ordered Ryūjō and Tone plus two destroyers to head in advance of the troop convoy, attack Henderson Field if no carriers were spotted. This detached forced was under orders of Rear Admiral Chūichi Hara (onboard Tone). Ryūjō launched two small airstrikes (6 B5Ns and 15 Zeros each) from 12:20 from 200 nautical miles off Lunga Point (north). Four Grumman F4F Wildcat (VMF-223) near Henderson Field spotted them and alert was given at 14:20. Ten Wildcats from VMF-223, VMF-212, two USAAF Bell P-400s (67th FS) took off and soon spotted and engaged Ryujio's Zeros, nine of them already strafing the airfield, B5Ns bombing the airfield with small 130 lb bombs. Despite claims of 19 shot down, the Japanese lost three Zeros, three B5Ns, another later crash-landing, but claimed three Wildcats.

At about 14:40, Hara's Force was spotted by search aircraft from USS Enterprise. Zeros took off for their usual CAP at 14:55, and just three minutes after, two searching Grumman TBF Avenger attacked but missed Ryūjō just 150 meters (490 ft) astern with four 500 Ibs bombs. The CAP was reinforced at 15:00, and two more Avengers came, one immediately shot down, the other missing. USS Saratoga also launched an airstrike durin the afternoon (31 Douglas Dauntless, 8 Avengers) without fighter escort due to the range. They spotted and attacked Ryūjō, hit three times by 1,000-pound (450 kg) bombs, and one torpedo, despite her captain skillfully managed to dodge the rest. The torpedo hit flooded the badly protected starboard engine and boiler rooms, considerably slowing the aircraft carrier. No aircraft of either side was shot down.

Ryujo, set ablaze, listing, turned north at 14:08, but went on listing mire, with an uncontrolled, progressive flooding. Evenentually all her machinery was flooded and she stopped dead at 14:20. Order to abandon ship came at 15:15. IJN Amatsukaze came alongside to evacuate her crew. Meanwhile B-17s took off and arrived on site to bomb the party, missing Ryūjō however, which eventually capsized at 17:55, with 7 officers and 113 crewmen staying onboard to try to save the ship. Fourteen of her aircraft returned and circled over the ditched at sea, with seven pilots rescued.


Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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