Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)

Imperial Japanese Navy, 1,149 built

The Main IJN Carrier Torpedo Bomber in 1939-42

The Nakajima B5N was completely unknown by US Intel before 1941, and vastly underrated (like most Japanese aviation, seen as mediocre western copies). Little was known that this model, albeit of the same generation, vastly outperformed the Douglas TBD Devastator, its rival at the time, which in all western publications was proudly accumulating records and "world's firsts". The B5N was simply faster and more capable overall. For some authors it was even the world's best carrier-borne torpedo bomber when WW2 broke out, period. Best proof of that, the "Kate", much like the "Val" was soon feared in the early phase of the Pacific Campaign, was never truly replaced and fought on the frontline to the end.

Distant Origins

The first Japanese aircraft were imported until by 1918, Lieutenant Chikuhei Nakajima resigned to establish his own aviation company in Ota, Gumma Prefecture in assoviation with Seibei Kawanishi, but they disagreed, both later creating their own companies. Chikuhei Nakajima went on with licensed aircraft but still worked on a proper model to fill both Army and Navy competitions. In 1921, Captain Sempill, with thirty British instructors were invited to evaluate the technical needs of the young JNAF. Herbert Smith (from Sopwith) was found at the head of Mitsubishi, soon creating the mediocre Type 10 torpedo bomber, entering service in 1923 on IJN Hosho. At the time all but a young Captain Yamamoto at the Kasumigaura Naval Flight Aviation School predicted their need over battleships.

Until 1929, development was still slow, as doubt prevailed for further development of the Naval Air Force (a similar downhill battle was led by Mitchell and his supportsr in the US). What did'nt helped to convince the general staff was the poor performance of early models. But the help of foreign advisers (another good example was Kawasaki's Vogt, Mitsubishi's Petty from Blackburn), helped Japanese designers gaining experience, and after purchasing whole series or planes to assemble, single examples were purchased for comparative tests, copying all features along the way. This was well known by the Western world that long believed the Japanese cannot do anything else but poor copies, until December 7th, 1941.

Captain Yamamoto however, back from his srtay at the Washington embassy, promoted vice admiral started to head the Naval Aviation Technical Bureau, pushing new models more in line with his scenario of naval warfare across the Pacific. This proces, started in 1931, and also concerning many other aspects like training and ordnance, ended in 1941, making at that tomùe the IJN probably the most powerful and efficient naval air force worldwide. Transitional fighters (9-Shi program) led to the excellent A6M "Zero", while the dive bomber bomber led to the dreaful Type 99 (Aichi D3A "Val") but Yamamoto insited for a for long-range land-based naval bombers as well (Mitsubishi G3M "Nell", Mitsubishi G4M "Betty") and for torpedo bombers wanted to replace the mediocre Type 89 (Mitsubishi B2M) for 1936, leading at first to the Type 96 Yokosuka B4Y, still a biplane limited to 277 km/h and 1,574 km. In 1937 already this was considered whoelly unsuficient.

A year prior however, in 1935 the 10-Shi specification were published, pushing the boundaries of what was capable for a modern torpedo bomber design. Performance were to be several fold higher, leading to the Navy to trust only two firms to came up with a solution: Mitsubishi and Nakajima, answering and soon retained. The programme at Nakajima was headed by Katsuji Nakamura's team.

Design development


Mitsubishi B5M, it's loosing competitor

The B5N was designed Katsuji Nakamura to replace the previous biplane, barely into service, internally designated as the "Type K". 10-Shi specs for a naval carrier-based strike bomber called for 330 km/h top speed (min figure) that no biplane could match. Indeed at the time, the Mitsubishi's A5M already reached 449 km/h and showed what a monoplane can achieve. The admiralty though was aware of yaw control in the last stages of the landing approach and was worried about achieving enough landing accuracy. Discussions led to think this issue of speed could be overcome by the use of flaps, a novelty rediscovered from WWI.

Mitsubishi studied with great attention the American Northrop BT bomber, which was imported in 1935 from the USA. It had a retractable landing gear and powerful engine, more than the Northrop A-17 "Shrike". The latter also inspired the Kawasaki Ki-32, Mitsubishi B5M and Mitsubishi Ki-30. Douglas turned these into the TBD Devastator and SBD Dauntless and so Jiro Horikoshi believed these were to watch with great attention.

Meanwhile Nakajima worked around a new 840-hp Nakajima Hikari 2 radial engine, woven into a low-drag NACA cowl its new model also comprised a serie of innovative features like a hydraulically retractable landing gear. It was the first time such hydraulic system was created in Japan and issues were many. To overcome them took time though and Mitsubish translated this later into the 12-Shi spec program (A6M).

Meanwhile both also worked to have the new aircraft fitting inside always low and narrow carrier hangars, and ways to fold and maintained in flight the wings. Soon a rotary nodes system was created, in which wing consoles overlapped one another and power brought by Hydraulic cylinders placed in each wing. Also worked out for quite long was the trailing edge of the wing, and the designe of a more modern three-bladed variable pitch propeller.

First flight


Kate tested by the USN, US Navy (R. Francillion coll.)

The Type K prototype made its first flight in January 1937. She was able to reach 370 km/h in level flight, a record at the time for a torpedo-bomber. However as the full folding mecanism was not ready yet, trials urged the use of a lever inserted by a technician into the lower surface of the wing console. The Fowler-type flap mechanism was too advanced and not ready so it was replaced by a simplified device in which the entire trailing edge section turned. The variable pitch propeller also proved to be complex and was replaced at the last minute by a constant speed propeller. The second prototype had to be fitted with integral fuel tanks were inside the center section.


A parralel development, the Nakajima C3N (1936)

For the second prototype also, a new engine was adopted, the 770 hp Hikari 3 which presented the advantage of easy of removal and replacement. The definitive engine hood was well-rounded and the nose short, in full contrast to following models. After the first factory flights (the very first was made in January 1937), the Nakajima led the competition as opposed to the Mitsubishi B5M. It was ordered into production soon afterwards, under the full designation "Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber".

Competition won by Nakajima


ONI plate, B5N, CINCPOA, US Intel

The Mitsubishi 10-Shi answer was very similar, but more conservative in its technical approach, with a more elliptical wing, in part based on the Type 97 fighter, itself inspired by the Heinkel 77. However, the landing gear was non-retractable and it had prominent fairings, while the wings were originally manually folded. The engine, the 1000-horsepower Mitsubishi Kinsei had better takeoff stats than the Nakajima design maximum speed reached being 378 kph, ten more than the Nakajima's 368 km/h.

However in the end, the admiralty decided not to produce this aircraft: Despite its better perforamnces caracteristics, the Nakajima design was chosen for production in standard, related to its greater development potential and more advanced technical solutions. The second reason was that Mitsubishi's design staff was already struggling to modificaty the Type 96 naval carrier-based fighter and was involved in the 11-Shi specification calling for a dive bomber (won by Aichi with its D3A) while working on the 12-Shi program fighter (future Zero). In 1937, the admiralty nevertheless ordered 125 of the Mitsbishi model designated B5M1. Designated Type 97 Model 2 naval carrier-based strike bomber, the allies would codename these "Mavis". It was mostly used as a land and naval carrier-based attack bomber for anti-submarine patrols in South China and Hainan and was gradually retired after 1943.

Final design

The pilot sat in front of the cockpit but forward visibility was reduced while on the ground, a common issue at the time on these tail down models. It was in part due to the high wheeltrain legs in relation to the cumbersome torpedo below. It was ensured it's tail would not hit the deck. However it was also assumed that for landing, the latter would have been launched or jettisoned anyway.

Good visibility nevetheless for the final approach and deck operations to e machanism helped raising the seat on both phases so that his eyes could be at the top of the visor binding. Simple instruments for blind flight were also added. The second member of the crew was the navigator, weapon officer and observer, located in the second seat further down in the cockpit and facing forward, exiting or entering though a sliding window on both sides. he acted also a auxiliary mechanic as his dashboard showed fuel consumption in an indicator gage on top of the center-section fuel tanks, located on the wings. For dropping bombs, he could removed the two seat's floor hatch panels and access a ledge to the left of the torpedo/bomb suspended under the fuselage. The last member was the radio operator which doubled as rear gunner, seaying while facing rearwards, accessing his machine gun stored inside the fuselage but which could be erected after the rear canopy was moved back. Early radios modls though were of the low frequency and needed a long towed antenna.

Communication between crew members were done using still an old style speaking pipe, and oxygen equipment was purely optional even though the high altitude this model could achieve. This made it simpler and cheaoper as well, but also much lighter, something all designers in Japan tried to achieve. They all wore life jackets of a very inefficient design and hot furred aviator leather combis.

Design in detail



Comparison betwen the Nakajima Type 11 and 12.

General construction

blueprint
blueprint

Single-bay fuselage, with an all-metal stress skin, mostly welded and of duralumin. It was semi-monocoque with tubular sections. There was a release system for a towed antenna on the B5N1, but the B5N2 instead had a wire antenna stretched from one top of the cockpit to the top of the tail. Longerons as well as partial rear fuselage sections were skin-covered. It had relatively large wings suitable to carry a large payload, but causing drag and therefore reducing both speed and agility. Dimensions were reduced as weight leading to a very light design compared to the USN Devastator. The hope was to out-run opposition, so protection was absent. Fuel tanks were not self-sealing at first and there was no armor plating to protect the pilots's heads.

The two-spar wing had a manual folding system and the right one folded first so that it layed below the left, one on top of the cockpit, supported by auxiliary struts. The slotted flaps were placed up to the wing folding hinges and ailerons with linen cover, were located outside. They had built-in fuel tanks behind the upper and lower wing lining, placed between the main and rear spars of the center section, attached with edges brackets. Trim tabs were provided on horizontal and vertical rudders.

The hydraulically retractable main undercarriage mounted under the wings had each leg fitted with an oil-damper type shock absorber reinforced by a forward bending strut. When retracted the wheels were turned 90° to fit inside the wings. The tail wheel was non-retractable and cast. The retractable landing hook was mounted ahead of it. It was sprung by a coil spring when landing to extent downards and retracted before taking off in its tensioned position.

The B5N was caracterized by its long glass cockpit, protecting a three-seat crew: The pilot, the navigator/bombardier/observer seated beind, and a radio-operator/gunner at the rear. Like with other IJN multi-seat aircraft, it was commanded by a senior ranking crew member, more often the observer, which directed the flight. This combination was important to deliver strikes in the middle of the pacific. Despite the lightness of its structure, the B5N was sturdy enough to make rough landings, equipped with a stable, large span landing gear, folding inwards. The wings had as straight section up to 1/3 of their lenght, then followed by an upwards section, with the folding cuts about 40% of the total lenght. A pair of small doors in the floor of the second crew member opened through the lower surface of the left wing root for visual aiming during bombing.

The B5N had a right-mounted pitot tube for flight data, an underwing mounted antenna, and main radio antenna placed at the rear, above the radio set. The radio operator seat was in fact a rotating stool, allowing him to turn back towards the tail to man the defensive machine gun. The navigator was seated more conventionally, and facing forward. The overall cockpit was not roomy however. Overall, the B5N looked right and very modern for its time, but its output was not sufficient to out-run fighters as expected, with a top speed of just 320 kph at best, most late 1930s Chinese fighters could catch it.

Engine & performances

Equipments

The navigator/bombardier/observer was given a Type 90 bombsight, a long vertical tube, located in the front-left of his seat. He also had a Type 3 reflector compass, for precise navigation over the Pacific. It was mounted on top of the cockpit frame. He also had at its disposal a standard-issue radio set, Type 96 Mk3 for the B5N1 and Type 2 Mk3 on the B5N2. It was placed in front of the operator/rear gunner, behind the navigator/bombardier/observer's seat.

Armament


Very early production Type 97 model 1 in 1938

The B5N1 carried a forward machine gun armament for strafing an possible attack in flight, two 7.7 Type 97 machine guns in the wings. But it was not the case for all. In fact many went just equipped with a defensive armament only, a single flexible-mounted 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 92 machine gun.

The main use of the B5N was its Type 91 torpedo carried underbelly. It was mounted under racks were fixed eccentrically, to the right-bottom of the fuselage. They could be replaced for a model supporting a 800 kg bomb (Like the Type 99 No 80 armor-piercing bomb also used by the "Val" with devastating result, but in that case, dropped in level-bombing) or two 250 kg bombs (Type 98, No 25) or six smaller 60 kg bombs (Type 2 No 6). Replacing racks however was a two hours long process to complete, which cost the admiralty dearly at Midway...

Production & succession

Combat experience during the Second Sino-Japanese War revealed weaknesses in the original B5N1 design, notably the lack of protection for bth the crew and fuel tanks. The Navy however preferred to add more power to the model to out-run opposition rather than taking punishment, leading to the B5N2 equipped with the Sakae Model 11, 14-cyl. twin-row radial also used on the initial A6M fighter. Performance ended only marginally better, but it was produced anyway from 1939 at an increased rate until 1943, a long production run for a 1937 design.

Work on improving performances of the B5N1 continued so that in December 1939 already the B5N2 powered by a Nakajima Sakae two-row radial engine and revised cowl seemed a wnning formula, and other design changes included a modified antenna above the rear cockpit. Known at first in ordnance as the Type 97 Model 3 Naval Carrier-Based Attack Bomber, it became the Type 97 Model 12 in accordance with the new model designation system. In December 1941, it was already replacing the B5N1s onboard aicraft carriers, although both models took part in the Pearl Harbor attack.

Nakajima Aircraft Company produced alone 1,149, the production run ceasing in mid-1943 with the B5N2. The B5N was to be replaced by the B6N Tenzan "Jill" which first flew in March 1941, but development dragged on and it was only ready in August 1943, introduced and produced until 1945, so only available in numbers in 1944. More were produced, 1,268 in all but their battle records were certainly less brillant.

Itself was to be replaced by the Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (Nakajima lost the competition to its rival). It first flew in May 1942 after a seemingly impossible spec of 1941 to replace both the B6N and D4Y, so having a universal torpedo/dive bomber for the new light carriers (with reduced air groups) potentially built by the IJN after 1943. However the Aichi B7A development proved complicated and it was only produced from late 1944, to 114 units only, most seized in Japan after the war has ended, and with practically no carrier left to carry them. The last variant B7A3, never built, was planned with a 1641 kW (2,200 hp) Mitsubishi MK9A engine, twice as powerful as the "kate".

Detailed specs


Nakajima B5N2 (1939)

Crew: 3: Pilot, navigator/bomber, gunner/radio
Fuselage Lenght10.3 m (33 ft 10 in)
Wingspan15.5 m (50 ft 11 in)
Wing area37.7 m2 (406 sq ft)
Height3.7 m (12 ft 2 in)
Airfoil typeNN-5 mod. (16%); tip: NN-9 mod. (8%)
Empty weight:2,279 kg (5,024 lb)
Max takeoff weight:4,100 kg (9,040 lb)
Propeller:3-bladed metal propeller
Engine:Nakajima PE NK1B Sakae 11, 14-cyl. ACR 1,000 hp TO or 970 hp at 3,000 m
Top speed:378 km/h (235 mph, 204 kn) at 3,600 m (11,811 ft)
Climb rate:6,5 m/s (1,280 ft/min)
Range:978 km (608 mi, 528 nmi) or 1,991 km (1,237 mi, 1,075 nmi) straight
Service ceiling:8,260 m (27,100 ft)
Time to altitude:3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 7 minutes 40 seconds
Power/mass:0.196 kW/kg (0.119 hp/lb)
Wing loading100.8 kg/m2 (20.6 lb/sq ft)
Armament1-3x 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 97 MGs, 1 torpedo/800 kgs bomb, see notes

The B5N "Kate" in action


B5N2 over the Java sea, February 1942

On December 7, 1941, the western world reminded the "Never underestimate the enemy" motto first coined by Sun Tsu. The yet completely unknown or dismissed Nakajima B5N first appeared to Pearl Harbor an her rampage would go on for most of the Pacific War.

The B5N, codenamed "Kate" by ONI in 1941 was primarily deployed as a carrier-based aircraft, but later in the war as a land-based bomber. The B5N1 first saw action in the Second Sino-Japanese War, from 1938. There, default were recoignised but the IJN wanted more speed, not protection. These combat debut were as land-based aircraft, and in support of the Army operating in Hankow. In the autumn of 1940 under forced agreement with the Vichy government, French Indochina was dotted with bases operating B5N2s, used for bombing Chiang Kai-shek troops in southern China. The B5N2 introduced in 1939 became by far the largest production of the tyme, playing a major role at Pearl Harbor and all subsequent engagements of the IJN until the situation started to reverse.


A B5N takes off from IJN Shokaku for the Pearl Harbor attack

In November 1940 the Taranto pushed Minoru Genda, later recalled by Admiral Yamamoto to propose a similar surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. For this, the Type 97 was however to be armed with special torpedoes due to the local shallow waters. They were equipped with wooden tails, forcing them to stay close to the surface after launch. Armor-piercing bombs being in short supply and reeserved to the "Val", B5N2s used as bombers were given 16-inch naval shells with welded stabilizers instead, becoming 800-kg bombs.

After training in the Gulf of South Kyushu, these B5Ns distribited among Kido Butai's six aircraft carriers under orders of Admiral Nagumo gathered in Tankan Bay, Kuriles Islands and sailed from 28 November. In all, Genda had at its disposal some 353 aircraft, launched in two waves. They left the carriers in the monring early hours of December 7, B5N2 armed with bombs under command of Mitsuo Fuchida. 50 took part in the first wave, alongside 40 B5N1 with torpedoes led by Lieutenant Commander Shigeharu Murata. The attacked commenced at 7.49 AM. It was highly successful. A second wave later included 54 B5Ns fitted as bombers. It was all over at 8.30 and only five B5N2 were lost. Stats shown they had some 30% direct hits from torpedoes, 27% from bombers, the payoff of months of intensive training.


A B5N2 passes close to USS Noprthampton at the battle of Santa Cruz Islands.

In early 1942, Nagumo assaulted the Dutch East Indies, and this costed the British among others the loss of the Dorsetshire, Cornwall and Hermes, by B5N2s and D3A2s (Type 97 and Type 99). B5N2s also sank the aircraft carrier USS Lexington at Coral Sea, and USS Hornet at Santa Cruz Islands. B5Ns also nearly sank USS Yorktown at Midway, finished off by I-168 later.

B5N2s crews were trained in coordinated attacks on enemy carriers with the Aichi D3A dive bombers. Dive bombers weere the first to act, trying to suppress the ship's AA or daw it to them, allowing the slow flying "kates" to make their torpedo run to target, very low-flying. At the Battle of Eastern Solomons, the IJN initially sent only dive bombers to enable a later torpedo strike but this tactic proved unsuccessful: They did not launch until the battle was over.


Pearl Harbor: Akagi's B5N crews

The IJN had operated with almost no effective countermeasures and gambled all on the first major air strike. This was their undoing at Midway. Later Ryujo and Junyo were to strike at the Aleutian Islands, Akagi, Kaga, Soryu and and Hiryu meanwhile hitting Midway and on 5/7/42, two waves of B5N2 bombers hit Midway Island. However that day they lost 50% of their trained crews and never recovered from this. Eastern Solomons, Santa Cruz, and Guadalcanal drained aircraft and crews, which the remainder took refuge in Truk. Carrier battles were absent of 1943, B5N2s were used from land bases: Buin and Kolombangara (Solomons) for punctual strikes, made difficult by the increaing numbers of ships and excellent AA. Also in 1943 with the new Essex-class carriers came the Hellcat, which had no issue downing the slow B5N2 in droves.


B5N2 taking off from IJN Zuikaku at Coral Sea, May 1942

By 1944, the Corsair also became the B5N nightmare, but the latter became increasingly rare. The "Jill" started to replace them on various bases and they were gradually retired to the home islands. The Marianas and the Battle of the Philippines on 19 June signed the loss of 1,600 aircraft and 3 aircraft carriers and many B5Ns. However in October 1944 the first kamikaze attacks started and the battle in Leyte Gulf, in which mpore and more battle-worn "Kates" flew with inexperienced pilots as Kamikaze. Some were still around in this guise at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. The last took hoff from Kyushu in the sumer of 1945

General Assessment


B5N2 in Rabaul


B5N Kate on Kataoka Airfield, Shumshu Island

The trio, A6M2 ("Zero"), D3A1 ("Val") and B5N2 ("Kate") paralleled the USN F4F-3 Wildcat, SBD-3 Dauntless and TBD-1 Devastator and all had a performance advantage but perhaps for the Dauntless. The British Fleet Air Arm models, after years of peacetime neglect, were hopelessly behind: The Fulmar, Skua and Swordfish were just not fit to survive in the Pacific. When in 1943 this early trio changed for the new combination F6F Hellcat, SB2C Helldiver and TBF Avenger, the "Zero" was never replaced, and the B5N2 stayed in frontline until the summer of 1944.

Frantic work to replace the B5N2 eventually culminated in the B6N1 Tenzan ("Heaven's Peak") which was prepared for trials in March 1942, powered by a 1870 hp oversized Nakajima Mamori engine, but plagues with vibration problems forcing replacement for a Mitsubishi Kinsei, as the B6N2 ("Jill") and absent of the devastating Marianas battle of June 1944. In the Philippine Sea, carrier-based aircraft like the "Jill" mostly were used only from land bases.

The remaining B5N2s received an anti-ship radar to stay relevant, its with antennas along the sides of the fuselage enabling anti-submarine patrols in all weather conditions or night. These pilots expertly flew their machine, forced by the primitive detection system, to just 9-12 meters above the surface. They carried up to 283.5-kg bombs with delayed fuses, acting like depht charges and exploding at a set depth. In 1945, the last B5N2s still serviceable were still used to tow gliders and targets in the home islands.

References


A B5N replica as of today, made from an AT-6 Texan, heavily modified.

Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War " /Rene J Francillion.
"Japan Warplanes of World War II" /Oleg Doroshkevich
Angelucci, Enzo and Paolo Matricardi. World Aircraft: World War II, Volume II (Sampson Low Guides). Maidenhead
Chambers, Mark A. (2017). Nakajima B5N ‘Kate’ and B6N ‘Jill’ Units. Vol. Combat Aircraft #119. Osprey Publishing.
Francillon, René J. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1970
Francillon, René J. Japanese Bombers of World War Two, Volume One. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Hylton Lacy Publishers Ltd.
Lundstrom, John B. (2005a). The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway (New ed.) NIP.
Lundstrom, John B. (2005b). First Team and the Guadalcanal Campaign: Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942
Mikesh, Robert C. (2004). Japanese Aircraft Equipment: 1940-1945. Schiffer Publishing.
Parshall, Jonathan and Anthony Tully. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Potomac Books
Tagaya, Osamu (2003). Imperial Japanese Naval Aviator 1937-45. Osprey Publishing. Tagaya, Osamu (2011). Aichi 99 Kanbaku 'Val' Units of World War 2. Botley, UK: Osprey Publications.
combinedfleet.com
pearlharboraviationmuseum.org
List of airfoil designations
warbirdsnews.com
wingsmuseum.co.uk
airwar.ru
airpages.ru
wiki
On The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
electraforge.com

Model kits of the B5Ns on scalemates
Color trivia: Early B5Ns came from the factory in peacetime left in an overall silver finish. In wartime, they were painted in dark olive green as a standard, which was sometimes retr-applied on the field with surprising results and strange camouflage patterns. In other cases, the paint was weathered and partly disappeared, creating patterns of dark, mate and shiny silver in between. Add to this, the usual markings in Kenjis and arabic numbers on the tail, as unit symbols, and identification bands completed a sometimes vivid livery, always a subject appreciated by modellers.


Nakajima B5N1 12th Kokutaio, China 1938-39, one of the first operator. Denomination Donation Slogan Hokoku 268 "Tokyo Kikai-Go"


B5N1, 14th Kokutai, Sanzai Dao, with its Chinese camouflage, Southern China 1939


B5N1 Model 11 14th Kokutai China 1938-39


B5N1 at the Yokosuka Naval Air Base for training, 1940


B5N1 at the Konoe Naval Air Corps training unit, 1941


Nakajima B5N-1 from the 4th Kokutai, IJN Ryujo, 1941


B5N-1 IJN Zuiho, February 1942



B5N-2, IJN Shokaku, December 1941, Pearl Harbor Attack


B5N-2, IJN Zuiho, Battle of Santa Cruz, October 1942


B5N2 IJN Soryu Central Pacific Dec. 1941


B5N2 1st Koku Kantai, IJN Akagi, Pearl Harbor, 7 Dec. 1941


B5N2 IJ Zuikaku Indian Ocean Raid 1942


B5N2 Lt. J. Tomonaga IJ Hiryu Central Pacific June 1942


B5N 2 on Saipan, June 1944



BH2 in flight - Green coll.


Type 55 bomb sight and torpedo release system


A Formation of B5N-1 from IJN Akagi in 1941


Nakajima B5N2 "Kate" carrying 250 kg (550 lb) bomb.


movie extract, "Hawai Mare oki kaisen (The War at Sea from Hawaii to Malay)" (1942).


B5N in flight


B5Ns over the Java Sea February 1942


Captured B5N with US markings, TAIC


Type 97 in flight


B5N1 aboard IJN Akagi with a dummy torpedo


B5N in flight


B5N2 in flight


B5N2 over Hickam field, Pearl Harbor


B5N1 from IJN Soryu in 1939


Type 97 from IJN Ryujo flying with mount Fuji behind


Surviving "Kate" in reconstruction at PHAM


Colorized photo, B5N and destroyer, South Java Sea. 1942

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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Tank Encyclopedia, the first online tank museum
Plane Encyclopedia - the first online warbirds museum
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Battleship Yamato in VR

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