WW1 Russian Submarines

About 8 classes, approx. 60 boats 1903-1916

A long gestation, started in 1853

The story of submarines with Russia started quite early, right at the time of the Crimean in 1853, by that time "submarine warfare" Podvodnaia Voina was already an idea, but the term and the start of a doctrine was imported during ww1. The Russian fleet has been dubbed a "fortress fleet" and already in the 1850s, teh Russian projected a way to get rid of the combined French-Britsh fleet. They tested Jacobi's and Nobel's contact and galvanic mines. Numerous minefield were laid around Kronstadt, Reval, Sweaborg, Dinamiunde, Kerch and two estuearies, but without damaging allied ships. But they at least deterred steam-screw ship of the line Duke of Wellington to trying to approach and attack the twenty Russian sailing ships-of-line at anchor under Kronstadt's guns because of these "infernal machines" as stated by Charles Napier in his report. After the war, the Russian took not in developments in mines and torpedoes in the American Civil War, Franco-Prussian war, so much so Admiral A.A. Popov organised the first mine warfare school in late 1874, and purchased 100 early Whitehead torpedoes from Austria for testings.

Vice-Admiral Popov's round-hulled batteries were one of these experimental defensive tricks the Russians tried, together with traditional granite-walls fortifications, fortress torpedo launchers and minefields in the 1870s.

Effects of the 1877 war

At the time the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 started, the Russian flet in the Black sea was much smaller in scale than the ottoman navy which boasted then an impressive array of ironclads, often commanded by British mercenary officers. The Russians were just started to remilitarize the black sea after the Crimean war. The response strategy was simple, in three part, first laying 500 mines to cover the port entrance and strategic zones, covered by a two-layer protection, a combination using the famous "Popovska's" round hull floating battleries designed by Admiral Popov and bearing his name, and coastal batteries. Second, light naval forces comprising the Naval Guards Batallion using steam launches with mines, and three converted steamers used as auxiliary cruisers, while the global strategy was organized by Admiral Makaroff.

At some point he ordered six steam launches carried by the Konstantin to attack with a combination of spar, towed, and Whitehead torpedoes. Turkish corvette Itibakh was sunk, and soon the Admiral decided to order more dedicated coastal and sea-going torpedo boats called minonoski: Mina (mine) meant both mine and torpedo in Russian naval usage, torpedo carriers being named minonoski. At the same time on the Turkish side, the first Nordenfelt "submarines" were received. The war had quite some influence on future decisions, the Russian decided to create a Black sea fleet at least the size of the Ottoman fleet. Mines and torpedo development was further improved with the launching of a serie of torpedo cruisers in the 1880s. With the 1894 Sino-Japanese war, Russian saw the rise of a new adversary as a threat for its Vladivostock-based Pacific squadron, adressed by the 1895 plan.

Submarine warfare in the Russo-Japanese war (1905)

Delfin 1904
Delfin 1904

In addition to torpedo cruisers, attention went soon on building new minelayers, especially the Amur class of 2500 tons. In some circles of the Navy there were also sympathies for the Mahanian doctrine and speculations about new technologies on naval warfare only grew as expectations. When the first operational submarines were being tested, Admiral Makarov clearly warned the admiralty about the potential of this new weapon. He envisioned quite rapidly to built dedicated carriers, in fact submarines-carriers, motherships able to carry nimble, faster submarines to greater distances, including having them released in open sea battles.

Karyshev at the same time proposed, without much success a steam-powered submerged spar torpedo ship, and finally a commission was setup and I. T. Bubnov proposed a design to be tested. Baltic yard's Minonosets No. 113 became later Delfin, the first Russian submarine, a 113 tons, 9 knots torpedo boat armed with Dzhevetsky's mobile torpedo carriages. Success meant the naval ministry soon ordered ten more submarines of domestic and foreign design.

Akula in 1909
Russian submarine Akula in 1909

The Osetr was one of these, 137-ton boat, the American-built (Holland type) Som and Losos, and finally the german-built Karp and Karas, from which the German designed their U-boat lineage. These 1904 submarines were by far the best, fastest and with the better range of them all and clearly gave the direction to follow. When the war broke out indeed with Japan, Russian already had 6 submarines, spread between the fleets, but Captain N. Klado asked that all these were dismounted and placed on carriages and sent by rail asap to Vladivostck. In fact, eight were sent by the armiralty, and they soon operated 120 miles from the port, but only spotted once a Japanese steamer and later spotted but missed two destroyers, too quick to be catch. However torpedoes and mines were used proficiently and with much greater success. However the Japanese did the same and improved on "active minelaying" eventually sinking the battleship Petropavlovsk.

Prewar Russian Submarines

Drzewiecki's drop collar torpedo launcher

Before the great war began, programs for more submarines went unabashed, in 1908, it asked for seven submarines, for the black sea and baltic. However Russian well-understood interest for mine warfare led to design the first dedicated design, the Krab. Equipped with two horizontal tubes, she could carry 60 mines, and had a 25 miles capable radio, but she joined the Black sea fleet only in 1915 due to her extremely lenghty development, although she remained effectively the first laid down and launched minelayer submarine worldwide. Another characteristic of Russian submarines at that time (shared with French submarines) was the systematic use of drop-collar Drzewiecki systems for torpedoes.

These were external cradles, with some sort of catapult gear and some limited traverse, allowing in theory to launch these torpedoes on the surface, against for example slow unarmed vessels, merchant traffic. polish inventor, engineer Stefan Drzewiecki, designed indeed metal framework that enclosed the torpedo that could be rotated to position to fire in the desired angle, and later using an arm. This system was completely abandoned by the Russians while the French submarines designs of the interwar, up to WW2 still used traversable torpedo mountings in the hull axis, also for surface warfare, and generally of a lower caliber.

The Bars from 1912 was a considerable improvement, being fast and well-armed, but the naval ministry, reading reports after reports on Turkish growing naval might, ordered two classes of modern submarines, the Morzh and Narval for the black sea, but these were not enough and the war broke out, Russia had only 30 submarines, of which half were obsolete whereas Germany for example had 28 ready al in the baltic and modern. In the baltic, the Russian had to rely on strong defenses based on minefields, backed by coastal artillery especially between Nargen and Porkkala.

Delfin, the cursed sub (1903)

Schematics of the Delfin Long before the infamous K19 or "widow maker" another Russian submarine that had almost a curse since she was laid down: The Delfin. She was quite unlucky to say the least, and gained an awful reputation in service. She was ordered July 1901 and had been designed by Naval architect Ivan Grigoryevich Bubnov, with Lieutenants M.N. Beklemishev and I.S. Goryunov from the Commission for Submarines (The future famous Rubin Design Bureau). The delfin ("Dolphin") was a single-hull type submarine with saddle tanks.

Oddly its outer plating was doubled by teak to cushion when hitting the sea bottom. It was launched at St. Petersburg in 1902, and commissioned in 1903, first classed as a torpedo boat with a number during its training time.
A 113/126 tons (surface/submerged), 19.6 metres (64 ft) long by 3.3 metres (11 ft) boat, she was fitted with ae gasoline/electric enfine rated at 300 bhp (gas.)/ 120 hp (Electric) connected to one shaft for a top speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph) at the surface, 4.5 knots (8.3 km/h; 5.2 mph) after diving. It was armed with two external 15 in (380 mm) torpedoes fitted in Drzewiecki drop collars and had one removal machine gun fitted on the surface.

Delfin in 1904

Her first sea trials showed faulty ballasts tanks with a more lengthy dive as usual - This would have risen a warning, but later on 29 June 1904 she sank with a great loss of life in the Neva River near the Baltic shipyard during another test dive, with only 12 men being rescued. Raised in July and sent to the Siberian flotilla at Vladivostok (late 1904) she was back in service in February 1905 after repairs and modifications. But the dark serie was not over as she sank this time after petrol vapors that provoked an explosion and teared down the hull.

She was again raised, repaired, but when she emerged and returned in service, the Russo-Japanese War had ended. Transferred to Murmansk in October 1916, she served with the Northern flotilla but was judged obsolete in operations and was written off in August 1917. Anchored in Murmansk, she was sunk again (no losses fortunately), this time refloated for the last time and scrapped in 1920. The St. Petersburg Submariners Club still recalls to this day tragedies that occurred with this submarine by a ceremony, wreath-laying, mourning service and making by guards of honor with an orchestra at the Smolenskoye Orthodox cemetery.


Displacement: 113 tons/26 tonnes submerged
Dimensions: 19.6 x3.3 x2.9 m (64 x 11 x 9 ft 6 in)
Propulsion: 1 shaft petrol/electric 300 hp/120 hp
Speed: 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph)/4.5 knots (8.3 km/h; 5.2 mph) sub
Crw: 22 officers and sailors
Armament: 2 x 15 in xternnal (380 mm) torpedoes, Drzewiecki drop collars, 1 machine gun

Kasatka class (1904)


These six submersibles built at the Baltic shipyards in St. Petersburg were designed by Chief Engineer Bubnov based on the experience and experience of Delfin. It was the emergency program at the dawn of the Russo-Japanese War. The lack of money meant that one of these submersibles was financed by public subscription. The rich Marshal Sheremetev bequeathed his name to him. The lack of engines caused them to be fitted with a single propeller and a single engine, and only the Kasatka was ready in time to be sent to the Pacific. They suffered from their hasty design, with problems of waterproofness and diving behavior that were answered by the addition of external ballasts.

All the others were transferred to Vladivostock between September and December 1904, operational in March and May 1905. They saw a difficult service, as much by their defects as by the heavy weather, and were completely rebuilt around a new diesel-electric and with a big kiosk. They could dive 25 fathoms. The Nalim and the Skat were rearmed with a 47 mm gun and transferred in 1915 in the Black Sea, struck off from the lists in March 1917. These submarines flew the Ukrainian colors before being captured by the Germans, before being transferred to the British, and scuttled in 1918. In 1915, the four other from the Pacific fleet were transferred to the Baltic fleet and three more to the Caspian sea, scrapped in 1922.



Déplacement: 153 surface/177 tons dive
Dimensions: 33,5 x 3,7 x 3,4 m.
Propulsion: 1 prop., 1 diesel, 1 electric motor, 120/90 hp, 8/5 knots Range 1296 km.
Crew: 24
Armament: 4 drop-collar Drzewiecki torpedoes, 1 Maxim MG.

Som class (1905-07)

Beluga, Som class submarine

Ordered urgently before the Russo-Japanese war at the St Petersburg Nevsky shipyards, these 7 units (Beluga, Losos, Peskar, Shchuka, Som, Sterlyad and Sudak were designed on a John Holland design under license. slow on the surface, of a small radius of action (1083 km), but relatively fast in diving.Built in prefabricated sections transported by rail, two units, Som and Shchuka arrived at work in Vladivosock in April and The others arrived shortly afterwards, the Losos and Sudak were transferred to the Black Sea in 1907, and the others then joined the Baltic Fleet, where they were re-equipped with diesel. Two units, the Som and the Shchuka were assigned a few months in the Black Sea, the others being rearmed with a 47 mm, and in 1916 it was decided to withdraw them from service, the Som being lost at sea following a collision with a German freighter. All these units were then assigned to Reval and Sevastopol. The 4 units of Reval were scuttled by the Russians to prevent their capture by the Germans, while two others (Sudak and Losos) in Sevastopol were reassigned to the Ukrainian navy. The latter were captured by the Germans, taken over by the British in November 1918, but scuttled April 26, 1919 to avoid capture by the "red".



Displacement: 105 surface/122 tonnes dive
Dimensions: 20 x 3,5 x 2,9 m.
Propulsion: 1 prop. 1 fuel engine, 1 electric motor 160/70 hp, 8,5/6 knots surface/dive, Range 1083 km.
Crew: 22 hommes.
Armament: Origin: 1 Maxim MG, 1 381 mm TT (bow).

Forelle (1904)

This German-built midget submarine was designed by Spanish Raimondo Lorenzo D’Equevilley-Montjustin and built by Krupp in Kiel, as a private venture by Krupp, first destined to a domestic contract, which never happened. Instead she found a buyer, thee Imperial Russian Navy in 1904. The Forelle served during the Russo-Japanese war and was lost in 1910. She was succeeded by Krab, world's first minelayer submarine.


Displacement: 16/17 tons surface/submerged
Dimensions: 13.1 x 2.1 x 5.1 m (43x 6.9x 6.9 ft)
Propulsion: 1 electric motor, 1 shaft (60 shp)
Speed: 5.5 knots (10.2 km/h; 6.3 mph), Range 25 nm @4 knots submerged, depth: 30m (98 ft)
Crew: 4
Armament: 2 x 18-in (457 mm) external TTs (bow)

Osetr class submarines (1905)


The Osetr class were built in Russia (Then) for the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War, ordered in the 1904 emergency program and designed by American Engineer Simon Lake as USS protector. They had in particular retractable wheels fitted underbelly for moving on the sea bed and wet/dry chambers for divers to place mines on a hull for example. The Osetr was re-assembeld in Russia and in service proved able to dive at 16 fathoms.
The class comprised the Bychok, Kefal, Osetr, Paltus, Plotva and Sig. They served untildecomminssion in 1913 and were sold and broken up.


Displacement: 153 tons surface/187 tons submerged
Dimensions: 22 x 3.6 x 3.7 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts: petrol/electric 2 × 120 hp/2x65 hp
Speed: 8.5 knots surfaced/4.5 knots submerged
Complement: 12 (including 2 officers)
Armament: 3x 18-in TTs (2 bow, 1 stern)

Pochtovy (1908)

This Imperial Russian Navy was designed by Drzewiecki, and built at the Metal Works St Petersburg, funded by Public subscription. This boat tried an already tested Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system that used gasoline engines using the air supplied by pressurised cylinders, in closed loop. There were 45 cylinders which contained 350 cubic feet (9.9 m3) of air total, pressured at 2500 psi, while exhaust gasses were vented via a perforated pipe under the keel to spread bubbles over a large area or mix these with the propeller's turbulence. This gave the Pochtovy a 28-nautical-mile (52 km) submerged range in a reliable fashio, however trials showed condensation problems. The wake produced by the exhaust was however visible from the surface and development stopped while the experimental boat was eventually stricken in 1913.


Displacement: 134 tons surfaced/146 tons submerged
Displacement: 34.4 x 3.0 x 2.8 m
Propulsion: 2 petrol engines 260 hp (190 kW) combined
Performances: 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h; 12.1 mph) surface/6.2 knots (11 km/h; 7 mph) submerged
Range: 350 nautical miles (650 km)
Crew: 11
Armament: 4 torpedo drop collars

Karp class (1907)


These three 100% German units (built at Germaniawerft, Kiel) were commissioned by the Admiralty in 1904 with the emergency program to counter the Nippon threat. They were drawn by the chief engineer of Germaniawerft, the Spaniard D'Equevilley, former right-hand man of Maxime Laubeuf. They also served as a test bench for the very first U-Boote, the U1. This class which included the Karp, Kambala and Karas had 7 ballasts and a double hull, and could dive to 16 fathoms. Kerosene engines were considered to be far more reliable and efficient than gasoline engines.

Their armament was more specifically Russian. Launched in 1907, later than the U1 when the latter was started in the light of the design of the Karp, they were not operational until 1908, after their transfer via the Sevastopol rail in the Black Sea. The Kambala was lost in exercises being violently attacked by the battleship Rostislav, and the two others, inactivated after February 1917, then temporarily Ukrainians, were scuttled on April 26, 1919 by the British who had captured them to prevent their recapture by the "reds".



Displacement: 207 surface/235 tonnes submerged
Dimensions: 39,6 x 2,7 x 2,5 m.
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 2 kerosene engines, 2 elect. motors 400/200 hp, 10/8,5 knots surface/sub
Range: Radiius of action 2315 km.
Crew: 28.
Armement: 1 TT 457 mm (bow)+ 2 Drzewiecki drop-collar torpedoes.

Minoga (1907)

This Imperial Russian Navy built by Baltic Yard in Saint Petersburg and designed by I.G. Bubnov was of the single hulled type, designed to dive down to 16 fathom (30 metres). Her single shaft proved inefficient for agility and her diesels were not reliable. Minoga served in the Baltic Fleet and in 1918 to the Caspian Sea, and decommissioned in 1922



Displacement: 123 tons surfaced/155 tons submergedv Dimensions: 32.6 x 2.8 x 2.8 m (106 ft 11 in x 9 ft 2 in x 9 ft 2 in)
Propulsion: 1 shaft Diesel electric, 2 diesel engines 240 hp (180 kW), 1 electric motor 70 hp (52 kW)
Speed: 11 knots (20.4 km/h; 12.7 mph) surfaced, 5 knots (9 km/h; 6 mph) submerged
Range: 600 nautical miles (1,100 km) surfaced, 50 nautical miles (93 km) submerged
Complement: 22
Armament: 2 × 18-in (457 mm) TTs (bow), 1 × 37 mm gun

Akula (1908)

Akula and Rurik

This submarine built for the Imperial Russian Navy was designed by Ivan Bubnov as a mix of the previous Minoga and Kasatka-class submarines. The design was approved by the Marine technical committee in late 1905, followed by an order the next year. Built at the Baltic shipyard, Saint Petersburg, launched on 4 September 1907, the Akula swapped soon her petrol engines for safer diesels and the single hull/saddle tank was resistant eniough to dive down to 25 fathoms (45 meters (148 ft)). However soon in service electric motor and propellers showed multiples issues and needed a replacement, but nevertheless the Akula became the longest-range Russian submarine so far. And she was armed enough to perform the world's first made five torpedoes volley. She served in the Baltic, making 16 patrols and attacked (but missed) SMS Beowulf, until hitting a mine near Hiiumaa in November 1915, sinking with all hands, resting now 30 meters (98 ft) depth since.

Akula illustration


Displacement: 370 long tons (380 t) surfaced/475 tons (471 m³) submerged
Dimensions: 56 x 3.7 x 3.4 m (183 ft 9 in x 12 ft 2 in)
Propulsion: 3 shaft Diesel electric, 3 diesel engines 1,900 hp (1.4 MW), 1 electric motor 300 hp (220 kW)
Speed: 10.6 knots (19.6 km/h; 12.2 mph)/4.6 knots (8.5 km/h; 5.3 mph) submerged
Range: 1,900 nmi (3,500 km; 2,200 mi) surfaced/38 nmi (70 km; 44 mi) submerged
Complement: 34
Armament: 4 × 18-inch (457 mm) TTs bow and 4 Drzewiecki drop collars

Kaiman class (1908)


Four American Lake type units, very much inspired by the USS Protector, were ordered from the Crichton shipyard in St Petersburg in 1906. They were also designed to serve in the Pacific off the coast of Japan, so their range and armament was increases. This class included Kaiman, Krokodil, Drakon and Alligator. They were not accepted in service until 1911, because in 1910 their construction had revealed so many defects and defects of form that the admiralty refused to pay them, but had them seized to prevent the yards from reselling them to the stranger, and had them profoundly modified.

Among other things, a modification of the pumps allowed them to dive in 3 minutes instead of 10 initially, the removal of a section of cylinders on the engines which made them save weight (overweight raised by 12 tons), and had them rearmed with two surface Drzewiecki torpedoes, and at the beginning of the war, with a 47 mm piece (37 mm on the Drakon) and a machine gun. They were assigned in 1913 to the 2nd, then 3rd flotilla of Baltic submersibles, operating against the German traffic in 1914-15 (capturing and sinking cargo ships) but in 1916 their crews were assigned to other more modern units and they remained inactive at the dock, before being scuttled February 25, 1918 to avoid their capture by the "red". The following characteristics are original.



Displacement: 409 surface/482 tons submerged
Dimensions: 40.2 x 4.3 x 4.9 m.
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 gas. engines, 2 elect. motors 1200/400 hp, 10.5/7 knots surface/dive, RA 1944 km.
Crew: 34 men
Armament: 4 TLT 457 mm (2 bow and 2 stern).

Krab (1912) - The first minelayer submarine


Krab was only a submarine among others developed in Russia. Yet she was the world's first minelayer submarine. Designed by engineer Naletov from the Nikolayev Shipyard's design office, she was intended for the Black Sea Fleet. Her construction was long, because in 1908, plans were ready and she was on hold. But many changes came in such a way that she was not finally commissioned before 1915. At that time the Germans were already deploying large quantities of minelayer U-Bootes of the more modern UC model. The Krab was very wide (1/6 ratio) and deep (4 meter draft), armed with two prong tubes and two Drzewiecki outer torpedoes in addition to onboard artillery. Her 30 mines were housed in two large lateral tubes and layed from the rear, carried by an electric "chain". The Krab could dive down to 25 fathoms. Her first mission was to lay a minefield in front of the Bosporus. The Turkish gunboat Isa Reis was blown up on one of her mines. She carried out a second similar mission in front of Varna, and this minefield sank and damaged the Bulgarian torpedo Shumni and Strogi. In April 1918 she was shortly in the service with the white "Ukrainian Navy", but passed into the hands of the Germans, then British, before being scuttled on 26/04/19 to prevent her capture by the Soviets.

Krab 1915


Displacement: 512 surface/740 tonnes dive
Dimensions: 52,8 x 4,3 x 3,9 m.
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 gazoline engines, 2 elect. engines 1200/400 hp
Performances: Speed 11,8/7,1 knots surface/submerges, Radius of action 3130 km.
Crew: 50 officers and sailors
Armament: 1 x 75, 2 MGs, 2 x 457 mm TTs (bow), 2 Drzewiecki drop-collar torpedoes, 30 mines.

Morzh class submarines (1914)

The Morzh class was part of an ambitious program devised by the Naval General Staff in 1909 and part of a class of six submarines for the Black Sea Fleet. But it was underfunded and delayed until 1910, allowed only in a portion by the Duma but which inclued these six submarines. Three of the Narval class submariness were ordered and the other of the Morzh-class that were to test solutions and builders advances. The former indeed was a Holland design, while the Morzh was based on the succesful Akula. Yet again this was a design by Ivan Grigorevich Bubnov at the Baltic Shipyard in 1910. The blueprints were approved on 30 May 1911, the keels being laid down at Nikolayev shipyards on 25 June 1911. Maneuverability and stability were at the hear of the design, but the lack of internal watertight compartments provoked a stir between submarine engineers on one side and submariner officers on the other.

The first argued the solution would improve survivability while the second were afraid of losing control of the crew, financial constraints eliminated them in the end. in addition to their deck gun, the Morzh had four bow torpedo tubes and eight external torpedoes in Dzhevetskiy drop collars. However their single hull made them slow divers with a diving depth limited to 25 fathoms (50 m/150 feet). The two German-built 1,140 hp diesels were not delivered in 1914 and were replaced by inappropriately weak Amur River gunboats Vikhr, Vyuga and Uragan type diesels rated for 250 hp instead. Neither the 16 knot designed speed could not be met, but neither the 12 knots underwater because of the badly designed hull shape. The Bars class derived from these had the same defects.

The Morzh, Nerpa and Tyulen were transferred to Sevastopol between December 1914 and March 1915. The Nerpa sailed first in March 1915, and the vessels operated off the Bosporus, ambushing Turkish freighter routes. They sank 16 merchant ships in total. The Morzh missed the best Turkish ship by then, the Yavuz in November 1915. She was attacked by air in May 1916 but survived, only to sink with all hands in May 1917 probably because of a mine. The Nerpa was refitted in 1917 in Nikolayev but this never was completed because of the lack of parts and personal and she stayed there until the end of the war. On 3 June 1922 she was recommissioned by the Soviet Navy as Politruk, then No. 11 in 1923, but was decommissioned on 3 December 1930. The Tyulen made the most of these kills and even captured the armed merchantman Rodosto (October 1916). She was captured by German troops at Sevastopol (May 1918), passed to the British in November, and the White Russians (Wrangel force). She fled to French-ruled Bizerte (Tunisia) in 1920, interned, sold in 1924 and scrapped in 1930.


Displacement: 630 tons surfaced/760 tons submerged
Dimensions: 67 x 4.5 x 3.9 m (219 ft 10 in x 14 ft 9 in x 12 ft 10 in)
Propulsion: 2 shafts Diesel-electric 500 hp diesel, 800 hp electric
Speed: 10.8 knots (20.0 km/h) surfaced/8 knots (15 km/h) submerged
Range: 2,500 nmi (4,600 km)
Crew: 47
Armament: 57 mm (2.2 in)/47 mm (1.9 in) gun, 4 × 457 mm (18 in) TTs, 8 × Dzhevetskiy drop collars torpedoes
Wartime Submarines

Narval class (1914)

These three units (Narwhal, Kit, Kashalot) were the largest Russian submarines of the war, with more than 1,000 tons fully loaded diving. The Narwhal, the Kit and the Kashalot were buuilt at Nikolayev's Nevski shipyards for the Black Sea, scheduled for 1911. A double-hull Holland-style mixed design, capable of diving at 25 fathoms, they had an internal ballast arrangement complex, including a special compression dive tank, in case of crushing, and a completely hermetic internal compartimentation. Excellent by their safety, erformances and range, they put together a beautiful hunting board at the end of their operations, siking all three 8 freighters and 75 coasters total. They diverged however in armament, the Narwhal (heavier and faster of a knot) had no guns but two machine guns, and four outer torpedoes instead of eight. The Kashalot had only one machine gun and the Kit none. In addition, in 1917, They had two less external torpedo drop collars and two 75 mm gun instead of one, plus two 7.62 mm machine guns. They knew the fate of many other Russian units of the Black Sea: For a time Ukrainian, then captured by the Germans, taken over by the English and scuttled to avoid their capture by the Bolsheviks in April 1919.


Specifications (1914)

Displacement: 621 tons surfaced/994 tons submerged
Dimensions: 70.1 x 6.5 x 3.5 m (230.0 ft x 21.3 ft x 11.5 ft)
Propulsions: 2 shafts x2 diesels 640 hp (480 kW)/ 900 hp (670 kW) electric motor
Speed: 9.5 kn (17.6 km/h) surfaced/11.5 kn (21.3 km/h) (submerged)
Range: 12 days, 3500 miles at 6.5 knots, 103 miles under water at 4 knots
Crew: 47
Armament: 2 bow, 2 stern 450 mm (18-inch) TTs, 8 external torpedo drop collars, 75, 57 mm guns, 7.62 mm MG

Bars class (1915)

The submersibles of the class Bars ("bear") were developed by the engineer Bubnov and based on the three Morzh ("Morse"), themselves from the Akula and Minoga. In the 1912 program, 12 were authorized for the Baltic Fleet and 6 for the Siberian (then Baltic) fleet. In the program of 1915, six for the Black Sea, 24 in total. This was the "standard" Russian submarine of the First World War: Built at the Baltic shipyards in Petrograd, Roblessner at Reval, or the Nikolayev Imperial shipyards, they were launched in 1915-1917, and sometimes completed very little of time before the revolution. They had flaws, however, including a range and insufficient depth of diving, a dive time quite slow (more than 3 minutes) because of the choice of pumps, and they were quite conspicuous dive because of resurgences of water (real geysers) at both ends.


Well armed, they had no less than 12 torpedoes, but were not able to cope with comparable German U-Bootes much more advanced. There were also difficulties in producing their diesels and they were re-equipped with machines taken on gunboats or imported. Forel and Ugor were modified to become mine anchors (42 in two tubes). With regard to the 8 merchant ships sunk and because of their repeated breakdowns, and their losses in combat, they were considered mediocre. 4 Others will be scuttled to avoid capture, and others scrapped between 1921 and 1931.


Specifications (1914)

Déplacement: 650 surface/780 tons submerged
Dimensions: 68 x 4,5 x 3,9 m.
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesels, 2 elect. motors 2640/900 cv, 18/10 knots surface/submerged, Radius of action 740 km.
Crew: 33 hommes.
Armement: 1 x 63, 1 x 37, 4 x 457 mm TTs (2 proue, 2 poupe), 8 external Drzewiecki drop-collars.

AG class- Amerikansky Golland (1916)

AG14, as marksist 1920s

The last Russian Submarines of WW1 were of American construction. These last models assembled in Russia before long had the misfortune to be caught in the turmoil of the revolution. Added to the 1915 emergency plan for the Baltic and the Black Sea, they were designed on American plans from John Holland's workshops (AG stands for Amerikanskij Golland), similar to the H-type and more precisely 602GF/602L type built for allies in mass production. They were delivered by sections and assembled to the Petrograd and Nikolaiev shipyards, the first launched in 1916 and the last in 1921.

Only a small brigade, the 4th, was operational during the winter of 1916 in the Baltic, including the AG11 to 15. The AG13 was lost as a result of an accident, refloated, repaired, and resumed service in 1917 as AG16. The AG15 was also lost in 1917, and after bailout, also resumed service. The AG14 hit a mine in Libau in July 1917 and the other eight had been scuttled in Finland, at Hangö. Four were later integrated back into the United States Navy (H4-H8).

The Black Sea ships were only completed during the Soviet era. Apart from the AG27 and 28, captured and integrated into the US Navy, and the AG22 sold for demolition in 1924, the other five served during the Second World War. In 1918, Tallinn occupation and Brest-Litovsk peace treaty had the British flotilla moved to Helsinki, under the protection of the "Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic". German landing of the 10,000 strong Baltic Sea Division in Hanko had the result of scuttling the remaining submarines and support ships off Helsinki harbour.

Some vessels had to be abandoned like four Russian AGs in Hanko, later scuttled. But two were later raised by the Finns, refurbished, but without proper budget in dire economical conditions within the young state, led to their demolition. The Soviet Navy took over the remaining five, renamed with more appropriate personalities, and were all comprehensively modernized in the late 1930s and renamed again with letters and numbers. Active in WW2, two were lost: A-1 was scuttled on 26 June 1942 to prevent capture, A-3 was by a German anti-submarine ship. Howeve to her credit, she sank the Romanian merchant vessel Suceava (3495 GRT) in the black sea.

AG class submarines

Specifications (1914)

Displacement: 355 surface/433 tonnes submerged
Dimensions: 46 x 4,9 x 3,8 m.
Propulsion: 2 propelers, Nelesco diesels, 2 electric motors 960/640 cv, 12/10 knots surface/submerged.
Crew: 30 sailors and officers
Armament: 1 canon de 47 mm, 4 TLT 457 mm (bow and poop).

Read More

1989 Doc Russian sub warfare development 1853-1941 Soviet Army studies office
Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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