Regia Marina, 14 Monitors: Alfredo Capellini, Faa' di Bruno, Montfalcone, Monte Santo class, Monte Cucco, Vodice, Carso, Pasubio, Monte Grappa class, Padus

Another class used by the Italians during WWI, often overlooked, are Monitors: Fourteen of them indeed served on a localized front barely a few miles in lenght: The northern adriatic sea gulf of Trieste. There, long range artillery can cover many miles inland, and -as it was hoped- disrupt the front eneough to allow a breakthough through Austro-Hungarian lines. In the end, monitors never matched the Italian high command expectations and the "Italian verdun" ended badly at Capporetto.

Pounding Inland is our profession

The Italian monitors in WW1 is a rarely seen subject of study, but it shows another aspect of naval warfare that is often overlooked - and yet vital, when possible, to land operations: Naval support. At an age of long-range artillery, carrying heavy artillery by land was probematic: Train was the obvious choice, due to its heavy loads capabilities, and modularity. However it's dependent to a fixed target (the railway) and therefore can be located and blasted with ease by the enemy. Heavy artillery (about 200 mm or 8 inches and more) is hard to pull and tow on land due to ground pressure, although some examples existed or tracked heavy tractors in 1917, they were a few. On a river, when it existed, towing a barge with heavy guns was another option, but in range of the field artillery on the other shore. But in some theaters of operations, the sea was close to the frontline, so the next option were gunboats and monitors.

That was the case in several occasions during WWI. The most obious was the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915 when the French and Royal Navy bombarded Turkish fortifications and brought support during the land offensives. The other example would be the Flanders coast (Belgium and Holland) as German lines were so close to the coast. The British built a healthy number of minitors of their own which looked like battleships in miniature. That's a subject we will cover soon. But the third good example, almost forgotten today, was the Italian Northern front, in Venetia, north of the Adriatic.


HMS Terror. British Monitors were also engaged for a time on the Isonzo front, for discutable results, despite better optics and FCS, and aerial spotting.

A local necessity: The Venetian Front


Map of the Isonzo front, and area of operations of the monitors

There, the Austro-Hungarians had a network of fortifications and trenches close enough to the coast to allow sea-borned artillery support. Although the Italians lacked the industrial capabilities of Great Britain, the Regia Marina had fourteen Monitors in action along the coast in 1918. The most famous of these were the "Faa' di Bruno" and Cappellini, the closest perhaps to British Monitors, but many others were smaller converted vessels, which came in all types and manners of configuration. They came late in the war, in 1916-1918 and operated for a short time, really tightly linked to their mission, and if most were converted or rebuilt, some were designed and built specifically for their task, notably at Venice Naval Yard, closer to the action. Most were either converted back in civilian roles after the war, or just scrapped in the early 1920s. Were they successful ? That's a matter to debate. The weather in Venetia was strongly influenced by the Alps and if certainly less foggy and damp than off Belgium, it was still temperate. Thanks to this, visibility was generally good, allowing aviation to do a better job at spotting enemy targets for the italian monitors.

Monitors in local operations


Riverine operations on the Isonzo

Wether it was called the Venetian or more commonly "Isonzo Front" from the river which was often a natural barrier and defensive line, this particular place of the Italian front was stuck between mountains and sea. What was called the "battle of the Isonzo" was rather a protracted campaign, often associated with Verdun in its attrition nature, and comprising in reality a serie of battles between 1915 and late 1917. The Isonzo Front comprised indeed 12 battles between the Austro-Hungarian and Italian armies, spent mostly in modern Slovenia and Italy, along the Isonzo River, eastern sector of the Italian Front. It really started in June 1915 and ended in November 1917: The defeat of Caporetto ended the whole campaign, at the central powers advantage. But thee Italians won three battles, the Austro-Hungarians three. This really was the addition of German troops and intensive re-training and re-equipment of the Austro-Hungarians by the Germans that turned the tables.

On a small part of the front, a coastal area of about 15 miles at best to the mouth of the Isonzo, and the gulf of Trieste, the northeastern point of the adriatic. There, Monitors could trech targets far inland, and they were requested by the army to hit various objectives along the front, notably fortifications, fuel and ammunition depots, open artillery batteries, railways lines and depots, etc. These Italian monitors were designed specifically to meet three main criteria:
To meet these criteria, engineers (Notably R.Adm. G. Rota and G. Pruneri) preferred river barges, with a very large beam ratio, or 1/2 or 1/4. They had both a very low freeboard acting as extra protection as exposing little hull over the waterline, shallow draft to be beached if necessary, and very stable gun platforms. However carrying and operating heavy artillery meant a lot of recoil, so a system of anchors was used to have them firmly grounded. Since most had their guns fixed in position to simplify their installation, only having elevation, it was necessary to winch up and down the anchor chains to have the whole ship oriented towards the target. Needless to say they had no protection nor defensive armament, although they did not need for example ASW protection. Their low freeboard made them difficult targets for submarines, but any field artillery could knock them out. In service they were called "Pontoni Armati Monitore". The "armati" meant some were armoured, but figures are difficult to know, outside Cappellini and Di Bruno. For the Mont Grapp class it was allegedly 40 to 110 mm, probably armoured plates around the gun. Most were stricken in 1924, but their fate is difficult to pinpoint. Most probably were converted back to civilian uses, a few survived in various roles until WW2.

Alfredo Cappellini (1915)


Alfredo Cappellini at sea

Alfredo Cappellini was built based on an opportunity: When the 381mm/40 guns originally manufactured for the suspended battleship Francesco Morosini of the Caracciolo-class became available. Construction was indeed suspended in 1916 after going well, but new priorities were decided to spare manpower and resources. These guns were originally from Ansaldo-Schneider, and eight of them were now on stocks. Italian engineers from Ansaldo pressed to reuse these guns to help on the Isonzo Front searched and found the ideal platform: The floating crane GA53. This vessel displaced 1,452 long tons (1,475 t), and had a length between perpendiculars of 36 meters (118 ft 1 in), 18 meters (59 ft 1 in) in beam, and 2.4 meters (7 ft 10 in) draft. Speed not being a priority, this heavy duty barge had a vertical double-expansion steam engine (VDE), rated for 265-indicated-horsepower (198 kW). On sea trials, after modifications were completed, the barge renamed Alfredo Cappellini () reached a top speed of 3.76 knots (7.0 km/h; 4.3 mph) down to 3.5 knots in usual service to spare her engine.

Modifications included the gun turret being constructed, unarmored to avoid stability problems, around the main guns. The only protection were two anti-torpedo nets in case an austro-hungarian submarine closed in. Her main guns could elevate to 20° while the turret could traverse 30° to either side, so 60° total. This limitation helped speeding up construction and were not necessary for her new role anyway. These mains guns, the largest in use in the Regia Marina and on this front, fired a 884 kg (1,949 lb) armor-piercing shell at 700 m/s (2,297 ft/s), up to 27,300 m (89,567 ft) at maximum elevation. Of course these shells would only be used against fortifications, but HE shells were carried for unprotected ground targets as well.

Previously launched in 1915, Alfredo Cappellini was completed at the Orlando Shipyard (Livorno) on 24 April 1917, commissioned four days later. She was a bit "late to the party" however, brought in action during the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo, in August 1917. With the more recent Faà di Bruno and British monitors HMS Earl of Peterborough and HMS Sir Thomas Picton, she shelled Austrian positions (with little effect as it was later discovered). She was eventually wrecked on 16 November 1917, off Ancona and never repaired.


Main guns being loaded in place at the yard (src Mediatheque_architecture_patrimoine, CC)

⚙ Alfredo Cappellini Specifications

Displacement1,452 long tons standard
Dimensions36 x 18 x 2.4m (118 x 59 x 7ft 11in)
Propulsion1 shaft VDE, 1 boiler 265 ihp (198 kW)
Top Speed3.5 knots (7.0 km/h; 4.3 mph)
Armament2x 381mm/40 (15 in)
ArmorNone
Crew30?

Faa' Di Bruno (1916)




Faà di Bruno was certainly the most impressive Italian monitor in WWI. Like Alfredo Cappellini, she was built when the Cannone navale da 381/40 from the suspended Caracciolo-class battleships were available. Her guns were built by Ansaldo-Schneider were specifically manufactured for the Cristoforo Colombo. Engineers however, unlike for the previous Alfredo Cappellini looked for a suitable existing hull (the floating crane GA-43, laid down on 10 October 1915 and launched in january 1916 in venice), which was comprehensively modified. The final monitor Faa' Di Bruno (after a famous Italian Mathematician) displaced 2,854 long tons (2,900 t). Faà di Bruno was designed by Rear Admiral Giuseppe Rota as a self-propelled barge (she was slab-sided, with a flat bow and stern).

Design

Her length between perpendiculars was 55.56 meters (182 ft 3 in), with a beam of 27 meters (88 ft 7 in) and 2.24 meters (7 ft 4 in) draft. What made her design unique was the modification of her dlanks and deck, using a prismatic shape. The deck was sloped downwards, facing incoming shells, and the freeboard was very low on the water, which acted as a passive protection. The recipe was not new, but typical of monitors developed since 1861

Faà di Bruno was powered by two surplus Thornycroft vertical triple-expansion (VTE) steam engines. They came from discarded torpedo boats. She was given a single Kess boiler, which provided steam to the two VTEs for a total as rated, of 465 indicated horsepower (347 kW). She made sea trials in July 1917, reaching a top speed of 3.31 knots (6.1 km/h; 3.8 mph), brought back to 2.5 knots (4.6 km/h; 2.9 mph) in service. Like typical monitor her deck surfae was bare, with just a main "semi-turret" and a navigation bridge placed behind, on a prominent tripod mast. Faà di Bruno's carried a complement of 45 officers and enlisted men.

Faà di Bruno's hull, in addition to its prismatic shape, was added a concrete cofferdam, 2.9 meters (9 ft 6 in) thick, strapped to her hull. Her deck armor was 40 millimeters (1.6 in), peaking 7 feet (2.1 m) over the freeboard level. The open-topped turret was tailored for this ship, only covered by an armored dome. The walls were 110 mm (4.3 in) in thickness, with a three layers sandwich, while the barbette below was 60 mm (2.4 in) thick. Of course, it was not intended to deal with enemy battleship shells, but only with aerial bombs and field guns shells, which were HE and lower velocity.

Her semi-turret, was designed to hold a relatively tall barbette supporting a cradle for the twin Cannone navale da 381/40 guns. They could elevate +15° and traverse 60° total, like Cappelini. They fired the same ammunition, either a 884 kgs (1,949 lb) AP shell (muzzle velocity 700 m/s), or HE shells. Unlike Cappelini, the threat of aviation was taken in consideation, also helped by the larger hull, and she received four 76.2 mm/40 (3 in) Ansaldo AA guns. The latter fired a 6.5 kg/14.3 lb HE shell at 700 m/s. This was completed also by two single mount, water-cooled 40 mm/39 (1.6 in) Vickers-Terni 1915/1917 light AA guns firing 0.91-kg (2 lb) shells at 622 m/s.

Service


Faà di Bruno in 1917

The largest Italian monitor was launched on 30 January 1916. She was commissioned on 1 April 1917 and her first action was during the 11th Battle of the Isonzo in August 1917, with Cappelini and other vessels (see above), but with little effect overall. Hit by a storm she was driven ashore and damaged, but not salvaged for almost a full year. The war ended and she coukd have beein scrapped at this point. In fact she was mothballed and not stricken from the Navy List until 13 November 1924. However she was never broken up. When World War II started, she was converted back as the floating battery GM 194, towed from Venice to Genoa, remaining there for the rest of the war. The Royal Navy bombarded Genoa on 9 February 1941 and GM 194 started to fire... and stopped after three shots: One of the British bomb's shrapnel cut electric cables providing power to her guns mounts and systems. See in 1943. She was captured by the Germans after the Italian armistice, which for some time planned her conversion back to a monitor named "Biber" in 1944, before turning her to the Marina Nazionale Repubblicana She was scuttled in Savona in 1945, and this time scrapped for good.


Faà di Bruno's right gun being lifted in place. The flanks were protected, but the turret was open top, and a upola was placed above. It solved the fumes evacuation problem as well as ventilation for the gun crew.


381mm shells


Internal scheme of Faà di Bruno in 1917

biber 1944
1944 German planned conversion of the ship as the sea-going monitior "Biber": Two pontoons were to be added to improved seaworthiness.

⚙ Faa' Di Bruno Specifications

Displacement2,854 long tons standard
Dimensions55.56 x 27 x 2.24m (182 x 88 x 7ft 4in)
Propulsion2 shafts VTE, 1 boiler 465 ihp (347 kW)
Speed3.31 knots (6.13 km/h; 3.81 mp)
Armament2x 381 (15 in), 4x 76.2 mm (3 in), 2× 40 mm AA guns
ArmorDeck: 40 mm (1.6 in), turret: 110 mm (4.3 in), barbette: 60 mm (2.4 in)
Crew45

Montfalcone (1917)

Montfalcone 1917
Montfalcone 1917, extract from the video (end of the article)

The need for more hulls to put on available guns, conducted Italian engineers to adapt captured ships. A good example was the Austrian barge Montfalcone, captured in June 1915 on the Isonzo River after scuttling, refloated, and towed at SAVINEM yards in Venice to be converted. Although more 381 mm guns were available (they will end also in the two Monte Santo class and the Monte Grappa, see later), having these guns mounted in a structure and service them was problmatic due to their weight.

For smaller hulls, the twice lighter 12-inches, when available, was a better option. By 1917, many old Italian pre-dreadnoughts has been relegated to second-line roles and often disarmed. Their 12-inches landed on railways or fortifications, but three 12-inches were reused on monitors. In the case of Montfalcone, it was a 305 mm/46, long-barrel model recuperated and married with an older 17-in mounting, elevating to 30°. The final result was a 500 tonnes barge with a 1/2 ratio, surprisingly faster than others thanks to her two Polar diesel engines: She reached 6 knots. Details are scarce about her service, starting on 11 June 1917. She was scrapped in 1921.

Quick specs: 525 tonnes standard, 24 x 14 x 2m (79 x 46 x 6 feets), 2 diesels 400 bhp, single 12-in (305 mm) gun.

Monte Santo class Monitors (1917)

Monte Santo, Monte Sabotino
Monte Sabotino
1986 drawing of the Monte Santo

Two very similar ex-Austrian barges captured on the isonzo river and rebuilt on slightly different specs: Sabotino measured 37.5 x 8.6 x 1.9 m and displaced 66 tonnes instead of 62 originally. Both were rebuilt under supervision of rear admiral Giorgio Pruneri. They were both launched again at SAVINEM, Venice, but completed for the second (Sabotino) at CNR Ancona, and actually launched a month earlier than her sister ship in February 1918. Operational details not known. Both were stricken in 1924 but Santo was converted as an AA floating battery with six 3-in/40 AA and possibly still around in WW2.

Quick specs: 570 tonnes standard, 37.1 x 8.6 x 1.9m (79 x 46 x 6 feets), 1 diesel Tosi 350 bhp 6 kts, single 15-in (381 mm) gun.

Monte Cucco (1917)

monte cucco
Monte Cucco in 1917

Monte Cucco was the ex-Austrian barge Nedda captured at Montfalcone in 1915. She was totally rebuilt at SAVINEM in Venice NyD, launched on 30 January 1917. She was based on a design prepared by possibly by G. Pruneri and entered service on 11 september 1917. Combat records unknwown. She was discarded in 1924.

Quick specs: 440 tonnes standard, 33.7 x 8.7 x 1.4m (110 x 29 x 5 feets), 1 diesel 250 bhp 6 kts, single 12-in (305 mm)/40 gun.

Monte Cucco's gunners
Monte Cucco's gunners (also from youtube)

Vodice (1917)

vodice/valente
Vodice

An ex-Austrian lighter captured at Montfalcone in 1915, and totally rebuilt on a design prepared by naval engineer, rear-admiral Giorogio Pruneri. She was given a 12-inches gn from a discarded rep-dreadnought. The conversion was one in Venice NyD and she was launched again in September 1917, commissioned probably in early 1918. Reconrd and fate unknown, on the navy lost she was stricken in 1924 like most of the Italian monitors of that era.

Quick specs: 440 tonnes standard, 33.5 x 8.7 x 1.4m (109 x 29 x 5 feets), 1 Fiat diesel 250 bhp, single 12-in (305 mm) gun.

valiente
This is the "Valente", not reported in Conways but caracteristics are the same as Vodice, so perhaps some confusion here.


Another photo of Vodice/Valente, note she is camouflaged.

Carso (1917)

Carso
Carso at sea, with two 19 cm (8 inches) cruiser guns



Ex-Austrian barge captured at Montfalcone in 1916, totally rebuilt at SAVINEM in Venice NyD. Compared to the others she was perhaps the most seaworthy and the only one with two single guns fore and aft, from a former armoured cruiser. These guns had an elevation of 28°. Carso was completed on 3 August 1917 and saw some service before the end of the war (record unknown), she was mothballed and stricken in 1924.

Quick specs: 360 tonnes standard, 36 x 9.5 x 1.2m (118 x 31 x 4 feets), 2 Polar diesels 300 bhp 7 kts, 2x 7.5-in/45 (190 mm) guns.

Pasubio (1918)

Pasubio
Pasubio in 1918.



Pasubio was an ex-Austrian lighter captured in June 1915 at Montfalcone and rebuolt at Venice NyD by rear admiral Giorgio Pruneri with a forward cruiser guns. Maximal elevation of her 6-in guns was 25°. She was launched on 10 march 1918 and performed perhaps a single shelling mission. She was mothballed after the war and stricken in 1924, fate unknown but likely reconverted in her former civilian role.

Quick specs: 225 tonnes standard, 20.5 x 7.6 x 1.7m (67 x 22 x 6 feets), 1 diesel FIAT 250 bhp 7 kts, two 6-in/50 (152 mm) gun.

Monte Grappa class Monitors (1918)

Monte Grappa, Monte Cengio, Montello, Monte Norvegno

Monte Cengio
Monte Cengio after the war

At the end of the war, in order to continue the shelling of supplies and infrasttructures along the austro-Hungarian coast, a further were built, and not adapted like former vessels, to carry and operate the remainder of the 15-inches 40 calibers of the suspended Carracciolo class battleships. They were all built at Castellamare di Stabia, launched in September, November and december 1918 for the first three and May 1919 for the last, Monte Novegno, so none was ready when the war ended. Apart perhaps some firing tests, they were all mothballed and discarded in 1924. Both the first (Cengio) and last (Novegno) however were recycled as torpedo-tersting barge and served as such for most of the interwar. Their fate is unknown.

Quick specs: 575/633 tonnes, 40 x 10 x 1.7m (131 x 32 x 5 feets), 2 shafts diesels c700 bhp 7 kts, single 15-in (381 mm) gun.

Padus (1918)

Padus

This small ex-austrian barge, captured at Montfalcone in June 1915 was converted to carry a 6-inches gun (152 mm) 40 caliber at SAVINEM in venice. She was commissioned in 1917, but lost on 7 November the same year after running aground near Caorle, never repaired and scrapped afterwards.

Quick specs: 95.5 tonnes standard, 28 x 4.8 x 0.9 m (91 x 16 x 3 feets), 2 FIAT diesels 200 bhp 8.5 kts, single 6-in (152 mm) gun.

Read More/Src

unknown 12-in monitor
Unknown monitor (1986 illustration)

Gardiner, Robert (toim.): Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. Lontoo, Englanti: Conway Maritime Press, 1985.
Fraccaroli, Aldo: Italian Warships of World War 1. Lontoo: Ian Allan, 1970. ISBN 1-7110-0105-7.
Buxton, Ian (2008). Big Gun Monitors: Design, Construction and Operations 1914–1945 (вид. 2nd revised and expanded). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press
Ordovini, Aldo F.; Petronio, Fulvio; et al. (December 2017). "Capital Ships of the Royal Italian Navy, 1860–1918: Part 4: Dreadnought Battleships". Warship International.
Trawick, Henry P.; Wiltering, John H. Jr. (2010). "Italian Monitor Faa di Bruno". Warship International. Toledo, OH: International Navy Research Organization.
Clerici, Carlo; Robbins, Charles B.; Flocchini, Alfredo (1999). "The 15" (381mm)/40 Guns of the Francesco Caracciolo Class Battleships". Warship International.
//www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNIT_15-40_m1914.php
//www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_2pounder_m2.php
//elfnet.hu/haditechnika/hajok/faadibrunoosztaly.php
//www.taubmansonline.com/ANBBRUNO.htm
//www.agenziabozzo.it/navi_da_guerra/C-Navi_da_Guerra_2/C-4076_Pontone_armato_semovente_Monte_Santo_cannone_a_riposo.htm
//www.navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_cm_mon1.htm
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battles_of_the_Isonzo


Alfredo Cappellini underway - Note her former floating crane identifier is still visible.

Video

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
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G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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