WW1 US Cruisers

USN United States Navy - 51 cruisers

ww1 usn cruisers
WW1 USN cruisers POSTER

When the USA entered war on April, 6, 1917, the fleet comprised about 40 cruisers, the older ones being relegated as costal gunboats, a part made of obsolete masted cruisers, veterans of 1898, 1900's armoured and protected cruisers, and the most recent were the Chester scout cruisers, which conception went back to 1905. It was thought fleet destroyers could do the job, but wartime realities soon changed that idea and ten brand new scout cruisers, destroyer leaders, were ordered, not completed in time.

The "New Navy"'s first cruisers

uss trenton 1876
USS Trenton (1876), one of the rare, one-off "new navy" early frigates.

Basically the XIXth naval history of the US is rocky and interesting, especially for cruisers, which had their historic roots in Frigates. And the country-continent had its fair share of innovative development in this area. It starts the 1797 with the "super-frigates" ordered by the Congress, of which only one, the USS Constitution, aka 'Old Ironsides' is still with us today, veteran of the 1812 war and against the barbary corsairs.

Then it bounced again, as relations with the British Empire eased a bit, somewhat degraded the size of the US "old navy", counting a few ships of the line and frigates, during the civil war. It forced the Union, to enforce its blockade to order a new generation of ships. The USN would pioneer the monitor and the submersible. The blockade was mostly the result of an armada of gunboats and sloops, but the Union had in mind a special class of ships designed for commerce raiding if Britain, somewhat supporting the south, went at war with USA. This was the Wampanoag class, on paper "Frigates" but classed by many authors as the first "cruisers" of the USN, in what was called then the "Old Navy" (see later).

Admiral James Jouett on USS Trenton in 1886

The "New Navy" emerged gradually from the ashes of the civil war. Most of the Union fleet was deactivated and the continent stepped in isolation again. Outside 15 other Frigates and 10 screw sloops built in the 1860-70 decade, plus two experimental torpedo-rams, there was no significant other venture. It would take political will and influential writers such as Alfred T. Mahan for the US to gradually emerge from this isolationism and starting seeing itself more on 'imperial' terms, or at least taking the first step: Building a modern and strong Navy, which would soon take on one of the former European superpowers: Spain.

USS Maine
USS Maine (1889), coastal ironclad, soon reclassed as armoured cruiser (ACR1) - colorized by irootoko JR

Cruisers took a part of it: Before even the first battleship was built, USS Texas (laid down in 1889), and as the first modern Monitors were in (lengthy) construction since 1874-76, two cruisers were authorized and laid down in 1883, the Atlanta class. They formed the start of a lineage which is still active with the Ticonderoga class today. USS Chicago in 1902
USS Chicago in 1902 - Colorized by Iroooko Jr.

Alongside these, two ships are noticeable, because they were classes retrospectively as experimental "cruisers" by default of a better classification. The first was the only "torpedo cruiser" ever built for the USN, USS Kathadin, and the other the only "dynamite-gun cruiser" ever built. In 1890 was laid down the first American armoured cruiser, and in 1905 were laid down at the same time the last armoured cruisers, and the last light cruiser (Chester class), before a true eclipse in Cruiser development, the dreadnought era.

Between fast dreadnoughts and larger fleet destroyers it was thought cruisers were now superfluous. And as amazing as it was, contrary to many other nations, the US Congress did not authorized (and the Admiralty did not wanted) a single cruiser until the end of WW1. Ten years of design vacancy, making the Marblehead class both the first and last American WW1 cruiser design and the earliest interwar cruiser design, also veterans of WW2.

Gradual evolution 1886-1920

Old Navy cruisers: Wampanoag to Contookok class

The first steam frigates appeared from 1842. By that time were in service the Fulton II (4 guns, 1837), USS Union (4 guns, testing an horizontal submerged paddle), USS Poinsett (2 guns, 1840) and the screw corvette Princeton. The first modern dedicated steam frigates were the USS Mississippi and Missouri, very large steam paddle frigates (1841,1842) of 3,220t, armed with 10 big Paixhans guns. Then came the Susquehanna and Powhatan (9 guns), USS San Jacinto and Saranac (6 guns) and 'steamers first class', USS Fulton, Michigan and Alleghany, plus Seven second class. uss antienam A very large model of USS Antienam shown to naval cadets During the American civil war, commerce disruption by the Union against the Confederacy somewhat soured diplomatic relations with Europe, which imported goods from the southern states, and although not officially supporting the cause, accepted to build ships significant ships (such as the ironclad Stonewall Jackson). But in truth, Europeans came as observers (or volunteers) on both sides, and both diplomatic and business interests enforced neutrality. The Confederates for example had the conservative Bourbon branch Prince of Polignac whereas the Union saw the American branch of the Bonaparte serve their cause. In case of war (notably Great Britain, which economy was the most effected by shortages from the south), the admiralty wanted ships tailored for oceanic, long range action, whereas the blockade until then concentrated efforts on more suitable gunboats, sloops, and monitors. European will to built ships for the Confederacy was not helping this state of relations, like the Commerce raiding campaign led by CSS Alabama and CSS Florida, both built in English yards. So the Congress authorized a serie of large, fast "super frigates" in the age of steam: The 4000 tonnes Wampanoag class. Authorized in 1863 and laid down that year they were launched in 1864-65 (one was cancelled, another never completed).

uss florida
USS Florida, ex-Wampanoag as completed in the 1870s. These "cruisers" were designed for speed, by clipper ship architect Benjamin Franklin Delano.

Of the five planned only three entered service after the war: USS Wampanoag, Madawaska, and Ammonoosuc. Being built by different yards meant they differed considerably in tonnage, size, armament and powerplant. Nevertheless, their four funnels in two groups far apart and classic three-masted configuration with a straight bow made them quite unique. They were heavily armed with 15 heavy guns, some on pivots and others broadside, and can reach 17 knots, making them able to catch and destroyer any Confederate blockade runners. That's why they are widely considered as the first "cruisers" of the USN, but they were modified after the war and eventually made their sea trials in 1868, being sold in 1883.

USS California, ex-Guerriere

At the same time, other wooden screw frigates were started, USS Chattanooga in Cramp, 1863 and USS Idaho at Georges Steers Yd in 1863, completed also after the war in 1866. Both were also commerce raider hunters, specified to be able to sustain 15 knots for 24 hours. Also laid down in 1863-64 was a "class" of homogeneous ships intended less for speed but sustained cruising at 12-13 knots: The Java class Frigates. The class comprised as ordered eight war vessels, of which only half were completed, again because the end of the war. They were the USS Antienam (completed as a sailing store ship in 1876), USS Guerriere, Minnetonka and Piscataqua. Other ships were broken up in 1872 or 1884.

USS Contoocook
USS Contoocook.

At last, were order slightly smaller and more economical vessels, the Contoocook class. Laid down in late 1863 or 1864 they were launched after the war but completed and commissioned in 1868, 69 and 70. They were armed with a single 5.3 in parrot RL, fourteen broadside 9-in SB and three pivot 12-pdr guns, managing to reach more than 12 knots sustained. Their career was shot, ending in 1872 (Contoocook, renamed Albany 1869), 1877 (Mosholu, renamed Worcester 1869) and 1883 (Manitou, Pushmataha, renamed Severn and Cambridge). Six further ships named after Indian tribes were cancelled.

American oddities: Kathadin & Vesuvius

USS Kathadin

uss kathadin colorized

USS Kathadin was a torpedo-ram experiment, something tested already by the French (Taureau class) and British (Polyphemus class) and already experimented during the civil war (css Stonewall jackson, css manassas, uss keokuk). The idea was to create a steam ram, armoured, with some self-defence light guns but no torpedo tubes. The idea was pushed forward by Rear Admiral Daniel Ammen, and advocate for a smaller, coastal navy. USS Kathadin displaced 2200-2390 tonnes and could reach 16 knots thanks to a 2-shafts HTE steam engine. Her turtleback hull was covered with Harvey and nickel steel plates up to 6-inches in thickness.

The USS Kathadin was probably the shortest commissioned US Navy warship ever. She was commissioned in February 1897, just in time for the Spanish American war, in which she played no role: Indeed she was an experimental vessel, and as soon as her tests were completed, she was decommissioned, then recommissioned again to patrol the Atlantic coast in case of a retaliatory attack by the armada. She was decommissioned definitively on 8 October 1898 (so for 15 months) but her fate is uncertain from that point. She was stricken in 1909 and sunk as target.

USS Vesuvius

The "dynamite gun cruiser" was a very unique idea developed in the USN: The guns were pneumatic ones. These 15-inch (38-cm) cast iron pneumatic guns invented by D. M. Medford and developed by US Army officer (ret.) Edmund Zalinski, could fire 550-lbs high explosive shells at targets up to a mile away. They were stationed in fixed positions emerging from the deck because of their lenght. For traverse indeed, the whole ship needed to be turned to the right position. The rest of the 930 long tons (945 t), 246 ft 3 in (75.06 m) long ship was not unarmed, there were three 3-pounder guns. USS Vesuvius was propelled by two 2,183 hp (1,628 kW) 4-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines, and was able to reach 21 knots as designed.

The projectiles fired by the guns had brass casings 7 feet (2 meters) long with the explosive contained in the conical forward part. It was completed by spiral vanes on the after part to rotate it. To handle the projectiles with ease, they used desensitized blasting gelatin composed of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, reatively stable, but not enough as to force the use of compressed air rather than classic powder. Explove power was considerable as the "useful load" was 550 pounds (250 kg).

Compared to a classic gun, muzzle velocity was not precisely superfast at 800 feet (250 meters) per second. Range was comprised between 1.6 km with the full projectile and up to 4000 yards (3.7 km) with the 'lightened' 100 kgs (200 pounds) charge. Ten shells were stored on board, and 15 shells could be fired in 16 minutes 50 seconds as shown by a 1889 test. The detonation could be setup by and electrical fuze to explode underwater or any structure or burst in the air.

USS Vesuvius made a shakedown cruise and actively served during the Spanish-American War in 1898 to bombard enemy emplacements in Cuba. The guns being silent as for their working system, the enemy became unnerved because of their inability to hear any boom preceding incoming fire. Therefore they could not locate their point of origin and order a counter-battery fire.Despite their early success the whole dynamite guns concept quickly fell out of favor due to its lack of accuracy and high maintenance needs.

Ultimately after Vesuvius joined the Boston Navy Yard until 1904, the dynamite guns were removed and replaced with torpedo tubes and she was rebranded as a torpedo-testing vessel. Ultimately she was re-equiped with four torpedo tubes, including three 18 inch (450 mm) and one 21-inch. She was recommissioned on 21 June 1905 and served at the Rhode Island base, Naval Torpedo Station island. In May 1915, she suffered the indignity of almost sinking herself when one of her torpedoes circled back and slammed into the hull. Her captain made her running aground on Prudence Island in Narragansett Bay to avoid sinking. She was later repaired and stayed in reduced service until 1921 as station ship, sold in 1922 for BU.


USS Seattle forward turret
USS Seattle forward turret

Main Artillery

-10 in/30 (254 mm): USS Maine
-10 in/40 (254 mm): Tennessee class
-8 in/30 (203 mm): Atlanta, Chicago, Newark.
-8 in/35 (203 mm): Charleston, Baltimore, Olympia, New York, Brooklyn
-8 in/40 (203 mm): Pennsylvania, Columbia
-6 in/30 (152 mm): Philadelphia, San Francisco
-6 in/40 (152 mm): Cincinnati
-6 in/50 (152 mm): New Orleans
-6 in/53 (152 mm): Omaha class
-5 in/50 (127 mm): Denver, Chester, St Louis

Secondary Artillery

US-manufactured 6-inches onboard USS New Orleans
US-manufactured 6-inches masked gun onboard USS New Orleans

Some guns were actually used a primary guns are well, or their caliber were close to main guns.
-6 in/30/35 (152 mm): Atlanta, Chicago, Charleston, Baltimore
-6 in/50 (152 mm): Pennsylvania, Tennessee
-5 in/50 (127 mm): Brooklyn, Olympia, Cincinnati
-4.7 in/50 (120 mm): New Orleans
-4 in/40 (110 mm): New York

Tertiary Artillery

Real tertiaries were dedicated anti-torpedo boat, quick firing models. With the "new navy" were introduced 1, 3 and 6-pdr guns, 37 mm (1.46"), 47 mm (1.85") and 57 mm (2.24"), also found in the Royal Navy as a standard and many navies around the world. The early models were purchased from the French-American Hotchkiss company. They were introduced in the 1880s and later models were manufactured by Driggs-Schroeder in the US. They were made obsolete because of rapid progress of torpedo boats, necessitating larger-caliber guns, which led to the development of the ubiquitous 76 mm or 3-in and its AA version. When WW1 broke out, only three classes of cruisers used the 3-in/50, and the wartime Omaha class were the first to introduce an anti-aircraft variant.

-3in/50 & 3in/50 AA (76 mm): Chester, Pennsylvania, Sy Louis, Tennessee, Omaha
-6 pdr/57 mm or 2.2 in: All but Chester and Omaha classes
-3 pdr/47 mm or 1.8 in: Atlanta, Newark, Charleston, Philadelphia, San Francisco,
-1 pdr/37 mm or 1.5 in: All ships but Chester and Omaha

Torpedo Tubes:

Note: No torpedo tubes on cruisers before USS Olympia. 18-in for all cruisers but the last armoured cruisers and scout cruisers. USS Minneapolis was the only one ever fitted with small 14-in tubes as an experiment. The tubes were always above the waterline to the exception of the Chester class and the large armoured cruisers of the Pennsylvania and Tennessee class (submerged). These were broadside, fixed tubes. The Omaha class were the first to introduce traversable deck banks like destroyers, two triple and two twin.

-14 in/356 mm: Minneapolis
-18 in/457 mm: New Orleans, Mongomery, Cincinatti, Olympia, Columbia, New York, Brooklyn, Pennsylvania
-21 in/533 mm: Tennessee, Chester, Omaha.

Doctrine & Operations

The Spanish American War of 1898

The first serious test for "new navy" cruisers happened at the occasion of the Spanish American war of 1898. On paper, both for cruisers and capital ships, the USN was inferior to the Armada. However the admiralty planned to attack Spanish colonial possessions, not the metropolis. Were present during this conflict the only two capital ships of the Navy, USS Texas (USS Maine blew up in Havana, giving the casus belli needed), the Indiana class battleships USS Oregon and the unique USS Iowa, fresh from commissioning. But due to the speed needed for operations and distance, cruisers made the bulk of the operations, with gunboats, although many stayed on the Western cost to prevent an attack of the metropolitan Armada through the Atlantic.

USS New York in 1898
USS New York in 1898

Probably the most famous ships to participate were USS New York, first USN armoured cruiser and flagship of Rear-Admiral Sampson at Santiago de Cuba, together with USS Brooklyn, flagship of Commodore Schley, and USS Olympia, flagship of Commodore Dewey at Manila. The latter was a protected cruiser. The first battle was not in Cuba, but an attempt of a diversionary attack, to try to lure out the Spanish Navy in the Pacific before striking in Cuba. The USN attack at Manilla, the other large colonial possession of the Spanish Empire, the Philippines, took place on 1st May 1898. The attack came as a surprise as the local forces were ill-prepared, staying under the protection of coastal artillery, and their crews were not fit for the ferocity of the assault.

USS Petrel. USN Gunboats played a great part in 1898 battles, in size and armament they were considered almost as second-class cruisers. The 1888 Yorktown class for example displaced almost 2000 tonnes and had six 6-in guns.

"Battleline exercise" at Manila

Manilla Map

This was a daylight raid of a USN squadron against the Spanish Pacific Fleet anchored at Manila Bay. Dewey's plan was daring, hazardous and risky, but succeeded beyond any hopes. Dewey was in Hong Kong when he was promoted to the Pacific squadron by Teddy Roosevelt, and his motley fleet was composed of the USS Olympia and the USS Boston, both protected cruisers, the gunboat USS Petrel and the very old steam paddle USS Monocacy. With this small force, he was supposed to destroy the Spanish naval force in the Philippines, much larger on paper. One of his headaches has been coal supply. His small fleet crossed the distance with a small force of coal ships, and was reinforced before the battle with another cruiser, USS Raleigh, and the small custom boat USS Mc Cullogh and gunboat USS Concord just before departing.

At Manila they faced a force led by Admiral Don Patricio y Montojo Pasaron, with the cruisers Don Antonio de Ulloa, Don Juan de Austria, Reina Cristina, Castilla, Isla de Cuba, Isla de Luzon, and the gunboat Marques del Duero. On paper, this was six cruisers versus Dewey's only four, however most Spanish cruisers were obsolete and small, almost gunboat-size. Two were later captured and pressed in USN service as such. In addition, decision was taken to remove guns from Don Antonio, General Lezo and from the cruiser Velasco, to install them in fortifications. Montojo awaited the Americans, which had been spotted already on their way, but did not knew the time. He eventually decided not to risk his fleet at sea, and have it half-sunk by using pumps, just under fortified Sangley Point, and the battery of Ulloa on Cavite.

USS Olympia leading the line

Dewey gathered and prepared his forces in Luzon, before entering Subic Bay; His line comprised, in order, USS Olympia, USS Nanshan (transport steamer), Zafiro (captured steamer), McCulloch, Petrel, while USS Raleigh, Concord and Boston closed the line. Basically his battle line made a great sweep before the Spanish ships, without Zafiro, the Nanshan and McCulloch which were unarmed and stayed behind. His line entered Cavite, spotted the Spanish line and opened fire at dawn (it was 5 AM), first on Spanish batteries, sparing their ammo for the ships later. He opened fire on the ships about 30 min. later, manoeuvring his line into a loop and retiring for lunch at 7:30 AM. During the whole operation, Dewey's line was slow, about 3 knots, and ordered were given to gunners to take their time for perfect aiming.

Artistic, dramatic rendition of the battle of Manila (Subic Bay). The artist made it look like the fight was point-blank range, but in reality distances were of around 2000 yards (1.8 km), which was still close, eve, by the standards of the time. At Yalu, four years before, distances were comparable. This peaks volumes about accuracy as only 2% of the shells actually hit.

He went back for a second swoop, doing the same manoeuvre to "finish off" the Spanish ships ad Montojo decided later to scuttle his ships and evacuate the crews. His forces will later surrender. On the USN side, only USS Baltimore had some light damage by a ricocheting shell that did not exploded, causing 8 minor injuries as a result of sparks and splinters. Talking of 'doctrine', Dewey simply applied a textbook battle line tactic, preferring to engage first coastal batteries, more a threat to his eyes, before broadsiding Montojo's squadron, taking each ship in turn. Almost showing contempt for the Spaniards, he almost acted as in a peacetime exercise. On their side the latter had partly disarmed ships not in shape for sea going action, Hontoria guns that were worn out, limited supplies of ammo that were defectious in part, lack of maintenance, and crucially, lack of training for the crews, deprived or firing exercises for long.

USS Denver underway, one of the six "gunboat cruiser" ordered after the war to watch over Cuban and Philippine 'protectorates'

Ranges had been short, but the Spaniard almost scored no hit, whereas the USN squadron had only 2% hits, which were sufficient to disable most ships. Dewey swung in front of the Spanish ships and forts in line ahead, firing port guns, then turned and passed back with starboard guns and the process was repeated five times, with a range going from 5,000 yards down to 2,000 yards. It's still amazing that no fort or ship on the Spanish side had any significant hit, for two hours and a half. In any case, this first naval engagement since the civil war gave tremendous confidence to the US Navy.

USS Olympia
Dewey's USS Olympia is now preserved and the best and only example of a 1890s armoured cruiser (Author's illustration).

Blockade "turkey shoot" at Santiago (July, 3, 1898)

Closer to home, the USN squadron that blockaded the Spanish fleet at Santiago de Cuba was much larger than Dewey's Pacific squadron. Sampson's blockading fleet comprised four battleships (Texas, Oregon, Iowa, Indiana), 2 armored cruisers (Brooklyn, New York) and two armed yachts. Opposing him, Admiral Cervera came from Spain, assemblng a squadron at the Cape Verde islands, comprising the armoured cruisers Vizcaya, Infanta Maria Teresa, Cristobal Colon, the destroyers Furor, Terror and Pluto, sent to relieve the small force of Cuba (led by the flagship Almirante Ocquendo). On paper, the Spanish cruisers were relatively modern and worthy adversaries. However against USN battleships that was anoher story. However in that case, USN Battleships played little role due to their slower speed, which was a essentially a chasing engagement, even the "bulldog of the fleet", USS Oregon. This was the battle of Santiago de Cuba.

map battle santiago

Cervera initial plan, that he proposed to Madrid, was to link up with another squadron from Cartagena at the Canary Islands, taking the advancing USN fleet in a pincer. However he was ordered to sail to Cuba as soon as possible to engage the enemy, to his dismay. Indeed his fleet had problems, they had a poor supply of shells, guns breech blocks issues, a general lack of maintenance, notably no fooling, making the ships slower such as Vizcaya (12 knots max), or freshly delivered Cristobal Colon, which missed her main guns. Having his fleet assembled at Santiago was judicious to his eyes, as the harbour was generously dotted with coastal fortifications. There was some initial confusion between Schley and Sampson over the real location of the Spanish fleet. The former was adamant Cervera was in Cienfuegos. But eventually Cervera's fleet was spotted by Cuban insurgents, and communication went to Schley, which made a coaling before departing.

Cristobal Colon, probably the best armoured cruiser of Cervera, one of the Garibaldi-class ships.

Cervera was ordered to leave the bay of Santiago on July 3, at 9:00, and was spotted first by watchmen of USS Brooklyn. Amazingly, the USN was so confident in the result of the engagement that many civilian yachts and schooners were also waiting around to make a picnic, waiting for the event. USS New York however (Sampson) was no longer on sight and missed the information. Meanwhile, USS Iowa engaged Maria Teresa, which was badly damaged as expected. Sampson at least realizing Cervera's squadron was off, trying to run the blockade, he ordered his ship back, trying to "close the T", a classic manoeuvers to disable with his broadsides each arriving Spanish ship. Cervera decided to make a diversion, charging with his cruiser USS Brooklyn as for a ramming, allowing the rest of the fleet to escape due east. Brooklyn was forced to manoeuver and nearly collided with USS Texas.

uss brooklyn

After the crippled Maria Teresa, Almirante Ocquendo was next indeed. Crippled, she eventually ran aground and exploded; Furor, Terror, followed by Pluto were chased by the fleet, and the first (with his inventor, Villaamil on board) had its ruder jammed and was sunk rapidly. Next, USS Brooklyn, Texas and Oregon chased the armoured cruiser Vizcaya. The latter had two 11-in (280 mm) guns, which proved a threat. But theor only lucky hit on USS Brooklyn was a dud. Vizcaya would end as a burning wreck on the coast. The last Spanish cruiser, Colon, was chased by Brooklyn and Oregon behind. She was the most recent and therefore fastest, and seemed to put distance, however the coast was forcing to turn, and as coal was getting low, stokers had to use low-quality coal. The ship was more visible due to the hevy smoke and slower. Eventually she was caught and finished off by USS Oregon. USS New York was too far away to do any damage. So in the end, only USS Brooklyn had the occasion to prove her metal. The battle was more a chasing execution by battleships than any useful manoeuver scheme for cruisers.

US Cruisers of WWI

When WW1 broke out, the US Navy was caught with an ongoing program for more dreadnoughts, always larger and better armed, but no cruiser. There has been a program in 1915, not authorized, by C&R to design "scouts" as complementary to fleet destroyers but with a longer range. The vacancy since 1904 caused the US Navy to enter the war with a fleet of cruisers 10 to 15 years old and way more. In fact compared to its battleship fleet, the cruiser fleet was certainly not up to the task. US Navy early "new navy" collection of masted cruisers of the 1880-1890s has been relegated to secondary duties, which left the fleet with choices to make, based on speed, mostly. The 2000-3000 tonnes protected cruisers of the Cincinnati and Montgomery, and Denver classes formed the bulk of "recent" serviceable cruisers that can 16 to 19 knots. Cincinatti and Raleigh operated along the north-south american coast. Montgomery, Detroit and Marblehead made coastal patrols and training missions. They stayed home, notably because of their range, safeguarding ports and home waters and the western atlantic. The slow Denver (16 knots) were also called "peace cruisers" and were effectively used as gunboats. USS Denver escorted eight convoys til mid-ocean, as Des Moines, Chattanooga, also from the summer of 1917, as Galveston and Tacoma. The latter was badly damaged in Halifax during the explosion of Mont Blanc.

USS New York, colorized by Irootoko jr USS New York, colorized by Irootoko jr. Notice the typical peacetime livery for the Caribbean, white hull, canvas beige for the superstructure. The prow showed the US official heraldry figure. From 1916 or before they were painted medium navy grey. In fact the USN tried light gray and medium gray paint schemes already in 1898. Artist Abbott Handerson Thayer investigated countershading color schemes but the navy switched from gray to white in the 1900s for the famous "great white fleet", and back to Medium Grey again after their return in 1908.

The Colombia and New Orleans classes were capable of 20-21 knots and certainly more active. Both the Columbia and Minneapolis served as convoy escort ships and went to the Pacific after the war was over. The New Orleans were British-built typical Elwick cruisers, purchased from an aborted sell to the Brazilians. USS Albany was flagship for Squadron 6, Patrol Force, Atlantic Fleet, making convoy escort during the war, and moved in 1919 to give support to the whites during the Russian civil war. USS New Orleans also escorted convoys, from New York City to ocean rendezvous with destroyer escorts off the British Isles, making the liaison with French coast until 16 January 1918. She was sent in the Pacific afterwards.

Wow- Whatif-rendition of USS Phoenix - An alleged early proposal for the scout cruiser of the Omaha class design. Was it real ? The name is totally fake, inspired by the following serie of cities, and is allegedly inspired by a successor design for the Chester class in 1917. They were definitely scouts, acting as "eyes" of the fleet as well as flotilla leaders. This was the "scout 1917 program", the congress refused to vote because of its cost and fear it would be obsolete at completion. The congress revised its opinion the next year when voting the Omaha-class, actually going back to the 1916 naval program. According to Conway's, this could well be the alternative 5,000 tonnes design proposed by C&R in 1917. The project was dropped because the heavy armament did not match shipbuilding realities on this displacement, combining a top speed of 35 knots.

There was also the valuable USN 20 knots+ armoured cruiser fleet: Sixteen heavily armed warships, in the 8,500-14,500 tonnes range in displacement. They were the old Cuban veterans, USS New York and Brooklyn, the six Pennsylvania class, three St Louis class and Five Tennesse class. The later were well protected, large, with nealry 2000 tonnes of coal capacity. They were able to escort convoys to the mid-Atlantic and well beyond.

USS New York became USS Rochester on 1 December 1917, and was part of the Atlantic fleet escort force, making three trips and then more to repatriate troops. USS Brooklyn was a receiving ship in Boston NyD when the war broke out, Atlantic Reserve Fleet. After Neutrality Patrols, she was sent in the Pacific. USS St Louis was in escort of Group 4, American Expeditionary Force for escort duties, coast to coast. Milwaukee was stranded and a written off in 1917 while USS Charleston carried and escorted the American Expeditionary Force to France NYC to Saint Nazaire (five missions), repatriating veterans. The Pennsylvania class were all renamed before the war broke out, from 1912 to 1916, even 1920 for USS South Dakota. These large cruisers were transferred to convoy escort duty in the North Atlantic. USS Pittsburg was in the Pacific chasing (without success) for German commerce raiders. USS Huntington operated an observation balloon to try to spot submerged U-Boats. USS San Diego became the only US Armoured Cruiser sank due to wartime operations: She hit a mine off Fire Island, New York, probably laid by U-156, or by a torpedo (Conways).

The Tennessee class were also renamed 1916 to 1920 and had a similar career during these short wartime operations. USS Tennesse was wrecked in August 1916 after a Tsunami and never recovered. The others, Memphis, Seattle, Charlotte and Missoula. USS Seattle experimented with observation seaplanes, having four of these and two catapults. She also served as flagship of the Destroyer Force and escort for the first American convoy to European waters. USS North Carolina (later Charlotte) became the first ship ever to launch an aircraft by catapult, on 5 September 1915.

Perhaps the "best card" of the USN in 1917 were the Chester class scouts. The 24-knots cruisers were the only true "scouts" of the navy and had quite an active career in 1917-18. All these cruisers were doomed by the signature of the Washington naval treaty. The tonnage ban concerning cruisers forced most of theme to be retired, sold in 1930 after a long reserve period, altough the carrier of a few went on until WW2 under various roles or simply were still extant after 50-60 years. Such was the case for:
-USS Despatch (ex-Atlanta), the doyen of USN cruisers, receiving ship at Yerba Buena until 1946.
-USS Baltimore was decomm. since 1922 and rested in Pearl Harbor. She was sold in 1942 as scrap metal.
-USS Olympia, preserved as a veteran of the Philippines in 1898 to this day, museum ship in Philadelphia.
-USS Yosemite (ex-San Francisco) decomm. 1921, was stricken since 1930 but sold in 1939 in Philadelphia.
-USS Rochester (ex-Saratoga, ex-New York), decomm. since 1933, receiving ship at Olomgapo, Philippines, scuttled to avoid capture by the Japanese in December 1941.
-USS Seattle, receiving ship in NyC until 1941, renamed IX39 as a misc. auxiliary and sold in 1946.

Of course, none of the Omaha class scout cruisers, laid down in December 1918 for the first two, seen anything of WW1. But they fully participated in WW2 in active roles and all survived, to be striken in 1945-46.

Sailing cruisers 1886-1898

USS Atlanta class

USS Atlanta, USS Boston
uss atlanta

Authorized by the Congress in 1883, this was the first modern USN cruiser and the whole lineage to the this day (Ticonderoga) came from there, a span of 100 years; These were wide but short ships displacing 3200 tonnes, armed with 8-in guns fore and aft in barbettes and behind masks, with two masts and square rigging, clipper stern and ram, low freeboard. Light artillery comprised six 6-in guns, two 6-pdr, two 3-pdr and two 1-pdr. They were propelled at 13 knots with a single shaft HC engine with an output of 3500 ihp, carryong around 380 tonnes of coal. Both were unprotected cruisers.

USS Atlanta and Boston were built in John Roach Yard but fitted out in New York, launched in the fall of 1884 and completed in 1886 and 1887. From November 1905 tlanta served as an accomodation ship for TB crews but was sold in 1912. Her sister ship USS Boston served as the training ship for the Oregon naval militia from 1911 to 1916 and then receiving ship at Yerba Buena, from 1918 to 1946, renamed USS Despatch in between in 1940.

Displacement: 3189t
Dimensions: 86.26 x 12,80 x 5.18m
Propulsion: 1 shaft HTE, 8 cyl boilers, 3500 shp. 13 knots.
Crew: 284
Armament: 2x 8-in, 6 x 6-in, 2x 6-pdr, 3-pdr 1-pdr

USS Chicago

Auhorized also in 1883 by the Congress this unprotected masted cruisers was way larger, intended for long range missions in distant stations. Only protection was a stray of 1-1/2 in deck extending on 136 feets over the machinery spaces and 3/4 inches above the machinery. Armament comprised now four 8-inches (203 mm) in upper deck sponsons amidships the fore pair abreast the foremast, and the aft pair between the main and aft masts. The rest were in side sponsons behind hull's apertures and mixed 6-in and 5-in guns in addition to light artillery. She had no torpedo tubes. USS Chicago was rigged as a barque wihout royals and had a tall hull made for heavy weather, a stark contrast with the Atlanta class which sat very low on the water and were wet. USS Chicago also had a clipper stern and reasonably sloped ram. She carried almost double coal compared to the Atlanta, for a much greater range and used a Compound engine of the COB type on two shafts, speed was also better at 14 knots.

USS Chicago was launched at John Roach in December 1885 and completed in Delaware Yard, which purchased John Roach, in April 1889. On trials her machinery gave 5084 ihp for 15.4 knots. In 1895 she was taken in hands for reconstruction: 1-1/2 deck plating was added over the steering room, 1-in over the gun crews, 1-1/8 in on 70 feets to reinforce the bow. The conning tower received 3-in walls (76 mm). At the same time her armament was upgraded with 8-in/35 main guns instead of 30 calibers, while the 6-in and 5-in were diposedof and replaced by a battery of fourteen 5-in/40 guns. The machinery was upgraded with six Babcock and wilcox boilers feeding four new HTE steam engines, 9000 ihp total, top speed of 18 knots while the masts were lightened and simplified, rigging eliminated.

In 1910-1917 USS Chicago was relegated as training ship for the Massachusetts and Pennsylvania naval militias. Later she was a receiving ship for submarines until 1923 while her armament was cut down to four 5-in, named USS CA14. She was transferred to Pearl Harbor as accomodation ship until 1935 as USS Alton, discarded and sold for BU but lost when she was towed en route in July 1936.

Specifications (1892)
Displacement: 4500/4864t
Dimensions: 104.39 x 14,7 x 5.79m
Propulsion 2 shafts, 6 Babcock et Wilcox boilers, 9000 shp. 18 knots.
Crew: 409-471
Armament: 4 x 8-in, 14 x 5-in, 2 x 1 pdr.

USS Newark

uss newark

USS Newark was number C1, the first numbered in the USN, whereas she was already the eight "cruiser" of the USN. Authorized in 1885 she was laid down in 1888 in William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia. She was quite an improvement over the Chicago, although she still shared many aspects with her; She was slightly shorter but wider, and was the first USN protected cruiser. Indeed since the beginning she was given a complete protective deck, 2 in thick turteleback with 3-in slopes, reduced to 2-in for the forward end but 3in aft to better protected the engine rooms and steering room. She also had four cylinders boilers feeding two HTE steam engines on two shafts, rated for 8500 ihp, providing 18 knots. She also carried 800 tonnes of coal in wartime.

Instead of a few heavy guns she had twelve quick-firing 6-in guns (152 mm)/30 caliber, in side sponsons lower in the hull to proved a better stability, in sponsons protected by shields, but protected by high walls and tops. In addition she had four 3-pdr and two 1-pdr placed high up in the fighting tops. USS Newark was rigged as a barque withour royals, also with two raked funnels, so she still looked like the Chicago.

USS Newark was completed at Cramp in 1891, commissioned and rearmed in 1902 by new 40 caliber, faster 6-in guns, and her rigging was removed. In 1913, june, she was stricken from the navy list, and renamed quarantine hulk R1 at Providence and later hospital annex. She was sold in 1926.

illustration of USS Newark as built
Author's illustration of USS Newark as built.

Displacement: 4083/4952 t
Dimensions: 99.97 x 14,98 x 5.74m
Propulsion 2 shafts HTE, 4 cyl Babcock et Wilcox boilers, 8500 shp. 18 knots.
Crew: 198
Armament: 12 x 6-in, 4 x 3pdr, 2 x 1 pdr.

USS Charleston

A bit forgotten, USS Charleston was the second protected cruiser (C2), also built in USA, at Unio iron Works, but on British plans from Elswick, inspired by IJN Naniwa, herself derived from the famous export cruiser Esmeralda designed in 1880 by naval architect George Wightwick Rendel, the successor of William Henry White. She had the 8-in guns fore and aft of the superstructure, a relatively low hull with a central shielding section, a single funnel and two short masts, no rigging. Her secondary armament comprised six 6-in/30 guns, two 3-pdr and two 1-pdr light guns but still no TT. The main guns barbettes had 2-in thick barbettes, like the CT walls and 2-in protective deck with 3-in slopes. Commissioned in December 1889 she had a short career, wercked on an uncharted rock in November 1899 off Camiguin island n the Phippines, demaged beyond repair.

USS Charleston in Hong Kong

Specifications Displacement: 370/4200t
Dimensions: 97.54 x 14,01 x 5.64m
Propulsion: 2 shafts HC, 6 cyl boilers, 7650 shp. 18.9 knots
Crew: 300
Armament: 2 x 8in, 6 x 6in, 4 x 6pdr, 2 x 3pdr, 2 x 1pdr.

Baltimore class cruisers

The old cruisers USS Baltimore (completed in 1890) and USS Philadelphia (1890), were excellent ships built at Cramp on an English design (Eltswick). They served during the Spanish American War of 1898 but were quickly put to sleep from 1904, the Philadelphia becoming a barracks ship at Puget Sound and the Baltimore at Charleston from 1911. The USS Baltimore was quickly converted into a minesweeper and participated in the naval operations of 1917, with armament reduced to 4 pieces of 100 mm and two batteries of 76 mm AA. It was not removed from the lists until 1922 and returned to its role as a barracks ship which she held until 1942, when it was sold for demolition. A great 52-year career.

Author's illustrations of USS Baltimore as built and in 1914
Displacement: 4413t, 5436t FL
Dimensions: 102,11 x 14,78 x 5,94m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 4 boilers VTE engines 10,750 hp. 19 knots
crew: 386
Armament: 4 x 203 mm, 6 x 152 mm, 4 x 75 mm, 2 x 47, 2 x 37 mm.

USS Philadelphia

Authorized in 1887, USS Philadelphia she was rigged as three-mast schooner, without head gear and generally similar to the USS Baltimore in protection notably. The armament and armour scheme as also remarkably similar to the two ships are even classed as sister-ships. Built at Cramp in 1888-89 and completed in July 1890, USS Philadelphia was sent to Puget sound in 1902 for extensive repairs and in 1904 housed over as receiving ship at the same yard, remaining as such with a small period as prison ship until 1926.

Displacement: 4324/5303t
Dimensions: 102.11 x 14,78 x 5.84m
Propulsion: 2 shafts HTE, 4 cyl boilers, 9000 ihp. 19 knots (1031 tonnes coal).
Crew: 384
Armament: 16 x 6-in, 4 x 3-pdr, 2 x 1-pdr.

USS San Francisco

Authorized in 1887, USS San Francisco (C5) was built at Union Iron Works, in the same name city. She was a near-repeat of USS Newark, rigged as a three masted schooner without head gear, and with a main armament of 6-in guns with a different management, 16 in all. After modernization, in 1902 she gained longer, faster 6-in/40 guns and new babcock and wilcox boilers. Like the previous ships she reached 19 knots. Four of the 6-in were mounted on decks fore and aft and not in sponsons. She had a 2-in/3-in sloped protective deck, 3-in CT. Launched in October 1889 and completed in November 1890. USS San Francisco was converted in 1908 as a minelayer, and in 1917 she participated in the laying of the great northern mine barrage. In 1918 her armament was reduced to four 5-in guns/51 and in 1921 she was placed in reserved in Philadelphia, remaining in reserve until 1937, renamed Tahoe and Yosemite in 1930, but kept in reserved until sold in 1939. So she saw three conflicts (1898, WW1 and WW2).

Author's illustration, as built

Specifications Displacement: 4088/4583 tonnes
Dimensions: 98.91 x 14,98 x 5.74m
Propulsion 2 shafts HTE, 4 cyl boilers, 10,500 shp. 19 knots.
Crew: 384
Armament: 12 x 6-in, 4 x 6pdr, 2 x 1pdr.

American Protected Cruisers

USS Olympia (1892)

USS Olympia as preserved today in Philadelphia

The cruiser USS Olympia was the most famous of the 1898 war, as she was the flagship of Commodore Dewey, the Hero of the battle of Manilla. She was relatively fast but small and cramped, and not seriously tested during the battle. Authorized in 1888, built at Union Iron Works in 1891-92 and commissioned in 1895, USS Olympia was brand new when the war erupted. Protection was assured by 3,5 to 4,5in Harvey nickel steele plates, which would have been probably not sufficient against some spanish ships. However the engines room was well protected by a 4in glacis. She was a good steamer, capable of 17 300 hp on forced draught, giving 21,7 knots. She is now the only preserved warship of this kind in the world, and can be seen in the Independence Seaport Museum, philadelphia PA.

Author's illustration, as built

Specifications Displacement: 5862 t (6558 t FL)
Dimensions: 104,78 x 16,15 x 6,55 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 6 cyl Boilers, 13 5000 hp, 20 knots.
Armour: Harvey belt 3 in, barbettes 4,5 in, turrets 3,5 in, secondary 4 in, CT 5 in
Armament: 4x 8in (203 mm), 10x 5in (127 mm), 14x 6pdr (57 mm), 6x 1pdr (37 mm QF) 6x 457 mm aw.
Crew: 411

Cincinatti class (1892)

USS Cincinatti, Raleigh USS Cincinnati (C7) as built
USS Cincinnati (C7) as built

Authorized in 1888, these two cruisers were loosely based on the classic Armstrong-Elswick style export cruiser. But they had a single 6 inches gun and her 5in were not as efficient. Commissioned in 1895, they played no active part in 1898 battles. These two small and relatively fast cruisers built in NY navy yard and Norfolk were originally rigged but their fore and aft sails were removed in 1899.

uss raleigh
USS Raleigh, starboard view circa 1900

Author's rendition of the USS Cincinnati and Raleigh prior to the 1898 war

Specifications Displacement: 3183 t (3339 t FL)
Dimensions: 93,13 x 12,80 x 5,49 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 6 cyl Boilers, 10 000 hp, 19 knots.
Armour: Complete 2in and 2,5in amidship protective deck, CT 2in
Armament: One 6in/30 (152 mm), 10 x 5in (127 mm), 8 x 6 pdr (75 mm), 2 x 1pdr (37 mm) QF guns, four 457 mm TT sub
Crew : 322

Montgomery class (1891)

USS Montgomery, Detroit, Marblehead
uss montgomery c9

USS Montgomery, Detroit and Marblehead were ordered in 1888 and commissioned in 1893-94. They were of questionable military value, slow, poorly armed and unprotected. They were not involved in the war against Spain, and the USS Detroit was struck off the lists in 1910, while the USS Montegomery had served as an experimental torpedo boat since 1908. It participated like the Marblehead in the Great War and was disarmed in 1919, the other in 1921.

uss montgomery illustration
Displacement: 2094/2235 tonnes
Dimensions: 82.14 x 11,27 x 4.44m
Propulsion 2 shafts VTE, 6 cyl boilers, 4500 ihp. 17 knots.
Crew: 274
Armament: 9 x 5in/40 (127 mm), 6 x 6-pdr (47 mm), 2 x 1-pdr (37 mm), 3 x 18-in TT aw.

Columbia class (1893)

USS Columbia, Minneapolis

USS Columbia, Detroit Photographic Company (cc)

USS Columbia and Minneapolis were certainly the most striking US cruisers of that era. At a time great powers from Europe had a tremendous maritime traffic, both ships has been designed as commerce raiders. Authorized under the act of June 1890 and 1891 they also differed between themselved in appearance, having two or four funnels according to their machinery. At 126 meters long by 17.72 they were relatively nimble and fast, but lightly armed to such a package, with only one heavy guns (8-in) and tw medium (6-in). The first was on the deck forward, centerline, the latter were aft behind the superstructure either side of the deck. The rest comprised an array of 5-in in sponsons, 6-pdr and 1-pdr plus four surface torpedo tubes, either of 14-in (for civilian vessels) or 18-in.

The sponsons guns and walls were protected by 4-in, the CT had 5-in walls, the protective deck was 2-1/2 inches thock with 4-in slopes. Both ships missed the 1898 war. Both were out of commission from 1907 and 1906 respectively, robably due to their high operating cost and coal consumption, although they had been recoignise good walkers. Indeed USS Columbia beat SMS Fürst Bismarck in 1895, rallying in six days 23 hours 49 minutes Sandy Hook from Southampton. They were recommissioned in 1915 and 1917.
Both escorted convoys during the war and in 1919, their forward 8-in was removed and replaced by a third axial 6-in/40 while four 4-in/40 were added as well as two 3-in AA (76 mm) and the TTs removed.

USS Minneapolis
USS Minneapolis

author's illustration of USS Columbia
USS Columbia as built and in 1917

Displacement: 7375/8270 tonnes FL
Dimensions: 125.90 x 17.72 x 6.88m
Propulsion 2 shafts VTE, 8 Babcock et Wilcox boilers, 21,000 shp. 21 knots, coal 1670 tonnes wt
Crew: 477
Armament: 1 x 8(in, 2 x 6-in, 8 x 4-in, 12 x 6-pdr, 4 x 1-pdr, 4 TTs aw, see notes

New Orleans class (1896)

USS New Orleans, Albany

USS New Orleans

Both ships had an interesting story. These were previously British-built protected cruisers interned for the Brazilian Navy, by Armstrong Elswick, typical Elswick cruisers. Although both ships would have been named Zenteno and Barroso (part of an order for four), and already fitting out, they were purchased by the US Government, desperate to bolstered its cruiser fleet before going to war with Spain in 1898. USS New Orleans had been just completed on 18 March 1898, when she had been purchased on 9 March. The second was completed in May 1900 and they were renamed USS New Orleans and Albany respectively. They had six 6-in guns installed on the forecastle deck and poop, the other four in side sponsons with hull recesses to fire forward or aft at 90° respectively.

These were US-manufactured 6-in/50 Mark V EOC DD (152 mm), under armoured masks. This was completed by four 4.7 in/50 EOC AA (120 mm), behind shields on the broadside, ten 6-pdr and eight 1-pdr, the latter installed in the fighting tops, four in all on both masts. Both ships had modern VTE machinery mated on four cyl boilers, two shafts, rated for 7,500 ihp, enough for 20 knots as contracted by the Brazilians. They could carry 747 tonnes of coal in wartime. Good walkers they were protected by an armoured deck 1-1/4 inches thick with 3-1/2 inches slopes. There was a 4-in boiler room glacis for extra protection and the conning tower walls were also 4-in thick. Eventually USS New Orlans stayed in home waters during the war.

In 1907, both were rearmed with a more uniform battery of ten 5-in/50 guns and later this was reduced to eight, and the TTs were removed. They had a long and varied service and overall, recoignised as good (and cheap) acquisitions for the USN as well as a sneak peak into the latest British naval engineering gigs. Both were decommissioned in 1922 as for the Washington treaty, but kept in reserve until sold in 1930.

USS Albany

Author's rendition of the New Orelans class

Specifications Displacement: 3769t, 4011t FL
Dimensions: 108.03 x 13,33 x 5.49m
Propulsion 2 shafts VTE 4 cyl Babcock et Wilcox boilers, 7500 ihp. 20 knots.
Crew: 366
Armament: 6 x 152 mm, 4 x 120 mm, 10 x 76mm , 8 x 37 mm, 3 457 mm TTs.

Denver class (1902)

USS Denver, Des Moines, Chattanooga, Galveston, Tacoma, Cleveland.
uss tacoma
USS Tacoma (C 18; ex-PG-32; ex-CL-20) wrecked and stricken from the Navy list in 1924.

These six cruisers were authorized by Congress in 1899, as part of the naval buildup following the Spanish–American War. It was specified cruisers that can act in peacetime as gunboats in foreign stations and tropical climates. Of course, Cuba and the Philippines, newly acquired, were the first concerned. Their armament and speed was indeed efficient for the to take part in fleet duties, so they were more "station gunboats" than cruisers. They were cheap, of simple design with a flush deck hull, tall masts (with a schooner rigging) and tall funnels. The rigging was actually never mounted, as the ships, built at Neafie & Levy, Fore River, Crescent, WR Trigg, Union Iron Works and Bath Iron works, were all laid down in January to August 1900 (but USS Galveston, 1901), launched in 1901-1903 and commissioned in 1903-1905, had their deck 6-in guns under masks mounted forre and aft on the deck, the others in sponsons and two in hull recesses, as their eight 6-pdr and two 1-pdr higher up in the bridge forward. The casemates were protected by 1-1/4 inches plates, with a ptorective deck with 1 in flat and 2-1/2 in slopes. They had a quiet career, patrolling home waters during WW1, and only USS Tacoma was lost, short before retirement in 1924, wrecked on the Blaquilla reef off Vera Cruz. They were all sold in 1930. Specifications Displacement: 3200/3514t
Dimensions: 94.13 x 13,41 x 4.8m
Propulsion 2 shafts VTE, 6 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 4,500 shp. 16.5 knots.
Crew: 339
Armament: 10 x 5 in/50 Mk 5 (127 mm), 8 x 6-pdr (47mm), 2 x 1-pdr (37 mm).

Chester class (1907)

USS Chester, Birmingham, Salem.
Chester class

The Chester class ships, USS Chester, Birmingham and Salem, completed in 1908, were the last American cruisers before the Omaha class in 1922. They were also the first American cruisers to have turbines. They were designed to be scouts, and much had been done for their lightness and speed. With 24 knots indeed, they were the fastest cruisers in the fleet.

Lightly armed, they nevertheless actively participated in the First World War. The Birmingham made the world's first attempt to take off an airplane from a platform on its foredeck. Lieutenant Eugene Ely made history on his Curtiss at Hampton Road in 1910. The three units were finally retired from service in 1921 and 1923, and sold for demolition in 1930.
Displacement: 3750t, 4700t FL
Dimensions: 129 x 14,34 x 5,10m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Parsons/Curtis Turbines, 12 Normand/Fore River boilers 16,000 hp. 24 knots.
Crew: 360
Armament: 2 x 127 mm, 6 x 76 mm, 2 533mm TTs.

American Armoured Cruisers

USS New York/Saratoga (1891)

USS New York was the first American armored cruiser. She was renamed USS Saratoga in 1911 with the construction of the Dreadnought USS New York. She fought during the war against Spain in 1898, then served during the Great War by escorting convoys. In December 1911 she has been renamed USS Rochester and she kept this name for long years. In 1927 4 boilers and two funnels were removed, but she continued to serve until 1933, notably in the Philippines since 1930, being finally struck off the lists and put in reserve, on site, in 1938. In December 1941 it was decided to scuttle her to avoid her capture by Japanese troops.
Displacement: 8200 tonnes/9021 fully loaded
Dimensions: 117 x 19.76 m (384 x 64 feets, 1/5 ratio)
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 8 boilers, 16,000 hp 20 knots max.
Armor: Belt shield, Barbettes, turrets, blockhouse
Armament: 6 x 8-in/35 (203 mm)m, 12 x 4in/40, 6 x 6-pdr, 2 x 1-pdr.
Crew: 380

USS Brooklyn (1895)

Recognizable by her three huge funnels, USS Brooklyn was built in Cramp NyD, completed in 1896. The influence of French design was seen in the pear-shaped section, and with a main diamond style turret arrangement for the main armament and flared sides. Admiral Schley's flagship at the Battle of Santiago in 1898, she was not hit by any Spanish shell, fortunately for the crew, because her protection was weak for an armoured cruiser. She was placed in reserve from 1908 to 1914 but resumed service during the war, then was fully rearmed in 1919, loosing four 5-in guns and gaining two 3-in AA. In 1920 she was assigned to the Pacific squadron, struck from the lists and sold in 1921. See the article for more.

uss brooklyn illustration
Displacement: 9,215t, 10,070t PC Dimensions: 122,7 x 19,7 x 5,32m Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 7 boilers, 16,000 hp. 20 knots. Armament: 8 x 203 (4x2), 12 x 127, 12 x 47mm, 4 x 37, 5 TT 457mm. crew: 580

Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) class (1903)

USS Pennsylvania, West Virginia, California, Colorado, Maryland, South Dakota
uss pennsylvania ca-4

The Pennsylvania-class armoured cruisers were launched in 1903-1904, and renamed between 1912 and 1920 Pittsburgh, Huntington, San Diego, Pueblo, Frederick, Huron, in order to leave these names free for the dreadnoughts then planned. They were part of the naval buildup touched off by the Spanish–American War. Together with the newt four Tennessee-class, they formed the "Big Ten", originally intended to take place in a battle line as was the case in other navies. The dreadnought rendered them obsolete overnight. Their role changed after entering service due to the Russo-Japanese War and the doctrine change of 1906, focusing the US Navy's battleships in the Atlantic, while the armoured cruisers took their place in the Asiatic Fleet and Philippines to counter Japan. By 1912, they were found without really use in the Navy.

When WW1 broke out, these ships patrolled Latin America and the Western Pacific until 1917, and they acted as convoy escorts until the end of the war, repatriating troops in 1919. USS Pittsburg was the only one in the "big ten" operating in the Pacific, trying to catch German commerce raiders. They were kept in reserve or reduced to menial tasks until 1930, then sold, according to the London treaty global cruiser tonnage limitations.

Author's illustration of USS Pittsburg in 1917
Displacement: 13,680t - 15,138t FL
Dimensions: 153,58 x 21,20 x 7,34 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 16 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 23,000 shp. 22 knots max.
Armor: Belt shield, Barbettes, turrets, blockhouse
Armament: 2x2 203mm, 14 x 152 mm, 18 x 76mm, 12 of 47 mm, 2 x 37 mm, 1x 457mm TTs
Crew: 198

Saint Louis class (1904)

USS St Louis, Milwaukee, Charleston uss saint louis
USS Saint Louis (C20)

The Saint Louis class heavy cruisers, launched in 1904-1905, were of an intermediate type, in between a protected and an armoured cruiser, less expensive than those of the Pittsburg class. Their design was generally considered less successful however. The class included only three ships, USS Saint Louis, the Milwaukee and Charleston. USS Milwaukee was lost in 1917 hitting a reef while trying to save the crew of the H3 submersible on the Californian coast and her wreck broke in two during a storm in 1918. The other two escorted convoys in the Atlantic and were planed in reserve and sold in 1930.

Author's illustration of the St. Louis class
Displacement: 9,700t standard, 10,840t FL
Dimensions: 129.91 x 20.12 x 6.86m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 16 Babcock and Wilcox boilers 21000 shp. 21 knots.
Armor: Belt, Barbettes, turrets, blockhouse
Armament: 14 x 152 mm, 18 x 76 mm, 12 x 47 mm, 8 x 37 mm.
Crew: 673/767

Memphis (Tennesse) class (1904)

USS Tennessee, Washington, North Carolina, Montana

USS Montana in 1915
USS Montana in 1915 (ACR15)

The Tennesse-class armiured cruisers included the USS Tennesse, Washington, North Carolina and Montana, launched in 1904-1906, and renamed in 1916 and 1920, to free named for new dreadnoughts in construction: They became USS memphis, Seattle, Charlotte and Missoula. They were true copies of the Pennsylvania, except that their displacement was greater, and their armament arguably more powerful. The Memphis, ex-tennessee, received like the others a basket type main mast in 1911 and actively participated in the great war. She was sunk by an exceptionally tall Tsunami in 1916. USS Seattle survived in various roles until 1946.

Displacement: 14,500 t, 15,715 t FL
Dimensions: 153.76 x 22.23 x 7.6m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 16 Babcock and Wilcox boilers 23,000 shp 22 knots.
Armour: Belt 5 in, Barbettes 8 in, Turrets 9 in
Armament: 4 x 254, 16 x 152, 22 x 76, 12 x 47, 2 x 37 mm, 4 x 533mm TTs.
Crew: 860

WW1 Cruisers: The Omaha class

USS Omaha, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Raleigh, Detroit, Richmond, Concord, Trenton, Marblehead, Memphis
uss richmond on trials 1923

The Omaha were the first American cruisers built after a long vacancy in 1905 (order of the Chester). Originally designed in 1919, their program dated back to 1915, but a proposal was first rejected in 1917, then accepted by the Congress in 1918. They were pure scouts, doubling as flotilla leaders for the new large fleet destroyers in construction at the same time (Wickes and Clemson classes). They even resembled them, typically flush-deck and with four funnels.

Their artillery was quite original combining for the first time twin turrets fore and aft and barbettes. To to their late order, none was even laid down when the war ended (the first in december). They were launched in 1920-23 and completed in 1922-24, missing the war entirely but becoming the first interwar and last pre-Washington-treaty cruisers.

Nedless to say their construction was very lightly, like scaled up destroyers thay had a 1/10 ratio, and were quite powerful, using for the first time a set of turbines, giving them almost 100,000 shp, whereas the last armoured cruisers, nearly 15,000 tonnes, only had a thord of this output. In service however, they were very "wet" in heavy weather common in the North Atlantic. They gained a poor reputation during WW2 when escorting co,voys, notably in the dreaded Murmansk road. They had a long career, receiving modern AA and radars, and soldiered on for the duration of WW2, earning many battle honors in the process.

USS Memphis
USS Memphis in Australian waters in the 1920s
Displacement: 7,050 t, 9,508 t FL
Dimensions: 169.40 x 16.9 x 4.1m
Propulsion: 4 shafts Westinghouse turbines, 90,000 shp, 34 knots.
Armour: Belt 3 in (76 mm,) armored deck 1-1/2 in (38 mm)
Armament: 12 x 6in/53 (152mm), 2 x 3-in AA (76mm) 2x3+ 2x2 21-in (533mm) TTs.
Crew: 860

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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