Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)

Japanese Navy Japan, 1911-15. IJN Kongo, Kirishima, Hiei, Haruna.

The last Japanese capital ships built in UK

The Kongo class were the first and last IJN battlecruisers, studied from 1911. Due to the 1902 Anglo-Japanese naval alliance, Japan was the third country to embark on this new breed, and its lead ship, IJN Kongo, was also the last capital ship the Rising sun Empire ordered in the United Kingdom. This habit started in 1890 and confirmed by Tsushima ended there. These battle cruisers were based on the best design British Yards had to offer at the time, the "splendid cats". But the IJN admiralty's request made them diverge significantly from their British equivalents. Their replacements were designed in Japan during WW1 but were never completed due to the 1922 Washington treaty. In the interwar and up to WW2, more were studied but none was built, the last to counter the US Alaska class.

All four were ready on time to take part on WW1, but saw little action after 1914 due to their use in a quiet theatre at that time. They were however modernized and improved in several steps during the interwar, and after their last great modernization in the 1930s, emerged as "fast battleships" and no longer battlecruisers. They participated in many operations from 1937 to 1945, two were famously lost at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942 (Hiei and kirishima), Kongō by a submarine in 1944, and one sunk by US aviation in July 1945 (Haruna) and later BU.

Development


IJN Aki. The Satsuma class were predecessors of the Kongo, only semi-dreadnoughts and first battleships designed and built in Japan (colorized by Irootoko Jr.)

The design of the Kongō-class was linked to the IJN's modernization programs, and the growing perceived need to compete with the British Royal Navy, which bounced up in March 1908, when was launched HMS Invincible. Because of her speed and uniform eight 12-inch main guns, she made Japanese capital ships obsolete, including the Satsuma class. The Japanese Diet passed in 1911 the "Emergency Naval Expansion Bill", authorizing one first battleship (IJN Fusō) and four "armoured cruisers", to be designed by British naval architect George Thurston. Thurston developmental design basically relied on recipe which would be applied in the British Battlecruiser HMS Tiger. A contract was signed with Vickers in November 1910. IJN Kongō was confirmed to be built at Vickers, with terms maximizing naval technology transfer to Japan. Vickers Design was named 472C (Japanese B-46), featuring eight or ten 12-inch (304.8 mm)/50 guns, sixteen 6-inch (152 mm) guns plus eight 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes.

HMS Tiger, which construction was halted to integrate Kongo class design features
HMS Tiger, which construction was halted to integrate Kongo class design features. Colorized by Irootoko Jr.

A Japanese delegation was sent to follow these development at Vickers Yard. This team comprised 100 technical specialists, sent for 18 months in UK. It was headed by Commander Katô Hirohasu. The latter pushed for the adoption of a new 14-inch (356 mm)/45 calibre gun under development at Elswick at the time. He was present at its fire trials and pushed for the decision on 29 Nov 1911 to use it. The battlecruiser's keel had been laid down already on 17 January 1911, requiring many alterations of the design. These were made at a frantic pace so to not delay the launching. Before it, with rotation, and comprising superintendents, supervisors and trial witnesses, about 200 Japanese spent a tour of duty there. Their task was self-evident, gather as many technical information as possible to make possible the construction of sister-ships back in Japan.

The final design was basically an improved Lion class, displacing on paper 27,940 tonnes (27,500 long tons), and carrying a final main battery of eight 14-inch guns in four twin gun turrets, two forward and two aft, the latter further apart. As designed it was provided for a top speed of 27.5 knots.

Design

Overall, the IJN design was loosely based on HMS Princess Royal built at the same time. Like her, Kongo had three uneven-sized funnels, a square bow, a pointed and tapered stern, offset C and D turrets. But she also had a relatively weak underwater defense, and light armoured protection at large. These were large ships anyway, with 215 m long from stern to stem, displacing more than 27,000 tonnes standard, and a 27 knots top speed.

Vickers Advertisement in Janes 1914 showing the Kongo Vickers Advertisement in Janes 1914 showing the Kongo

Powerplant

The Kongō-class were of course equipped with British-built steam turbines. There were two sets of Parsons, direct-drive models, on all ships except IJN Haruna: She had Brown-Curtis turbines instead. This will take time before the Japanese were able to replicate these locally. The high-pressure turbines drove the outwards shafts and low-pressure one the inner shafts. They were arranged in two compartments separated by a centerline longitudinal bulkhead for ASW protection. These were located under and between turrets No. 3 and 4 and designed to produce a total output of 65,000 shaft horsepower (48,000 kW). Steam came from 36 Yarrow (or Kampon on all next three ships) water-tube boilers. Working pressure on average was 17.1, up to 19.2 atm (1,733 to 1,945 kPa and 251 to 282 psi).
They were located in eight separated compartments. These boilers used mixed-firing: Standard burn was coal, but with fuel oil injection for extra boost. Their stowage capacity reached 4,200 long tons for coal, 1,000 long tons for oil. This enable them an overall max range of 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at their design cruiser speed of 14 knots. As designed, top speed was 27.5 knots (50.9 km/h; 31.6 mph) but on sea trials, Kongō and Hiei reached 27.54 knots and 27.72 knots respectively based on an output of 78,275 shp and 76,127 shp. They were reboilered during the interwar.

Yarrow watertube boilers as preserved from Kongo
Yarrow watertube boilers as preserved from IJN Kongo

Armament

Primary:

Eight 14"/45 Vickers/Elswick guns, in four superfiring twin-gun turrets. Turrets elevation was −5/+20 degrees in the Japanese versions. Kongō, which had British turrets, could elevate to +25 degrees. crucially, these mounts allowed the shells to be loaded at any angle and their firing cycle was 30–40 seconds.


Haruna' 14 inch gun installation 1914

Secondary:

The Kongō class was given a total of sixteen 15 cm/50 guns mounted in single casemates, along either sides of the hull. They were all at the level of the upper deck, meaning in heavy weather they had the same problems as all casemates mounted that way. Eight were mounted on either side with an arc of fire on average of 130 degrees, maximum elevation of only +15 degrees. They fired a 45.36 kg (100 lb) HE shell at 22,970 yards (21,000 m). The rate of fire was 4-6 per minute depending on the crew and conditions.

Tertiary:

Four 76 mm/40 anti-aircraft (AA) guns were installed on the decks. These 3 in high-angle Vickers guns in single mounts could elevated to +75 degrees, firing a 6 kg (13 lb) shell at 680 m/s (2,200 ft/s). Their useful ceiling was 7,500 metres (24,600 ft). Also all battlecruisers were equipped with the standard torpedo tubes, all submerged and in groups in the broadside: Eight 21 inches (533 mm) torpedo tubes, four on each broadside.

Armour Protection

The Kongō-class were battlecruisers, and thus, were given plenty of output to maximize speed and manoeuvrability. They ended with a thinner armour compared to the next Fuso and Ise of course, but still, they possessed an impressive armour scheme, that would be much heavily upgraded during the interwar years. It used Vickers Cemented plates, on the first, but Krupp Cemented Armour for the next three built in Japan. Subsequent developments of domestic armour technology led to a hybrid design of Vickers and Krupp styles, until the Yamato class armour design in 1938.

Here are these figures:
Armoured belt: Upper 6 inches (152 mm); lower 8 inches (203 mm). Bow and stern down to 3 inches (76 mm)
Conning tower: 14 inches (360 mm)
Main Turrets: 10 in front (254 mm), 9 inches (229 mm) back and sides
Barbettes: 3 in lower level blow deck, 10 in above deck (76-254 mm)
Decks armour: Lower: Lower 1 in (25 mm), middle 1.5 in (38 mm), Upper: 2.75 in (70 mm).

Launch of IJN Haruna, December 1913
Launch of IJN Haruna, December 1913

Launch of IJN Kirishima
Launch of IJN Kirishima, the same day.



IJN Haruna (top) and Hiei fitting out, in Sasebo and Yokosuka

WW1 service

The Kongo class ships were completed in 1913-14: IJN Kongo on 16 August 1913, IJN Hiei built at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Yokosuka, on 4 August 1914, and IJN Haruna and Kirishima, built at Mitsubishi Shipyard Co., Nagasaki and Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Kobe, on 19 April 1915. Both had been launched in December 1913. Due to a lack of available slipways, the last two were the first Japanese warships made in private shipyards. According to naval historian Robert Jackson, they "outclassed all other contemporary capital ships" at the time. This was, admitedly by the British themselves, such as good design that construction of the fourth battlecruiser Lion-class, HMS Tiger, was halted to integrate features seen on the Kongō class, and she ended as a much different ship altogether.

IJN Kongo in 1914-1919:

IJN Kongo in sea trials, 1914
IJN Kongo in sea trials, 1914

On 16 August 1913, IJN Kongō was completed and 12 days later departed Portsmouth for Japan. She arrived and stayed in Singapore 20-27 October, and headed for Yokosuka Naval Arsenal where she arrived on 5 November, placed in First Reserve waiting for the January 1914 Kure Naval Base armament checks. On 3 August 1914, was broke out anf 12 days later, Japan warned Kaiser Wilhelm II of to withdraw German troops from Tsingtao. The German Empire never responded which in return triggered an official declaration of war on 23 August 1914. The Japanese Imperial Fleet was therefore deployed to seize all former German possessions in the Caroline, Palau, Marshall, and Marianas Islands and Tsingtau as well in China (this was a joint operation with the RN). IJN Kongō was quickly deployed in Central Pacific to patrol sea lines of the German Empire. Graf Spee's squadron however was nowhere to be found.

IJN Kongō was back in Yokosuka, on 12 September, and in October returned with the First Battleship Division, sailing with her sister ship IJN Hiei. They patrolled the Chinese coast, in support during the Siege of Tsingtao. Kongō went back later to Sasebo Naval Base for upgrades, being fitted new searchlights. On 3 October 1915, she and Hiei sank the old Imperator Nikolai I (IJN Iki, a coastal defense ship) as a practice target, captured in 1905 and used by the I.J.N. until then, and now declared obsolete. As the German East Asia Squadron was obliterated by the Royal Navy in the Falkland by December 1914, the I.J.N. had nothing to do in the Pacific Ocean and IJN Kongō spent the next years, and until 1918 rotating between Sasebo and the coast of China for patrol duties. By December 1918 she was placed in "Second Reserve", and reactivated in April 1919, to be fitted with a new seawater flooding system for her ammunition magazines. See more for her interwar career later in this page.

Postcard of IJN Kongo in Japan, 1914
Postcard of IJN Kongo in Japan, 1914

IJN Hiei in ww1:

built in Japan unlike her sister ship, at Yokosuka, and completed at Sasebo, Hiei was commissioned 4 August 1914. She stayed for training in the Sasebo Naval District and was attached to the Third Battleship Division, First Fleet in mid-August. On the 23 Japan was at war with the German Empire and started to operated against German colonial islands in the Pacific. In October 1914, Hiei departed with Kongō to cover the IJN operations during the Siege of Tsingtao, before being recalled on 17 October. On year after, on 3 October 1915, Hiei and Kongō sank in an artillery training exercise the old Imperator Nikolai I. In April 1916, Hiei was sent to patrol the Chinese coast with Kirishima and Haruna. From 1917 to the end of the war, she stayed mostly in Sasebo, and was sent for occasional Chinese and Korean patrols.

IJN Hiei in Sasebo, 1915
IJN Hiei in Sasebo, 1915

IJN Haruna & Kirishima in ww1:

Both were launched in December 1913 and completed the same day 19 April 1915, so WW1 was in full swing and operations against the German Empire were over. So there was little to do for them. Kirishima was formally commissioned on 19 April 1915. She joined Haruna in the 1st Battleship Division of the First Fleet. Her trials and exercises lasted for seven months, after which she was reassigned to the 3rd Battleship Division, Second Fleet. Captain Shima Takeshi took command and by April 1916, she departed with Haruna the Sasebo Naval Base for the East China Sea. Both patrolled these waters for ten days and were back to Sasebo until April 1917.

Another patrol cruise was made with Haruna and Kongō and the last patrol operation was made off the Chinese and Korean coast in April 1918. In July, IJN Kirishima carried Prince Arthur of Connaught for his cruise to Canada, and headed back to Japan at the end of the war. Haruna was commissioned on 19 April 1915 in Kobe. She could start unit operations from December 1915, after eight months of trials and training. She joined the Third Battleship Division, Second Fleet. She joined her sister ship for Chinese coast cruises, in April 1916, 1917 and 1918. Since 1st December 1916, Captain Saburo Hyakutake was her captain, replaced on 15 September 1917 by Naomi Taniguchi. On 1st December 1917 she was placed in reserve.

IJN Kirishima in Sasebo, 1915
IJN Kirishima in Sasebo, 1915

IJN Haruna in Kobe, 1915
IJN Haruna in Kobe, 1915

IJN Hiei in Yokosua, 1914
IJN Hiei in Yokosua, 1914

IJN Haruna in sea trials
IJN Haruna in sea trials (HD)

Interwar: From battlecruiser to fast battleships

Pre-reconstruction career, 1919-1929


IJN Kongo midship view in the 1927-28 after her first modernization.

In fact upgrades and modernization took place already in the early 1920s. After the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty on 6 February 1922, the I.J.N. was limited with an inferior ratio to the UK and US, and the capital ships ban until 1931 was seen as a double blow for the admiralty, stopping dead their ambitious 1919 naval program. Nevertheless the treaty allowed existing capital ships to be upgraded, but only with improved anti-torpedo bulges and armored main decks. Japan would take full advantage of this, and thee Ise and Fusō class were modernized, but even more so the Kongō-class battlecruisers.

In April 1923, Kongō receive the honor to host Emperor Hirohito for his official journey to Taiwan, In Japanese hands by then. On 14 June 1924, Kongō collided with Submarine No. 62 during exercises, but repairs were quick. However in November that year she was docked at Yokosuka to see her main armament removed, and the gun mounts replaced by newer models for increased elevation. She also received new main fire-control systems and in 1925, 1927, and 1928 she was further upgraded and modified in steps: First a new pagoda-like superstructure, to accommodate fire-control systems and others, and by 1928, the steering equipment. Her main reconstruction started in 1929, and she was put in reserve.

IJN Kongo during Prince Hiro-Hito visit to Taiwan in 1923
IJN Kongo during Prince Hiro-Hito visit to Taiwan in 1923

Hiei on her side made a last patrol with Haruna and Kirishima off the Chinese coast in March 1919 and was inactive for the next year, and by October 1920 she was placed in reserve. The Great Kantō earthquake (September 1923) saw her assisting in rescue work. She was back at Kure on 1 December 1923 for the same gun mount refit her her sister ships would have, and later her foremast was modified, with extra platforms. By July 1927, she hosted Crown Prince Takamatsu, Emperor Hirohito's younger brother. She was refitted at Sasebo in October-November 1927, taking onboard for the first time two Yokosuka E1Y floatplanes, lifted by the main ship's boom. By March 1928 she departed with Kongō, Nagato and Fusō to patrol off the Chusan Archipelago and arrived in April in Port Arthur. By October 1929 she was to Kure to be decommissioned and prepared for her great reconstruction.

IJN Kirishisma patrolled with Kongō and Nagato off the Chinese coast in August 1921 and in September 1922 collided with the destroyer IJN Fuji during maneuvers, but only resulting in minor damage. She assisted populations after the Great Kantō earthquake and joined the reserve in December 1923. Nothing much happened until it was decided to rebuilt her. By September 1920, IJN Haruna was making gunnery drills off Hokkaidō when she suffered a catastrophic breech explosion. The starboard gun of No. 1 turret blew up, killing seven and denting the armored roof. The Investigation concluded it was caused by a faulty fuse and inspections were made on all of these throughout IJN capital ships. The turret was repaired at Yokosuka and at the same occasion, all gun mounts were changed to allow more elevation. She was placed in reserve later and waited until decommissioned for a comprehensive reconstruction like her sister ship.

Kongo after first reconstruction
Kongo after her first reconstruction

Second reconstruction (1926-33)

From 1928 until 1931, all four ships underwent a thorough reconstruction, total, radical, virtually changing everything from the keel up as it was allowed by the Washington treaty. First priority was to increase armor and modernizing their propulsion system second (notably oil-only boilers to free internal space). The hull was extended and elongated aaft to help reaching a better top speed alongside extra output. This could have resulted in amazing speeds if that was not for all the added weight. Their protection was considerably reinforced all around, and the ship took close to 10,000 tons more (mostly armour) while still capable of 26 knots. They rightly entered the category of "fast battleships". A second powerplant refit was made in the late 1930s, helping them achieving a top speed of 30,5 knots. In 20 years, their output more than doubled.

IJN Haruna before her refit
IJN Haruna before her refit

In July 1926, IJN Haruna was in fact the first IJN capital ship to undergo such modernization and modifications. She was immobilized in drydock at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal for two years, decommissioned and her cres re-affected on other ships. Her horizontal armor was improved to better protect her ammunition magazines and machinery spaces armor improved, as well as anti-torpedo bulges added along the waterline. She also received new accommodation and cranes to operate three Type 90 floatplanes. For the powerplant, all Yarrow boilers were replaced with less than half the number of modern oil-firing boilers, and the turbines replaced by modern Brown-Curtis direct-drive models. Her forward funnel was removed, exhausts truncated into the enlarged second, now taller funnel.

Total armor weight increased from 6,502 to 10,313 long tons, so the end result was in clear violation of the Washington Treaty, while she was also capable of 29 knots and protected enough to be the first IJN "fast battleship", as reclassified in the IJN ordnance. After her new sea trials, she joined on 10 December 1928 the Fourth Battleship Division, Second Fleet and was the Emperor's special ship. She hosted the prince between Sasebo, Port Arthur, and the East China Sea and also Prince Takamatsu, younger brother, was assigned to the crew. By November 1929, she joined again the First Battleship Division. but was in reserve from December 1930.

In April 1930, Japan signed the London Naval Treaty and had to scrap older battleships but alos delayed new construction before 1937. By September 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria and the league of nations in February 1933 denounced the invasion as violating Chinese sovereignty, and Japan withdrew from the organization, and soon ripped off its Washington and London Naval Treaties. As a result, all limitations were lifted and IJN Haruna and other ships in reserve were reactivated while later reconstructions were even more radical as Japan did not feared any retaliation.

Armament

The main guns turrets their mounts and barrels were changed or refitted several times until 1941. At first, elevation was set to +33 degrees (+900 m), next the recoil mechanism was modernized, swapping from an hydraulic to a pneumatic system enabling faster cycling. In 1939 also, the first storage of the new Type 91 armor-piercing capped shells arrived. The latter weighted 673.5 kgs (1,485 lb) for a muzzle velocity of 775 mps (2,540 ft/s). Their larger propellant charge added to mounts greater elevation now allowed a range from 25,000 meters (27,000 yd) (effective fire) to 35,450 meters at 33° (maximal range). These shells were seconded by 625-kilogram HE models, with a muzzle velocity of 805 mps and in 1942-43, the special Type 3 Sanshikidan, famous AA incendiary shrapnel shell, transforming her guns, basically, into giant shotguns. The second reconstruction saw the removal of two after casemate guns, still leaving fourteen 6-in guns for closer defence.



In the 1930s, the old 76 mm guns were considered obsolete and replaced by eight 127 mm (5 in)/40 dual-purpose guns, fitted alongside the fore and aft towers, both in twin-gun mounts. Standard range was 14,700 metres (16,100 yd), ceiling 9,440 metres (30,970 ft) at +90°. Max. rate of fire was 14 rounds/minute, down to 8 sustained. Lastly, a brand new light AA armament was fitted, especially in the 1933-1944 period, constantly improved and almost tripled. The second reconstruction saw on all ships eight twin 13.2 mm (0.52 in) HMGs fitted, replaced later by 25 mm (0.98 in) gun mount, single twin or triple, derived from the old license-built Hotchkiss models of ww1. This standard had severe design shortcomings and notably the twin/triple mounts were slow to traverse and elevate while gun sights proved obsolete for 400 kph plus aircraft of the 1940s. In addition they displayed excessive vibration, small magazine and excessive muzzle blast blinding the pointer and gunners during firing. Haruna ufor example had at the end of her career no les than 118 guns of them: 30 triple, two twin, 24 single.

Hiei Sasebo 1926 Hiei at Sasebo NyD 1926

New powerplant

The first reconstruction saw mostly a reboilering of all ships. The numerous classic coal-burning models were replaced by with 11 (on Hiei) or 16 (on Haruna) Japanese Kampon boilers, still burning coal but with important oil injection, or mixed. Stowage now comprised 2,661 long tons (2,704 t) of coal, 3,292 long tons (3,345 t) of oil, enhancing their range to 8,930 nautical miles (16,540 km; 10,280 mi). The fore funnel was removed, eliminating smoke interference on the main fire-controls. Top speed due to increased displacement fell to 26 knots so prompting the admiralty to have them reclassified as battleships. But thier 1930s reconstructions was arimed at turning them to fast battleships again. The admiralty settled on eleven oil-fired Kampon boilers, much upgraded models which fed the turbines and now allowed speeds in excess of 30.5 knots, so they soon became available to escort fast aircraft carriers.

Battleship Haruna in 1934
Battleship Haruna in 1934

One of their most characteristic, iconic reconstruction symbol was their large "pagoda", a serie of bridges and platforms installed along the forward tripod mast. They were light enough not to compromise stability, but still acted as "sails" in heavy winds. The British in fact did the same with their own Queen Elisabeth class but on shorter tripods. Later these complicated structures were entirely removed and three of the latter, QE 2, Warspite and Valiant, had sturdied, lower blockhouses instead. The "pagoda craze" reached its caricatural achievement with the Fuso and Yamashiro.

Revised armour

Each of these battleships also underwent armour changed, relatively limited at first on Haruna and Kongo, and unleashed after Japan ripped off all treaties. The main lower belt at first was given an even thickness of 8 inches, diagonal bulkheads were now up to 5-8 inches (127-203 mm) additional to the main armoured belt. The upper belt was closed by 9-inches (230 mm) bulkheads to close the citadel close to the barbettes. The turret armour reached 10 inches (254 mm) face, and deck armour received an additional layer of 4 inches (102 mm). All four ships gained 4,000 tons of armour, and already violated Washington limits, but it was not even close to what followed. Nevertheless, this protection was sub-part on the Kongō class compared to contemporary capital ships and this had consequences at Guadalcanal. The ASW protection was considerably reinforced with the ad-junction in 1944 of massive ASW bulges.


ONI - Kongo schematics recoignition plate, 1944

Specifications (1915)

Displacement: 27,384 tonnes standard
Dimensions: 214.58 m x 28,04 m x 8,22 m fully loaded
Propulsion: 4 shafts, 2 Parsons turbines, 36 boilers, 64 600 hp, top speed 27,5 knots, range 8,000 nm/14kts
Armour: Belt 203 mm, turrets 254 mm, decks 25 mm, CT 230 mm
Armament: 8 x 356 mm (4x2), 16 x 152 mm barbettes, 4 x 76 mm AA, 8 x 533 mm TTs
Crew:1,193


renditions of the Kongo
WoW's renditions of the Kongo
WoW's renditions of the Kongo in 1944




IJN Haruna sunk in Kure, photos by an Australian officer of the occupation force after the war (bottom), notice the elaborated camouflage, like other stationary battleships in Kure, with grades of green and stripes for the turrets.

Specifications (1944)

Displacement: 36 600 t. standard, 37 187 tonnes fully loaded
Dimensions: 220 m x 30,8 m x 9,7 m fully loaded
Propulsion: 4 propellers, 4 Parsons turbines, 11 boilers, 136 600 hp, top speed 30,5 knots, range 15,000 Km/26 knots
Armour: Belt 279 mm, turrets 227 mm, ammunition wells 101 mm, citadel 254 mm.
Armament: 8 x 356 mm (4x2), 8-14 x 152 mm barbettes, 4x2 127 mm AA, 60 x 25 mm Type 96 AA, 3 floatplanes.
*1945: Up to 118 x 25 mm AA in single, twin, triple mounts, a Type 21 air search radar, two Type 13 early warning radars, two Type 22 surface search radars.
Crew: 1437+

Illustrations

Hei in 1932
Hiei 1932 kirishima 1944
Kirishima in 1944

The Kongo class in action:

IJN ww2 IJN Kongo:

By April 1923, Kongō hosted Emperor Hirohito during his official visit to Taiwan and by June 1924, she collided with Submarine No. 62 during maneuvers. In November she was in drydock at Yokosuka for main armament mounts elevation modifications and better fire-control. In 1927 other modifications followed, creating a pagoda-like superstructure, and in May 1928 her steering gear was improved, until she was put in reserve for her main reconstruction in 1929–31, ending in March 1931. By December 1932 Captain Nobutake Kondō assumed command of the vessel in December and in 1933, aircraft catapults were fitted between the two aft turrets, new floatplanes provided as well. By November 1934, Kongō was placed again in reserve for her second reconstruction. She hosted in January 1935 the Nazi German naval attaché to Japan, Captain Paul Wenneker during a fire exercize.

Upgrades started in drydock on 1st June 1935, at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. The upgrades were intended to give her back speed to escort Japan's new fleet aircraft carriers. Her stern was lengthened by 26 feet (7.9 m) for finer lines, all her boilers replaced as well as new geared turbines. Her bridge was reconstructed again in a more sturdy version of the "pagoda mast" completely masking the original tripod mast. Her catapults were replaced and modernized, and her air complement now comprised three Nakajima E8N or Kawanishi E7K floatplanes. Modifications also included armor upgrades: Main belt strengthened, diagonal bulkheads, turret armor, deck armor, ammunition magazine were also all reinforced. This was over by 8 January 1937 and she was now capable of 30 knots (56 km/h), reclassified as a fast battleship.

Nakajima E8N recce and spotter plane
Nakajima E8N recce and spotter plane.

By February 1937, she had made her sea trials and was in training in the Sasebo Naval District. By December she was affected to the Third Battleship Division (Takeo Kurita). By April 1938, her floatplanes strafed and bombed Foochow during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Unil 1939 she patrolled off the Chinese coast and by November, Captain Raizo Tanaka took command. She was back again in drydock from November 1940 to April 1941 for additional armor on her barbettes and ammunition tubes. Ventilation and firefighting was also upgraded and by August 1941, she was in Third Battleship Division (Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa) together with her "family" all modernized, with Hiei, Kirishima and Haruna.

IJN Kongo off Amoy, China, in 1939
IJN Kongo off Amoy, China, in 1939

1942 campaigns

Kongō and Haruna left Hashirajima on 29 November 1941 to join the Southern (Malay) Force (Vice-Admiral Nobutake Kondō). On 4 December 1941, they operated off southern Thailand, northern Malaya to prepare and cover the double invasion that started on 8 December. While Force Z (Prince of Wales & Repulse) was destroyed by aviation from southern Vietnam, Kongō's battlegroup retired and sortied from Indochina by mid-December for convoy escort bound to Malaya. On 18 December this battlecgroup covered landing at Lingayen Gulf (Luzon), part of the invasion of the Philippines. They sailed from Cam Ranh Bay (French Indochina) on 23 December, stopped in Taiwan and by January 1942, she was provided distant AA support together with Takao and Atago during an attack and landing on Ambon Island.


WoW Kongo 1944

On 21 February 1942, Kongō and Haruna escorted a force of four fast aircraft carriers and five heavy cruisers for Operation J, the invasion of the Dutch East Indies. First she provided cover for air attacks on Java. She then headed for Australia, shelling Christmas Island off the western coast of Australia (7 March 1942). In April she escorted five fleet carriers for attacks on Colombo and Trincomalee (Ceylon), seeing the sinking of HMS Dorsetshire and Cornwall, before heading southwest to hunt down what was left of the British Eastern Fleet (Admiral James Somerville). While HMS Hermes was sunk south of Trincomalee, Kongō was attacked (but missed) by nine British medium bombers on 9 April. The Third Battleship Division headed back to Japan with an impressibe battle record, reaching Sasebo on 22 April. Until 2 May, Kongō was drydocked for modification and notably bolstering her AA armament.

On 27 May 1942, Kongō and Hiei, plus the cruisers Atago, Chōkai, Myōkō, and Haguro (Admiral Nobutake Kondō's invasion force) participated in the Battle of Midway. On 14 July she became flagship of the restructured Third Battleship Division and by August she was in drydock at Kure for the installation of a radar and new range finders. By September 1942 she sailed with all her three sister ships with, three carriers and other ships for on Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands). On 20 September, they arrived at the Truk Naval Base.

After the Battle of Cape Esperance, the Japanese Army started carrying back troops reinforcements at Guadalcanal, with the help of the navy. Admiral Yamamoto sent Haruna and Kongō, a light cruiser and nine destroyers to try to reduced to rubble Henderson Field, the only US aviation air base on the island. These two fast battleships were ideally suited because of their rapid withdrawal capabilities, avoiding retaliation. In the night of 13–14 October, they shelled the field from 16,000 yards (15,000 m), in total pouring down 973 main guns high-explosive shells. It was their most successful action at Guadalcanal so far. The Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands (26 October 1942) saw IJN Kongō attacked by Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bombers, which all failed. In November 1942 she provided distant cover for another shelling of Henderson Field, however after the loss of her sister ships Hiei and Kirishima at the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Third Battleship Division went back to Truk, remaining until the end of the year.

Operations of 1943


IJN Kongo in 1944 with her final AA arrangement, radar and some 6-in gins removed (cc)

This year, IJN Kongō participated in "Operation Ke" in January, a diversionary covering force for destroyers evacuating troops from Guadalcanal. Until 20 February 1943, the Third Battleship Division was moved to the Kure Naval Base. Kongō was drydocked for more AA addition, while two of her casemated 6-inch were retired. Concrete was poured into spaced between plates close to the steering gear. On 17 May 1943 Attu Island was invaded by US Forces and Kongō, Musashi with the Third Battleship Division which also comprised two fleet carriers, two cruisers, and nine destroyers made a sortie. On 19 May, USS Sawfish spotted this task force and on 22 May they arrived at Yokosuka for an addition of three fleet carriers, two light cruisers, but they never departed as news came of the fall of Attu. On 17 October 1943, Kongō left Truk with a task force of five battleships, three fleet carriers, eight heavy cruisers, three light cruisers, and a dozen destroyers bound for Wake Island. They returned to Truk on 26 October 1943 and then headed for Japan, Sasebo in December for refits and training

Operations of 1944

The sinking of IJN kongo on 20 November 1944
The sinking of IJN kongo on 20 November 1944, hit by two torpedoes of the USS Sealion, a Gato class submarine (wow)

In January Kongō saw more AA modifications, four 6-inch removed and the addition of four 5-inch guns, four triple 25 mm mounts. She still was part of the the third Battleship Division (Ozawa), which left Kure on 8 March 1944 for Lingga, where they stayed until 11 May 1944. Admiral Ozawa's Mobile Fleet then headed for Tawitawi to join Vice-Admiral Takeo Kurita's "Force C". On 13 June, Ozawa's Mobile Fleet departed from Tawitawi and headed for the Mariana Islands, and soon the Battle of the Philippine Sea commenced. Kongō was by then escorting Japanese fast carriers and escape any damage on 20 June, she returned to Japan for more AA additions afterwards while by August 1944, two more 6-inch guns were removed and other additions of 25 mm mounts for a grand total of around 120.

By October 1944, Kongō departed Lingga for Operation Sho-1, and her participation to the climactic Battle of Leyte Gulf. On 24 October she had several near misses from air attacks during the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea. On 25 October she was at the Battle off Samar as part of Kurita's Centre Force. She shelled ships of the US 7th Fleet's "Taffy 3", scoring hits on USS Gambier Bay and the destroyers USS Hoel and Heermann. She also sank the the DDE Samuel B. Roberts. But three Japanese heavy cruisers were sank and Admiral Kurita withdrew while Kongō suffered five near misses. They were in Brunei on 28 October and on 16 November, Kongō, Yamato, Nagato (First Fleet) departed Brunei for Kure.

On 20 November while across the Formosa Strait they were spotted by USS Sealion (by radar at 44,000 yards). The latter fired six bow torpedoes at IJN Kongō followed and emptied her three stern torpedoes at Nagato later. Two torpedoes hit Kongō on the port side, flooding two of her boiler rooms. She survived, and was able to resume her trip at 16 knots and later 11 knots, this time leaving the fleet and heading for Keelung (Formosa) escorted by Hamakaze and Isokaze. She was listing by then at 45° as the flooding progressed, until at 5:18 she lost all power. Order was given to abandon ship and around 5:24, her forward 14-inch magazine exploded. She broke in two and sank quickly with over 1,200 crew member, her captain and the commander of the Third Battleship Division, 237 survivors were rescued by the destroyers. This was about 55 nautical miles northwest of Keelung.

IJN ww2 IJN Hiei

Hiei off Tsukugewan on trials, 1938
Hiei off Tsukugewan in post-reconstruction trials, 1938

During her major reconstruction, Hiei was modified as Kongo, receiving new oil-fired boilers and turbines, lengthened, had her aft 14-inch turret refitted, new fire control systems, improved elevation, catapults and two Nakajima E8N "Dave" and Kawanishi E7K "Alf" floatplanes, managed by launch-rails aft of the third turret. 5-inch DP guns, ten twin Type 96 25 mm AA guns were installed, and her superstructure rebuilt. On this, she was the first to inaugurate a new kind of tower-mast, testing a configuration later resued on the Yamato class. Her armor was also extensively upgraded and the whole process was complete by 31 January 1940. As a fast battleship, after trials and training she participated in the Imperial Fleet Review of October 1940 and inspected by Emperor Hirohito. By November she joined the Third Battleship Division, First Fleet. On 26 November 1941, she departed Hitokappu Bay in the Kurile Islands with Kirishima and the six "Kido Butai" Japanese fast carriers Akagi, Kaga, Sōryū, Hiryū, Shōkaku, and Zuikaku (Vice-Admiral Chuichi Nagumo). On 7 December 1941 she provided cover for the famous attack of Pearl Harbor.

On 17 January 1942, Hiei departed Truk with Third Battleship Division for an attack on Rabaul and Kavieng. By February, she operated in support of counter operations on the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. On 1st March, she provided cover for operations on Darwin and Java with IJN Kirishima and the cruiser Chikuma, escorting the carrier task force. They attacked the DD USS Edsall and Hiei fired 210 14-inch and 70 6-inch shells on the destroyer, without scoring a single hit. Following this, dive-bombers were scrambled and immobilized the destroyer, allowing to sink it by combined gunfire (This tells a lot about Japanese accuracy of the time...).

In April 1942, Hiei assisted a force of five fleet carriers and two cruisers for a "cleaning up" operation of the Indian Ocean. On 5 April, Colombo, Ceylon were attacked and two British cruisers sank. On 8 April, Trincomalee was attacked and one of Haruna's plane spotted HMS Hermes, later sunk. The fleet was back to home base on 23 April. On 27 May, Hiei, Kongō, the cruisers Atago, Chōkai, Myōkō, Haguro (Admiral Nobutake Kondō) were present as distant cover at the Battle of Midway. Back home in July, IJN Hiei was drydocked for refits: New aircraft and additional AA were provided. In August 1942 she escorted IJN Shōkaku at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. By October, she was sent as Rear Admiral Abe's Vanguard Force in distant cover, when Kongō and Haruna shelled Henderson Field to smitherine on the night of 12-13 October. She was present also on 26–30 October at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands.

On 10 November 1942, Hiei sailed from Truk with Kirishima and eleven destroyers (Rear Admiral Hiroaki Abe) bound to Guadalcanal. The goal was Henderson Field and shelling the coast to prepare a landing. This forced was spotted by US Navy reconnaissance aircraft, which deployed two heavy cruisers, three light cruisers and eight destroyers (Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan) to meet them when they enter "Ironbottom Sound". At 01:24, 13 November, Hiei and Kirishima were detected from 28,000 yards (26 km) by USS Helena. His battleships were provided only HE shells and this caused a delay after they spotted the US fleet, to swap for AP shells. At 01:50, Hiei's searchlights were switched on, and she first opened fire on the USS Atlanta. This was the First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Hiei destroyed Atlanta's bridge and killed Rear Admiral Norman Scott. Together with IJN Kirishima she badly damaged also two destroyers, but Hiei soon also became the focus of the US fleet. Her Hiei's superstructure was targeted as set ablaze by 5-in guns at close range, notably by USS Laffey. Admiral Abe was wounded, and Captain Masakane Suzuki killed.



IJN Hiei underway in Tokyo Bay, 1942

IJN Kirishima evaded attack and meanwhile, crippled USS San Francisco, killing Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan, while the latter disabled Hiei's steering machinery. Dead in the water and burning fiercely, Hiei was an easy target and Abe ordered the remainder of the fleet to withdraw at 02:00. IJN Kirishima tried to launch a towing cable to Hiei but the flooding in her steering compartments jammed it circles. Repair teams struggled all night to unlock it, and at dawn on 14 November, she was bombed by a flight of B-17 Flying Fortress bombers. Still steaming, she made circles starboard at 5 knots until at 11:30, Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo-bombers approached and launched torpedoes, scoring two hits, and others followed plus dive-bomber attacks. Around midday, she was evacuated by her escorting destroyers, and scuttled by torpedoes in the evening. 188 crew members were lost woth the ship, and she was in effect the first IJN battleship lost during this war. Her wreck was rediscovered by Paul Allen's exploration ship RV Petrel in 2019, under 3,000 feet (900 m) northwest of Savo Island. She probably suffered an underwater magazine explosion when sinking by the bow.

IJN ww2 IJN Kirishima

IJN Kirishima in 1937, colorized by Irootoko jr
IJN Kirishima in 1937, colorized by Irootoko jr.

On 18 November 1934, Kirishima entered Sasebo's drydock for her second reconstruction, along the same lines as her sister-ships, and she was ready by 8 June 1936. In August she departed Sasebo with Fuso for patrols in Chinese waters, starting off Amoy. In March 1937-April 1939, she alternated between home waters and escort for troopships to China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. By November 1938 IJN Kirishima became the command vessel of the Third Battleship Division, complete with specific bridge setting, and raised the mark of Rear Admiral Chuichi Nagumo. Next November 1939, she was in reserve for drydock fittings, additional armor on the main turrets faces, and barbettes. Her service records are limited for the period 1940-1941. On 11 November 1941 however, at the eve of the Pearl Harbor attack, Kirishima was again outfitted for the expected hostilities. She retained her role as flagship of the third Battleship Division and on the 26, she departed Hitokappu Bay (Kurile Islands) with Hiei and six Japanese fast carriers of the Kido Butai for the famous attack on 7 December 1941. She was back in home waters afterwards.

IJN Kirishima off Amoy, China, 1938
IJN Kirishima off Amoy, China, 1938

On 8 January 1942, IJN Kirishima departed for the Truk Naval Base, in full construction in the Caroline Islands. She still escorted the Carrier Strike Force, providing escort for the invasion of New Britain (17 January). She made another sorte after the attack of the Marshall and Gilbert Islands and from March 1942, was included as cover force off Java and the conquest of the Dutch East Indies, where Kirishima, with assistance, sunk by gunfire the immobilized destroyer USS Edsall. In April 1942, she was part of the task force attacking several objectives in the Indian Ocean. Back in Japan, she was drydocked and received additional 25 mm AA twin mounts. In June 1942, she was part of the Carrier Strike Force during the Battle of Midway (Admiral Nagumo) with IJN Haruna.

In August 1942 she left Japan for the Solomon Islands with Hiei and three carriers, cruisers and destroyers, to repel the US invasion of Guadalcanal. She covered the CVs during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, during which Ryūjō was sunk, before heading for Truk Naval Base. She was also present at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands with Rear Admiral Hiroaki Abe's Vanguard Force and attacked by dive-bombers on 26 October, without hits.

Kondos bombardment force heads towards Guadalcanal during the day on 14 November
Kondo's bombardment force heads towards Guadalcanal during the day on 14 November. Photographed from the heavy cruiser Atago, the heavy cruiser Takao is followed by the battleship Kirishima.

On 10 November 1942, she departed Truk with Hiei and eleven destroyers to shell American positions on Guadalcanal, preparing a Japanese reinforcement. They were spotted in advance, and met Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan force at the Ironbottom Sound. The night battle occured on 13 November (First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal) during which IJN Kirishima shelled and hit USS Helena and USS San Francisco. However Hiei was crippled in return, and Kirishima tried to tow her, before realizing she would not steer anywhere. She left the area with surviving destroyers northwards. On the evening of 13 November IJN Kirishima was joined by the Fourth Cruiser Division. Admiral Nobutake Kondō planned to return to Ironbottom Sound and in the early morning of 14 November, were preceded by three Japanese heavy cruisers, shelling Guadalcanal (the "tokyo night express").

Battleship USS South Dakota
The Battleship USS South Dakota in 1943 (colorized by Irootoko jr). She was badly damaged by Kirishima and Hiei.

Admiral William Halsey managed to reinforce its local force by the BBs USS South Dakota and Washington. Opposing fleets made contact on 14 November, 23:01. Gunfire started, destroyers closed in for an exchange of and torpedoes leaving four USN destroyers badly damaged, three sank later, while on the other side, the destroyer IJN Ayanami was targeted by USS Washington and South Dakota and almost obliterated. When capital ships came into range, Kirishima and the heavy cruiser Atago switched on their searchlights, illuminating USS South Dakota. Kondō's battleline then opened a withering, concentrated fire and Kirishima quickly scored hits on the US Battleship, withing her first three main guns salvos. Shells failed to penetrate her armor but her secondary battery knocked out the superstructure, disabling her fire control and communication system. At 23:40 USS South Dakota became practically blind and impotent: She had a general electrical meltdown, no radar, radios and inoperative gun batteries.


Position of both fleets approx. 1:45 AM on 14 November 1942.

Meanwhile, USS Washington still undetected at this point but following the action by radar, found an optimal spot and opened fire at midnight on IJN Kirishima, from only 5,800 yards (5,300 m). Her massive 16-inch/45-caliber gun penetrating Kirishima's armor at optimal angle and the Japanese battleship was hit by -at least- 9 main rounds, and around 17 5-in shell. One penetrated her forward main ammunition magazines, which were promptly were flooded. But the blast also destroyed hydraulic pumps, jammed her aft 14-inch turrets. The steering room was also hit, while her superstructure was soon ungulfed in flames.

Flooding became soon unontrollable and she listed to 18 degree to starboard. IJN Nagara attempted to tow her afterwards, but it appeared soon that she was too badly damaged to be moved anywhere. Surviving Japanese destroyers evacuated Captain Iwabuchi and the surviving crewmen. IJN Kirishima sank at 03:25, on 15 November 1942, carrying with her 212 crewmen. Her wreck was discovered by Robert Ballard 1992, showing her hull upside down, her bow section missing, due to a magazine explosion. This made IJN Kirishima the only Japanese battleship of World War II sunk in classic surface action by an enemy battleship.

USS Washington, winner of her duel with IJN Kirishima, opening fire at the early hours of November 1942
USS Washington, winner of her duel with IJN Kirishima, opening fire at the early hours of November 1942

IJN ww2 IJN Haruna

Battleship-Haruna_1934
Haruna_1928-HD-scaled
IJN Haruna in 1934-35

On 1 August 1933, IJN Haruna was in drydock at Kure Naval Arsenal for her reconstruction, along the lines of her sister ships. On 28 October 1935 her new captain was Jisaburō Ozawa (future admiral) and on 1st June 1936, she was transferred to the Third Battleship Division, First Fleet. The next year was spent in extensive gunnery drills alternated with patrols off the Chinese coast, notably Tsingtao. On 7 July 1937 the second Sino-Japanese was started and she escorted troopships to mainland China. On 1st December 1937, she returned in reserve in Sasebo Naval arsenal, but was reactivated on 2 April 1940, transferred to Taiwan, then a "special service ship" from November 1940, and in early 1941 she was attached to the 3rd Battleship Division, First Fleet, at Hashirajima.

She departed with Kongō on 29 November 1941 to constitute the Southern (Malay) Force (Vice-Admiral Nobutake Kondō). On 4 December 1941, they arrived off Southern Siam, Northern Malaya, to start operations on the 8. Force Z was soon eliminated and Haruna's battlegroup returned to Indochina, making another sortieby mid-December, protecting a troop convoy to Malaya and later a landing at Lingayen Gulf. They left Cam Ranh Bay on 23 December for Taiwan. On 11 December 1941, the U.S. media reported a raid of American B-17s bady damaged IJN Haruna during the battle off Lingayen Gulf which was debunked later. Haruna was in fact miles away that day.

IJN Haruna underway in 1940
IJN Haruna underway in 1940

On 18 January 1942, Kondō arrived in the Palau Island, with his two fast battleships escorting two fast carriers. His order was to cover the invasion of Borneo and the Dutch East Indies. Haruna was detached alongside the heavy cruiser Maya, an the carriers Hiryū and Sōryū to take positions east of Mindanao on 18 February 1942. Then they were prepared for Operation J, the invasion of the Dutch East Indies. On 25 February, she provided cover for the main attacks on Java and shelled Christmas Island on 7 March 1942. She headed to Staring-baai for maintenance, resupply and rest of the crew. In April 1942, she escorted five fleet carriers for atacks in the Indian Ocean, notably Colombo (Ceylon).

After failing to trap the remainder of the British Eastern Fleet their foce still was able to located and sink HMS Hermes. IJN Haruna was back in home waters by 23 April, drydocked until May 1942 for repairs, maintenance, refits and AA additions. On 29 May 1942 she was part of Nagumo's carrier strike force during the Battle of Midway and on 4 June was attacked by waves of TBM Avengers, which all missed whie her crew managed to shot down five of them. On 5 June, she picked up survivors from the four sunken Japanese CVs and headed back to Japan. She stayed there until September 1942 for minor refits and on 6 September departed for Truk the new base of the Third Battleship Division. On 10 September she was part of the Second Fleet in action in the Solomon Islands, back on 20 September to Truk lagoon.

Fuso, Yamashiro and Haruna in 1938 off Amoy, China
Fuso, Yamashiro and Haruna in 1938 off Amoy, China

Admiral Yamamoto sent Haruna and Kongō to shell Henderson Field as a first step before Japanese reinforcements to Guadalcanal. On 13–14 October, they succeeded in a dramatic way, damaging the two main runways of the airfield, destroyed aviation fuel tanks, incapacitated 48 aircraft (on 90), killing 41 men and wounding many more in the process; This action allowed a faultless troop convoy one day after, but on 26 October 1942, both battleships were in action at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. Haruna was spotted and attacked by a PBY Catalina, a near-miss. In mid-November she provided distant cover agains for attacks on Henderson Field and more landings at Guadalcanal. On 15 November 1942, her sister ships Hiei and Kirishima had been lost in the two Naval Battles of Guadalcanal, and the Third Battleship Division was back to Truk. Action would start again in 1943.

IJN Haruna by late January 1943 was ordered to take part of the "Operation Ke", a diversion to cover another "tokyo Night Express" (a destroyer convoy sent to pick up this time evacuated soldiers). On 20 February 1943, the Third Battleship Division headed for home, at Kure Naval Base. Until 31 March 1943, IJN Haruna was in drydock for upgrades of AA, radar, and armor. On 17 May 1943, she made a sortie with IJN Musashi (Third Battleship Division) spotted by USS Sawfish, reinforced at Yokosuka, but disbanded when news came that Attu fell. During the summer of 1943, IJN Haruna was again refitted at Yokosuka and on 18 September 1943, she left Truk in response to raids on the Brown Islands (Micronesia), missing the US force there, and headed back to base. On 17 October 1943, she was part of a large force of five battleships, three CVs, 11 cruisers and many destroyers bound this time for Wake Island. No contact was made. Haruna departed Truk on 16 December 1943 for Sasebo, for more refits and training.



On 25 January 1944, Captain Kazu Shigenaga took command of the Battleship which departed Kure on 8 March 1944 for Lingga. The 3rd division remained there for training until 11 May 1944 when Admiral Ozawa's Mobile Fleet headed for Tawi-Tawi, joined by Kurita's "Force C" in order to defend the Mariana Islands. Haruna was spotted by USN aviation when escorting the carriers at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, and diver bombers scored to two 500 lb (230 kg) AP bombs hits on 20 June 1944. Four days later she was in Kure for repairs, and returned to lingga on August 1944. By October 1944, she departed for "Operation Sho-1", and the 24, she took near misses at the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea. On 25 October at Samar, she engaged TAFFY 3 escort carriers and destroyers, managing to hit or near miss two of these Jeep Carriers while dodging torpedoes from vigorous destroyers attacks. Admiral Kurita withdrawn his forced, and Haruna sailed to Brunei, and then Lingga where she was repaired. On 22 November 1944, she ran aground on a coral reef near Lingga so she had to be sent to Saseb for drydock repairs. On 2 December 1944, she evaded torpedoes from an unknwon USN submarines during a transfer and on 9 December, was ambushed, as the rest of her task force by three submarines: USS Sea Devil, Plaice, Redfish, which torpedoed Junyō and several destroyers but Haruna was not hit. She was in Sasebo and from there moved to Kure for repairs, upgrades and maintenance. In early 1945, she was the last surviving battleship of the Kongo class and one of the last IJN battleships still in service.



Kure under attack in July 1945

On 1st January 1945 however, IJN Haruna left the third Battleship Division for the First Battleship Division, Second Fleet. On 10 February, she was effected as a local defence ships -due to fuel shortages- of the Kure Naval District. On 19 March 1945, USN carrier aircraft started to launch massive raids on the Japanese coast, targeting ports and arsenals, and looking for the remaining IJN capital ships. Kure would be the object of many of such attacks. Despite its oint defence by veteran pilots and fighter instructors on the excellent Kawanishi N1K-J "Shiden" ("George") fighters of the Navy led by Minoru Genda, they were just submerged by the inferior but more numerous F6F Hellcat fighters escoting dive bomber and TBs. Haruna during this first attack only sustained light damage, a near-miss on the starboard side. On 24 July 1945, TF 38 launched almost daily raids on Kure: Hyūga was sunk, and Haruna was hit by a bomb, causing light damage. 4 days later she became the main target, taking eight bomb hits. This time, flooding was uncontrollable an she sank at her moorings at 16:15 on 28 july, loosing in the process 65 officers and sailors. Her wreck was raised in 1946 to be broken up. Amazingly enough, she was the last IJN battleship sank in WW2, and the last in Asia for that matter. IJN Nagato survived only to be sent into a fleet assembled for a nuclear test in July 1946. The entire Kongo class with her made full circle: The first and last IJN batteships sank during that war, and the only sank in a classic duel between battleships in the Pacific.

First Published 2017/04/03

Sources/Read more

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kong%C5%8D-class_battlecruiser
fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/2e-guerre-mondiale/nihhon-kaigun.php#cuir
combinedfleet.com/haruna.htm
combinedfleet.com/kongo.htm
combinedfleet.com/Kirishima.htm
combinedfleet.com/hiei2.htm
combinedfleet.com/ships/kongo
combinedfleet.com/eclipkong.html
//www.navygeneralboard.com/kongo-class/
//ww2db.com/ship_spec.php?ship_id=455
//penandswordbooks.com/distributed-publishers/seaforth-publishing/kongo-class-battlecruisers.html
//www.navypedia.org/ships/japan/jap_bb_kongo.htm
//www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/japan/kongo-bb.htm

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A colorized closeup of the Kirishima
A colorized closeup of the Kirishima's pagoda by Irootoko Jr.

Model Kits Corner


On Scalemates database
Most of these ships had been treated in 1/700 and 1/350 notably by Hasegawa, Tamiya and Aoshima

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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