Äran class coastal battleships (1901)

HSwMS Äran, Wasa, Tapperheten, Manligheten 1901-1950
postcard aran

This class comprised the HSwMS Äran, Wasa, Tapperheten and Manligheten, which made the bulk of swedish coastal defensive screen in 1914. The second (HSwMS Vasa) was a famous name, recalling the rank of Sweden in international affairs in the XVIIth century. Derived from HSwMS Dristigethen, which was a prototype of some sorts, they had a fairly long career, only ending well after WW2.

Design development

The idea behind this class was the same concerning we already saw.

Precedessors: The Oden class (1897). The first, HSwMS Oden was launched at Bergsund in 1897 and followed by HSwMS Thor (same yard, 1899) and HSwMS Niord (Lindholmen 1899). They had two single Bofors 10 inches/42 guns (254 mm) and six casemates 4.7 in (120 mm) secondaries, plus ten QF 6-pdr Bofors (47 mm) to deal with TBs, plus a single 450 mm (8 in) forward underwater torpedo tube. At 3,445 tons standard, propelled by two 2 shaft drived by VTE engines rated for 5,350 ihp (16.5 knots) they also received Schenider Creusot armoured plates protection with a 9 inches (240 mm) armored belt, 8-inches (203 mm) on their turrets and 10-inches face. Harvey steel was used for Thor and Niord. These ships, completed in 1900-1901 were the second class of three ships to be built since the Svea class of 1886. They were followed by the Äran class (1901) and Sverige class (1911).

Prototype: Pansarbåt HM Dristigethen (1900)

Dristigethen's general design was very close to the Äran class (conways)

HSwMS Dristigethen was in reality the blueprint for the Äran class; This single coastal battleship was designed as a replacement for the Svea class (1886) and she was launched at Lindholmen in 1900, slightly smaller than the Äran that would follow, at 3,445 tons standard and somewhat reduced machine power at 5,400 hp for 15.5 knots in top speed. She inaugurated the new 8.3 inches (210 mm) Bofors naval guns in single turrets fore and aft that would rejuvenate the concept of "Panerkepp" and added to this six Bofors 15 cm guns arranged in barbettes and ten 6-pdr, two TTs.

Protection-wise she relied on Harvey steel, with a 8 inches belt (200 mm) and 6-8 inches for her turrets. She would serve in WW1 and was famously rebuilt in 1924 as an aircraft & repair depot ship in Bergsund, Stockholm. She had her armour and main armament removed but was rearmed during WW2, receiving four 75 mm, 2x 40 mm AA and four KSP light MGs.

Appropriations for the construction of the first of three vessels, HMS Äran (Wasa and Tapperheten were the following ones) were approved by the Riksdag in 1899. The government had not formally requested this in its bill, but plans were included in the government's documentation from the naval administration. The reason the construction was approved among other things is that the Norwegian Navy added two new armored ships the year before and two more were under construction and this was also the result of the Swedish-Norwegian union's crisis, these ships could become a threat to Sweden.

Following tenders from Swedish and foreign shipyards, it was decided all three would be made as well in Swedish shipyards. Lindholmen's shipyard in Gothenburg was the first to laid down Äran, followed by Wasa at Finnboda shipyard, Stockholm, and Tapperheten at Kockums Mekaniska Verkstad in Malmö. Two years after the order of three coastal battleships, HMS Manligheten was also approved and like Tapperheten, to be built by Kockums Malmö.

Design of the Äran class

All four Panzekappen were a further development of the Dristigethen ("Bold") and like her, they would be built of riveted steel, 89.7 meters long, 15.02 meters wide. They were longer, larger, heavier and slightly more powerful than HMS Dristigethen but slightly slower.

Armament was the ame essentually, two main 21 cm cannons fore and aft, six 15.2 cm cannons. Major difference were the latter were set up in their own turrets, instead of casemates. Light armament was similar, with six 57 mm cannons and two underwater torpedo tubes. They also carried two steam cutters among their service boats, both carrying a Bofors 37 mm w/98B for landing parties. The crew comprised 282 officers and men, more than Dristigethen (262).

Otherwise, their general appearance was close, with two tall funnels close apart and a symmetrical look with single turrets fore and aft, a central battery with the three secondary turrets and roof light QF light guns, two masts, a forward conning tower and small bridge. They looked like reduced pre-dreadnoughts.


Äran ("honor") powerplant consisted in two three-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines (VTE). Machinery would consist of two 3-cylinder triple-expanding steam engines, fed from eight coal-fired steam boilers, enough for 5,500 horsepower passed on two propellers, enabling to reach 16.5 knots.

Armour scheme

The major change compared to the previous Äran class was the side armour was taken to the upper deck for a short distance amidship. Her armour therefore was an improvement, especially when the lower decks were not forgotten either. It was made of Krupp Cemented armour.


Forward gun turret of HMS Manligheten.

Main: Two turreted Bofors 21 cm K/44 M98

These 210 mm (8.3 in) models were mounted in single turrets fore and aft, centreline (axis). These models were first designed in 1898 and very similar to those used by the earlier Dristigheten. They fired a 125 kg (276 lb) shell at a 750 metres per second (2,500 ft/s). Rate of fire was two rounds a minute. The turrets were protected by Krupp cemented armor.

Secondary armament: Six 15,2 cm K/44 M98

The 152 mm (6 in) K/44 Model 1989 guns were mounted in single cradles turrets. The barrels and mounts were provided by Bofors. The turrets were placed amidship, relatively close to one another, two facing forward, one backwards.

Tertiary armament: 10x 5,7 cm, 3x 3,7 cm

These ten 57 mm/50 (2.2 in) M/89B guns were provided by Finspång. Five were placed in single mounts on either side of the bridge.

In addition, two 37 mm (1.5 in) Bofors M/98 were also placed in single mounts. but the latter could be mounted on the ship's steam cutters for landing a parties ashore. They were also fitted with two torpedo tubes, of the standard 450 mm (18 in) caliber, both below the waterline fore and aft.

HMS Aran model

Äran class specifications

Dimensions87.5 x 15 x 5 m
Displacement3592 tonnes, 3900? tonnes FL
Propulsion2 shafts, Motala? VTE engines, 8? boilers, 6,500 shp
Speed17 knots as designed (49.3 km/h; 30.6 mph)
Range 3,550 nmi () at 10 knots
Armament2 x210/44, 6x 152/44, 10x 57, 10x 57mm QF (6 pdr), 2x 450mm TTs
ArmorBelt 7 in, turrets 7-1/2 in, Krupp cemented and KNC armor


Manligheten modernized in 1943

In 1906-1910 all ships had a new tripod fore mast installed, supporting a fire control director. That was a welcome addition for the sake of accuracy, also increasing their effective range by a large margin. The interwar reconstruction were limited. By the mid-1930s, HSwMS Manligheten had two boilers replaced by new models oil-firing. However with WW2 breaking out it seemed obvious Sweden risked to be drawn into the conflict at some point and made a massive rearmament and construction plan which also concerned the modernization of its older vessels. All four Äran class were considered for such refits programmes.

By early 1940, the first two taken in hands were Äran and Tapperheten: which were rearmed with ten 57mm/50 (6-pdr) Bofors, two 450mm torpedo tubes (18 in) and four single 57mm/50 K/55 1889B AA guns, plus two 25mm/55 K/58 M1932 Bofors.

In 1941 HSwMS Äran saw her fore superstrucure rebuilt and moved astern, while 57mm guns were moved one deck lower and two 40mm/56 K/60 M1932 Bofors and two twin 8.80 mm KPV machine guns were added to her AA defence.

In 1941 HSwMS Manligheten had her stem rebuilt with cruiser bow, her length being raised to 90.2m, her fore superstructure rebuilt and moved astern like Äran, her main guns and directors modernized, her boilers replaced by new ones oil-firing, and her main mast removed. In addition she received four 57mm/50 K/55 1889B AA gunsn four 40mm/56 K/60 M1932 Bofors and two 25mm/55 K/58 M1932 Bofors AA guns. She was the most modern of all four vessels. The last two were kept for training and parts reserve for the other two, and really never took part in neutrality patrol operations.

About the names: Swedish warships names, apart exceptions here, like Vasa, were about adjectives and values: "Honour", "Virility" and "Bravery". Certainly too old school to baptise ships in the 2020s with feminized crews... Modern Swedish ships nowadays are named about locations, which is far less contencious. Only the Royal Navy keeps naming ships using adjectives until recently. It seems in the context of taxpayer's transparency naming ships about country's communities sounds more politically acceptable. The practice was common in the USA and Germany and is now commonplace. France, Italy or Spain however rather name their ship after personalities. It seems more a "latin usage".

Sources/Read More

Launch of HMS Vasa

Old article on runeberg.org
On navypedia.org
On digitalmuseum.se
wik se
The American marine engineer. c.1 v.11 1916.

Jane's Fighting Ships Of World War I

Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1860-1905
Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906-1921
Borgenstam, Curt; Insulander, Per; Åhlund, Bertil (1993), Kryssare : med svenska flottans kryssare under 75 år (1:a), Karlskrona
von Hofsten, Gustav; Waernberg, Jan (2003), Örlogsfartyg: Svenska maskindrivna fartyg under tretungad flagg (1:a), Karlskrona
Holmquist, Åke (1972), Flottans beredskap 1938-1940, Uddevalla: Bohusläningens AB
Insulander, Per; Ohlsson, Curt S (2001) (1:a), Falkenberg: C B Marinlitteratur AB
Lagvall, Bertil (1991), Flottans Neutralitetsvakt 1939-1945, Karlskrona
Insulander, Per; Ohlsson, Curt S (2001) (1:a), Falkenberg: C B Marinlitteratur AB
von Hofsten, Gustav; Waernberg, Jan (2003), Örlogsfartyg: Svenska maskindrivna fartyg under tretungad flagg (1:a), Karlskrona: Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek
Lindsjö, Ronny (1993). Marinhistoria. Chefen för marinen.


Coastal defence ship Äran

HSwMS ("Hans/Hennes Majestäts Skepp") Äran ("honour") was commissioned on 7 September 1902, joining the defence fleet, affected to Stockholm Naval Base. She participated in a navy parade in 1907 and participated in neutrility patrols in WWI. Nothing much happened until 1933 when she was updated, having a new telemeter. But nothing was done to her powerplant nor armament. At the outbreak of the second world war, she was prepared for service and a commissiond assessed her readiness and general state. They concluded the hull and machinery turned out to be in relatively good condition, but the artillery had major shortcomings due to the age of conception. The anti-aircraft artillery in particular was quickly pointed out as hopelessely out of date and very weak while the rest of the artillery was very short range. She was proven unable to hit anything beyond 9,000m in the best conditions, and it was reduced by night to a mere 2,500 meters.

This, combined with the fact her maximum speed, when forced, was still 16 knots, meant she was an easy prey for any modern destroyer from the German or Soviet navy in the Baltic Sea at the time. In the autumn of 1939, test firings were carried out with the heavy and secondary batteries, but apparently such damage was done to the hull structure that life firing has to be suspended for six months before being attempted again. Äran carried out a few neutrality patrols but stayed in port for most of the war, but in 1940 she was partially rebuilt and her AA armment was improved (see reconstructions above). In 1945, she was inactive, and kept tht way until formally decommissioned in 1947. But the hull general condition was such she was still used as habour service vessel, depot ship, for the early cold war. She was sold for BU in 1961 but only towed for it in 1968, and she sank while under tow. An old lady that refused after all these years anything less than a properly watery grave... as honour commands.




Vasa in 1901

On October 12, 1899, a contract was signed with Bergsunds Mekaniska Verkstad for the delivery of Wasa (Originaly Vasa was a famous admiral ship built by King Gustav Adolfus, the "lion of the north"). It was agreed it was to be delivered within 26 months. Her keel was laid down at Finnboda shipyard and she was launched on May 29, 1901. During her sea trials she reached a top speed of 16.77 knots. After being fully oufitted, she was commissioned on November 6, 1902. She participated in reular parades and trained with Äran in the same division, waitng for the other two to join the unit. Exercises for defensive tactics were made in coordination with torpedo boats and minelayers but also coastal fortifications, and she made a cruiser in the baltic, visiting many ports until WWI broke out. By then she asssited the fleet making neutrality patrols for the duration of the conflict.

After 1924, a commission evaluated the ship's general condition and economic peacetime measures, and she was decommissioned and stripped of her armament. She was not formally scrapped however, until 1940, when reconverted as a mock target for enemy air reconnaissance as a deception measure. On November 9, 1960, she was sold for scrap, to the naval workshops in Karlskrona for 182,000 crowns, and scrapped in 1961.

Color photo of Vasa in 1901
Colorized photo of Vasa in 1901, as commissioned

Vasa in 1903
Vasa in 1903


Tapperheten in 1901 as completed
Tapperheten in 1901 as completed

On 12 November, HMS Tapperheten's ("Bravery") construction was ordered at Kockums Mekaniska Verkstad, with an agreed delivery to the navy within 26 months. Launched on November 7, 1901, Tapperheten was fitted out and completed, making her first sea trials, showing she wes capable of reaching 17.7 knots with force heating. However some defects were revealed which needed fixes, notably when making her first life fire trials. Two years later, she was properly commissioned. Aprt taking part in parades and training with the other two vessels of her division, and with TBs and coastal defence, it is not known if she made a cruise before the war.

On January 28, 1914, Tapperheten ran on Stålbådan rocky shoals off Sandhamn and, despite several rescue attempts, she could not be pulled away. She therefore remained on the reef for almost six months, before a new attempt finally managed to free her. Long repairs followed, in which some modernizations were carried out. In October 1914 she was able to join the coastal fleet. At the outbreak of the second world war, Tapperheten lacked any significant modernization since 12 years, but nevertheless she served as a flagship for the Karlskrona department in 1939–40. Fortunately given the international context it was decided to have her modernized in an extensive way. She was rearmed with ten 57mm/50 (6-pdr) Bofors, her four single 57mm/50 K/55 1889B converted on AA mounts, and she receive din addition two 25mm/55 K/58 M1932 Bofors. In 1943–44, she was attached to the Stockholm Squadron and patrolled Swedish waters until returneding to Karlskrona in 1945. After limuted service she was stricken from the navy list on 13 June 1947, and sold in 1952 to AB Väring, scrapped in Oxelösund that year.

Tapperheten in ww2
Tapperheten in ww2


Postcard depicting the ship as commissioned in Dec. 1904

Manligheten ("masculinity/virility") was the last of the four Äran class armoured coastal defence ships (Panzerkepp) and she was only ordered two years after the other three. This delay also played a part in fixing issues detected on the others (which hald long completion phases). This also played a part in the fact she ws the most comprehensively rebuilt and modernized afterwards. She was was built at Kockum's mechanical workshop in Malmö, just after Tapperheten. She was eventually commissioned on 3 december 1904, one year after lauch, the fastest to be so completed. In 1906, however after live firing tests showed her actual range and accuracy, she was taken in hands to be rebuilt. To extend her practical fring range it was decided to give her a proper, modern rangefinder, and to be able to carry its weight engineers gave her a forward main mast two new legs, making it a tripod. The spotting top was rebuilt and extended to support of the telemeter and add binoculars and communication gear. This served as the blueprint to convert the other three in 1910.

HMS Manligheten original appearance in 1904

During the Kalmar union crisis of 1905, HMS Manligheten and her sister ships were part of the 1st Panzerkepp Division, part of the fleet mobilized to the west coast under command of Rear Admiral Wilhelm Dyrsen. In the mid-1920s, two boilers were modernized, fitted with a sutem allowing them to use oil instead of coal. This oil was extracted in Kinnekulle and she was one of the first Swedish warships to try it. The rest of the boilers still burnt coal as a safety measure. In 1926, Manligheten cruised abroad with HMS Tapperheten, showing the flag during many port goodwill visits. The journey started with a visit to Amsterdam, follwoed by Portsmouth, Guernsey, Vlaardingen and back to Sweden. Another trip with Tapperheten was made in 1927, this time after Plymouth going to San Sebastián and Bilbao in the bay of biscaye and back to Rotterdam and Sweden.

On August 24, 1930, Manligheten was underway off Stockholm, bound to Horsfjärden when visibility quickly deteriorated to the point it was unsafe to navigate with but at very low speed with all lookouts on deck. At 4PM, as the captain feared, she ran aground. There was no leak in the hull fortunately, but she could not free herself. The minesweeper HMS Clas Fleming nearby was called for help and tried to pull her off but she just like the output to do so. Barges with cranes were later requisitioned to unload heavy equipment and the next day HMS Queen Victoria tried to pull free, but this attempt ended quickly as the chain broke. The armored ship needed to be further lightened and it was decided to unload 225 tons of coal and all excess water for the steam boilers. After two days, HMS Queen Victoria made another attempt, without success. Before a third attempt, HMS Wachtmeister and its 24 knots would attempt by her waves to move Manligheten enough to extract herself. This succeeded and Queen Victoria could tow her off for good. She was repaired and returned into service at the end of the year.

In 1937, HMS Manligheten made a long trip abroad with cadet onboard, to Amsterdam, then Newcastle, Rouen, Cardiff, Oban, Trondheim, Klaipėda and back to Sweden. After this she remained in port for two years. When the war broke out, a commission inspected her general state like the other two ships of the Äran class. They estimated her hull and powerplant were in good conditions, bu that her armament and fire control systems needed an urgent upgrade.

HMS Manligheten in WW2, circa 1940

She was take in hands and drydocked from August 26, 1939. First off it was decided that her 21 cm main guns range of 11,000 meters and 9,000 meters for her secondary guns was unsufficient. German light cruisers of the time for example outrange her with ease at 20,000 meters. And their 15 cm guns were way faster and more accurate. Despite having a telemeter and spotting top, HMS Manligheten lacked a truly modern artillery fire control with ballistic computing, limiting her usefulness. At the started of September 1939, her equipment was modernized enough that she was reassigned to the Gothenburg Squadron as flagship.

On December 13, 1939, six men were killed and 14 injured when she was in the Gothenburg archipelago, salvaging a German paravane entangled wire, which explosives detonated. In connection with information about German naval moves prior to Operation Weserübung, HMS Manligheten departed in the afternoon of April 8, 1940 to take position for a neutrality patrol from Gothenburg to Kalvsund, the latter becoming the new forward operational base for the Gothenburg Squadron.

HMS Manligheten after her second refit in 1942, not yet camouflaged.

In 1941, as the most modern of Swedish warships, it was decided she was worth the expense of a full reconstruction shiwh started at Götaverken in Gothenburg. Her bridge and forward superstructure were extended and rebuilt. Her hull received a clipper bow giving her much better seagoing qualities. Her main artillery was changed by using spares previously installed on HMS Queen Victoria, and the mount elevation was modernized, giving her 21 cm main guns a higher angle, combined with rifled tubes for better accuracy and new, more powerful ammunitions. The rest of the equipment was also modernized: The original 57 mm guns were replaced by modern Bofors anti-aircraft guns. The old steam boilers were replaced by six brand new coal-fired and two oil-fired boilers. This process was over probably in early 1942 and she resumed her neutrality patrols, with the usual four-tone green-dray camouflage and white neutrality bands.

HMS Manligheten searching for the mine struck submarine HMS Ulven with an ASW trawler in 1943

HMS Manligheten was used as an harbour TS for cadets after 1945 and eventually discarded in 24 February 1950, sold in 1952 for scrapp in Karlskrona. But instead she was kept as a pontoon barge between 1956 and 1984, in the Gullmars base, Lysekil. As her name was abbreviated "MA" she was nicknamed "Emma". During the Cold War it was also planned to use her as military barge, and until 2015, she was used as a quay for Switzer's (formerly Röda Bolaget) tugs at Lahälla in Brofjorden. In the autumn she was towed to Fredrikshavn, Denmark for scrapping. The hull was in poor condition, but she reached her destination.

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class Coast. Def. ships (1892)
Bouvines class Coast. Def. ships (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

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