Italia class ironclads

Regia Marina 1870 Italy (1881) Italia, Lepanto
The Italia class comprised two ironclad battleships of the Regia Marina, built between the late 1870s and early 1880s. They were designed by famous engineer Benedetto Brin, which took a radical approach on protection design to profit overall speed, with an exceptionally extensive internal subdivision. Combined with their very large 17-inch (432 mm) guns, they were quite singular vessels which soon attracted the attention of admiralties around the world, notably the Royal Navy, and are now considered "proto-battlecruisers" my many specialists.

They however only served for about thirty years, and had uneventful careers. In the Reserve Squadrons for the last decade they served as training maneuver ships, Lepanto being fully converted into a training ship in 1902 and was discarded in 1915. Italia was modernized in 1905–1908, but also becoming a training ship. They briefly saw action in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911-12 off Tripoli. Italia was still active as a guard ship during World War I, but converted into a grain transport in 1917.

The earliest battlecruisers prototypes

Dandolo, of the previous Duilio class

The Italia and Lepanto followed the path of the Duilio (1879) as innovative ships, in the frame of the wide 1970s naval extension program wanted by Italy to face the Austro-Hungarian Empire at sea. Not content to design (under supervision of Benedetto Brin) the Duilio class, armed with the most powerful naval guns on the planet, four 450 mm (17.7 inches) and nothing else as well as an innovative armour scheme, for the next class, engineers wanted in 1880 to address a main critic over the previous design: Speed. The design they came with was outstanding on many points. Also still heavily armed with barbettes 430 mm guns, they were lightly armoured, very large and roomy, allowing the fitting of a twice larger powerplant, to reach 18 instead of 15 knots and carrying a full infantry division !

Initial development (1875)

Brassey's basic design
Brassey's lepanto basic design

This design went back to a long process initiated in the 1870s, digesting the Italian fleet's defeat at the Battle of Lissa. The Italians started a large naval expansion program aimed at countering the Austro-Hungarian Navy: The Italian class were planned as the second class in this naval program. They were ordered by Admiral Simone Antonio di Saint-Bon, Italian naval minister in 1875, envisioning an improved version of the Duilio class but doubling as a large troop transport as the Navy at the time was given the responsibility of defending Italy's coastaline.

The work ws naturally given to Benedetto Brin, which prepared an initial design the same year, in 1875. The size was a concerned, as it was to be limited, and developments in armor-piercing shells needed to be taken in consideration. This forced him to take a radical departure over the philosophy behind the Duilio class design. Saint Bon's requirements were not quite easy to integrate either. Naval designers in Italy believed at the time, no realistic armor thickness (at least forged in italy, with its limited industrial capabilities) or even abroad could resist the impact of an AP shell.

Brassey's Lepanto 1888
Brassey's Lepanto engraving, 1888

Brin's take on this also was also that the great weight of an armor belt (as two could still be placed in sandwich to reach the required thickness) was going haywire and impacted the ship's speed a great deal. Also at the time, there were still casting and post-treatment mishaps, and Armor plates still tended to shatter or fragment when struck, creating extra damage by projecting shrapnells inside the hull. Her aso believed fitting a classic belt armor would create an unreasonable increase in displacement for the overall design. In the end, his radical conclusion was to discarded it completely, preferring instead a thin armored deck, and thus, taking a complete and radical deaprture over all the world's ironclads at the time.

Benedetto Brin planned originally a displacement close to 13,850 long tons (14,070 t) standard, with also a main battery of two 17.7 in (450 mm) guns in individual barbettes in échelon like the previous battleships, a common configuration at the time thought as a good compromise as it authorize a better wight distribution and rationalization of armor. The secondary armament was to be eighteen 5.9 in (149 mm) guns and its vast hull internal spaced carried some 3,000 long tons (3,000 t) of coal for a better range, one critic against the previous Duilio class. Although turrets existed at the time, Italy even having the 1860s Affondaore, but Brin opted for open barbettes over heavier enclosed gun turrets as seen on the Duilios.

This measure saved weight, was better for the gun crew in the rather sunny condition of the Mediterranean in general, and allowed the addition of a full upper deck. All these measures were combined to create enough internal space, in a much larger hull, to carry a full Italian division (10,000 soldiers) as per Saint Bon's requirements. All these design perks made the Italia class very special indeed. The whole concept was never repeated.

Finalisation of the design and construction (1876)

Compared designs of several nations in 1880 (Meyers' panzerschiffe)

The design evolved in 1876, as per extra developments in recent technologies, whuch brought some changes to Brin's design, like the latter: -The Development of slow-burning propellants for the main guns: General Rosset (Italian Army aritllery officer) suggested smaller guns of 17 in (432 mm) with longer barrels had actually the same weight as the 17.7 in guns while providing better muzzle evlocity and thus, penetration power as well as range. This slow-burning propellant participated indeed in the increased muzzle velocity, the longer barrel only raising more this figure. The original guns were purchased by Britain during the Russian war scare of 1878 and Brin altered the barbette design to incorporate Rosset's ideas and instead two single 45 cm guns, two pairs of 17 in guns were chosen, trigerring many changed in the barbettes themselves, mounts, elevation and training mechanisms, bearings, and the whole reloading apparatus.

-Another change was in the secondary battery, reducing it to eight 6-inch guns for weight issues again and better storage management. The other idea was an upgrade to faster-firing models in the upcoming years, doubling the rate of fire and that additional guns could not have been manned when the 17 in guns were in use.

-The internal coal capacity was brough to 1,700 long tons (1,700 t) over a 15,000 long tons (15,241 t) displacement.

Construction (1876)

Internal arrangement

Nevertheless, if both ships were already authorized in 1875 and funding allocated to starte construction, design work continued after they were laid down, almost one year apart: Italia was laid down at Regio Cantiere di Castellammare di Stabia () on 3 January 1876, and her sister ship Lepanto at the Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando on 4 November 1876, so 10 months later, leading to some minor differences in design as extra design changes came in between.

The admiralty praised Brin as they thought the ships were much faster and more seaworthy than the preceding Duilio class due to their higher freeboard, almost making them "liners" in appearance. Very large and fast for their time with a massive 15,000 tons displacement at full load they also made quite a splash at the time they were launched in September 1880 and March 1883 respectively. Italia reached 17.8 knots (33.0 km/h) and Lepanto even 18.4 knots (34.1 km/h) after some redesigns and changes. To put things in perspective, other ironclads of the time were stuck to 15 knots (28 km/h), and their heavy guns were also quite a sight to behold. No doubt they generated many reports from the British naval attaché in Rome as well as in many other navies, needless to say the Austrians and French as well. In 1880, the first had the Kaiser Max class (1875), 3,548 long tons (3,605 t) masted ironclads and casemate ships, ad the larger central battery SMS Tegetthoff (1878) still armed with six 280 mm (11 in) Krupp breech-loading guns, puny in comparison. The French had the Redoubtable (launched 1876), Courbet (1879) and Duperre (1879) in completion, but none were as heavily armed not fast. The admiral Baudin class which construction started in 1879 had only three 370 mm (14.6 in) main guns and a top speed of 15 knots for example.

Design of the launching skid

In short, the Italia class were seen as a really fascinating, yet very risky design. Their high speed combined to a very powerful main battery plus thin armor protection has later naval historians calling these "proto-battlecruisers" of some sort. When first planned, the majority of warships still had slow-firing, cast iron shot guns and the rapid technology changes made the Italia class after entering service in 1885 for Italia, and especially Lepanto in August 1887, sitting ducks against the nex generation of quick-firing guns with explosive shells developed in these late 1880s. This explained teir active service was quite reduced and soon ended as training ships, their large internal accomodations proved ideal for.


The engineer 1883 - Internal cutaway

Hull and general construction

The Italia class measured 122 meters (400 ft) long (between perpendiculars), 124.7 meters (409 ft) overall for a beam of 22.54 m (74 ft). Lepanto was slightly narrower at 22.34 m (73.3 ft). Both had a different draft of 8.75 m (28.7 ft) and 9.39 m (30.8 ft) for Lepanto, in part of the buoyancy loss due to the smaller beam. Italia's standard displacement was 13,678 long tons (13,897 t), then rose to 15,407 long tons (15,654 t) fully loaded, her sister ship being heavier (13,336 long tons normal but 15,649 long tons fully laden. Due to their long hull, engineers were able to refine their hull lines considerably, playing not a small part in their overall performances at sea, let down by ventilation and capacity issues. Both has the greatest hydrodynamic efficiency seen on any battleship at the time arguably, with a hull ratio of xxx compared to Duilio's xxx.

They had in common a reinforced ram bow while the structure was made of steel framing offering greater strenght, for a weight saving of 15% compared to softer iron. Below the waterline their hull was wooden-sheathed and covered with zinc plates to prevent biofouling. However Lepanto was more innovative, fitted for the first time with a double bottom extending for 77.55 meters (254.4 ft), all along the propulsion machinery rooms and ammunition magazines. Both however had no armor belt as indicated, and instead relied into sixty-nine watertight compartments, below the armor deck. The double bottom on Lepanto had an additional eighty-four compartments.

Superstructures, as on the previous ships, were minimal, comprising a single thick military mast and fighting top at the center, fitted with boom cranes. There was a a narrow hurricane deck stretching from the small command bridge structure supported by a derrick. The hurricane deck ran across all six funnels and mast, ending aft. It was high enough not to be affected by the main battery guns blast, or traverse and elevate at maximum elevation. There was also a gooseneck crane for boats installed on the deck aft of the sixth funnel, and a small quartemaster bridge afterwards. Small boats were installed there, far from the blast of the main guns, but others were placed alongside the hull in davits. Some of them were more ofensive in nature (see armament).

Italia's complement comprised 37 officers and 719 enlisted men, Lepanto 656 enlisted men ans as many officers. With 25 feet (7.6 m) of freeboard and many opening along the sides, there was room enough for troops, although this is not precised in the final plan, and it is believed many should have been located on the deck itself to reach the desired number. Anyway the requirement did not stand out the test of time, both ships were never used that way.


Lepanto in The Engineer, 1883

The Italia's propulsion system was common to both ships: It comprised four compound steam engines, driving each a single screw propeller. The latter was massive, four bladed, 20 ft 6 in (6.25 m) and in bronze. Brin innovated in what the engines would be run in compound mode for greater fuel efficiency, or direct-acting, for higher speed. That kind of combination was later reproduced in VTE and high and low pressre turbines on more modern ships.

Steam came from twenty-six coal-fired oval fire-tube boilers aboard Italia. On Lepanto Brin chose to fir her with a combination of eight smale oval boilers, but completed by sixteen locomotive boilers. Both engine rooms were placed amidships in separated watertight compartment; Three boiler rooms were placed on either end these. Due to the different boilers used, one sure way to distinguish both sister ships was by their funnels: Six for Italia, four for Lepanto, both in two sets on the centerline, either side of the barbettes. Italia was refitted in 1905–1908 and also was given four funnels. Steering was controlled by a single rudder, steam-driven on Italia and hydraulically-driven on Lepanto.

Projected output for Italia was 18,000 indicated horsepower (13,000 kW) on forced draft so as to reach the design speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). Speed trials were disappointing in that regard as Italia on reached 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph) from an output of 15,907 ihp (11,862 kW), maintain it for about an hour. Lepanto was faster at 18.38 knots (34.04 km/h; 21.15 mph) thanks to her more efficient powerplant reaching 16,150 ihp (12,040 kW).

Coal storage on both reached 3,000 long tons (3,000 t), when filling all watertight compartments and even the double hull, but in peacetime, 1,550 long tons (1,570 t) was usual. Their cruising radius for Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships was 5,000 nautical miles (9,300 km; 5,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph), while historian Sergie Vinogradov talk of 8,700 nmi (16,100 km; 10,000 mi).

Armour scheme

Internal design of the compound armor

-Instead of a belt armour protection was assured by a mild steel armored deck, a sort of sandwich compound which is difficult to really pinpoint (it was secret at the time anyway). Historian Vinogradov think it was likely 3 to 4.7 inches in thickness (76-115 mm) and in that, diverging records in all sources points in diverging armour schemes on both vessels.

-British intelligence reports of the time gave Italia 4 in (102 mm) in the central section, over the barbette magazines and main powerplant, then reduced to 3 in at both ends and to the bow and stern, like a classic citadel roof. Lepanto for them was 3 in all along.

-This armored deck was sloped downward however, meeting the steel sides 6 feet (1.8 m) above the waterline, then combined with two bulkheads running all along, several feet from the side. There were other bulkheads interspersed also along both main bulkheads, creating a segmented and highly compartimentalized watertight compartments. This created in effect a "cellular raft" designed to detonate precussion shells before penetrating far into the ships but almo limit flooding to a well defined area as well as dampening/containing the bast effect, although the compartments were not filled apparently.

Italia had a compound armor manufactured by Cammell Laird and John Brown & Company in UK, while Lepanto received improved steel developed by French company Schneider-Creusot. Both had a conning tower located forward of the bridge's derrick. It had wall 11.8 in (300 mm) thick. Barbettes were the heaviest on board, with a composite 19 in (480 mm) armor thickness on the sides, backed with teak 20.5 in (521 mm) thick. Underneath, there were armored tubes which connected the platforms above to the magazines below, with 15.7 in (400 mm) thick walls. Barbettes tops had two layers of 0.59 in (15 mm) so as to protect against shrapnell and small arms fire. Funnels bases were protected down to their boiler uptakes connected with tubes 15.7 in thick (400 mm). So apart the absence of belt, this was pretty impressive overall for the time.


Italia (top) and Lepanto (bottom)

Main armament:

Four Vickers-Armstrong 17-inch (432 mm) breech-loading guns. However they were unequal: Italia had three 26-caliber, one 27-caliber gun, while Lepanto had all same 27-caliber.
-The the 26 cal. Modello A fired a 2,000-pound (910 kg) shell at 1,811 feet per second (552 m/s). This was quite good compared to the Duilio's 17.7 in guns' 1,550 ft/s (470 m/s).
-The 27 cal. fired the same shell at 1,903 ft/s (580 m/s).
-Armor penetration was 37.6 in (960 mm) and 39.4 in (1,000 mm), both on a wrought iron plate.
-Rate of fire was one shot every eight minutes, a bit faster than the older muzzle-loading 17.7 in guns as they had to be returned to a fixed loading position each time.
-They were mounted by two in a diagonal and oval barbette, both placed en echelon amidships on turntables port aft and starboard forward.
-The magazine below the armored deck had its ammunition prepared and carried up via an armored trunk.
-Elevation over stern and prow was 45° for both pairs, -10/15° and traverse 360° with interrupting gear to avoid firing on the funnels.
-Ammunition storage vary among sources, from 40/45 shells per gun (45 on Italia) or 50 for both.
-Their high freeboard allowed to mount the guns some 33 feet (10 m) above the waterline, with good arc of fire.
-Due -5° depression and placement they could engage targets as close as 55 m (180 ft), but the useful max range was around 2000 m (6560 feets).

Secondary Battery:

Eight Ansaldo/Vickers single pivot 5.9 inches/26.7 caliber (149.8 mm) for Italia as initially planned, while Lepanto had the new 6 inches (152 mm) 32 caliber.
-They were placed along the hull with a bow-chaser, four broadside forward, a pair astern and the last as stern-chaser.

Tertiary Battery:

Four Ansalso/Vickers 4.7 in (120 mm) guns in single pivot mounts, dismountable to be carried by boat and support landing parties ashore. This armament was changed during two refits in their career (see career).

Torpedo Battery:

Four Whitehead 14 in (356 mm) torpedo tubes placed on the broadside, above the waterline. They carried each a 125 kg (276 lb) warhead, and had a max range of 600 m (2,000 ft).

Small Torpedo/armed picket boats:

For small boats, Italia also included two second-class torpedo boats (served by the aft gooseneck crane) for close defence; They were so small that in service, any rough sea made them useless. The Italians arrived at the same conclusion as the French and British about the born-dead idea of "torpedo boats carriers". In fact on Lepanto they were replaced by three smaller armed picket boats. In any case, all these boats were usable for a landing party, according to the ship's initial troop transport requirement. There is no clues either of dismounted artillery or field guns onboard, but a pair of 3 inches (75 mm) mountain guns and two machine guns for these landing parties.

Duilio class Ironclads specifications

DimensionsLenght 109.16 m (358 ft 2 in), Beam 19.74 m (64 ft 9 in), Draft 8.31 m (27 ft 3 in)
Displacement 10,962 long tons (11,138 t), 12,071 t FL
Propulsion1 screw, Two compound steam engines, 8 boilers, 7700 hp,
Speed15.04 knots (27.85 km/h; 17.31 mph)
Range3,760 nmi (6,960 km) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Armament2x2 450 mm, 3 × 14 in (360 mm) TT.
ArmorBelt armor: 21.5 in (550 mm), Turrets: 17 in (430 mm), Deck: 1.2 to 2 in (30 to 51 mm)

Italia class service and modifications

Italia in service

A long construction

Launch in 1880

RN Italia spent a lot of time in drydock, about ten years, due to numerous design changes during their construction. The same issue plagued French Battleships of the same era, and this made obsolescent when completed, especially regarding their very slow firing main guns. Italia was laid down at Regio Cantiere di Castellammare di Stabia shipyard on 3 January 1876 as "Stella D'Italia" initially (italian star). She had to wait a staggering 4.5 years before launching, on 29 September 1880. Completion had to wait for another five years, on 16 October 1885. Still, this was 22 months before Lepanto, in the works for 11 years !

Italia started her sea trials in December 1885, until March 1886. Failing to reach her designed speed led to an investigation and it apeared in the report this was mostly due to both insufficient steam capacity (or efficiency), and poor ventilation for the boilers, the collectors in place did not draw enough air to burn.

Italia in 1885, as completed.

It was not long after her completion that she received additions, in the fhape of small, fast firing anti-torpeod boat guns: Two 75 mm (3 in) guns, twelve 57 mm (2.2 in)/40 guns, and twelve 37 mm (1.5 in) Hotchkiss revolver cannons plus two machine guns. All of these could be dismounted and added to the firepower of a landing party. They were placed everywhere useful, notably on the deck, in the fighting tops and hurricane deck.

1886-1904 service

Engraving of the Italia "1st class ironclad".

After all this, Italia entered service on 10 January 1886, starting her first training cruise in April the same year, and visiting Italian ports (Naples, Palermo, Cagliari, Livorno, Palmas) before reaching ther operating base of La Spezia. In the summer, she headed west, visiting ports in France, Spain, and Portugal. She was assigned to the Squadra Permanente ("Permanent Squadron") always on the ready, on 11 July, and made a flagship on 1 August under overall command of Vice Admiral Orengo. In October 1886 the squadron departed for a goodwill visit to Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Laid up in 1887 for maintenance, Italia saw no active service, amidst economical problems.

Italia's officers and guns

Recommissioned in January 1888, back to the Permanent Squadron, she was essential in the annual 1888 fleet maneuvers with her sister ship and the older Duilio, and Enrico Dandolo, as well as the cruiser San Martino and four torpedo cruisers. These combined close-order drills, a simulated attack and alternated defense of La Spezia. Italia took part in the 1889 naval review for the German Emperor Wilhelm II visiting the country. She was placed in reserve in 1890 for the same economic issues, alternating in 1891, 1893 and 1895 (active) and reserve in 1892, 1894, but as flagship of the 2nd Division (Active Squadron) for the 1893 fleet maneuvers. For these, she operated with the new ironclad Andrea Doria and the torpedo cruiser Iride from 6 August to 5 September. They simulated a French attack on the Italian fleet, a realistic scenario at the time. From 14 October 1894 the Italian fleet assembled in Genoa for another naval review held for King Umberto I at the occasion of the commissioning of his namesake battleships, with three days festivities and the King's visit on all ships.

In 1895, Italia and Lepanto were now permanently held in the Reserve Squadron with the Ruggiero di Lauria and Re Umberto. She became flagship of the 3rd Division, making limited training cruises. Both battleships nearly collided during 1895 fleet maneuvers. From 1896 she became a more specialized gunnery training ship. In July 1896 she became part of the newly created Squadra di Manovra (Maneuver Squadron), as flagship. In 1898, she took part in the annual fleet maneuvers, but afterwards the Admiralty considered her modernization. It was studied a conversion to the new Enrico Dandolo standard, equipped with the new quick-firing 10 in (254 mm) guns. Eventually this was changed to new 13.4-inch (340 mm) guns, but the operation, planned FY 1902 was cancelled as too costly. But she was reconstructed anyway.

Italia's 1905–1908 refit as training ship


In 1905, Italia went into drydock for the major reconstruction of her career. This had her decommissioned for nearly four years. The changes were: Back into service in 1909, Italia became a torpedo training ship, permently moored in La Spezia, until 1910. In 1911 she became a barracks ship. However when the Italo-Turkish War broke out that same year, Italia was reassigned to the 5th Division with Lepanto and Enrico Dandolo. By December 1911 the sister ships were prepared sailt to Tripoli and relieved the three Re Umberto-class stationed there. They went to support the beleaguered Italian garrison which just captured the city or Tripoli, with a largely unsafe area. One of the ideas was to spend their large stockpile of obsolete 17 inches shells, but they eventually never fired a shot in anger.

Italia in WWI

Italia in Brindisi, 1915 src

Italia went on as training ship, this time for petty officers in December 1912. In 1914 she was sent to Taranto, used as a guard ship. Laid up on 1 June 1914, she was stricken three days later, so not long before WWI broke out. When the war started, all her secondary guns were removed to be reallocated to ground units and she was towed to Brindisi on 20 April 1915 in order to defend the harbor as Italy went to war, relisted in the naval register on 23 May and fully recommissioned on 1st June 1945 as "first class auxiliary". On 16 December 1917 she left Brindisi for la Spezia, towed there to be converted into a grain carrier. All her armament was removed but two 4.7 in guns. She was under responsibility of the Ministry of Transport on 1st June 1917 until the end of the war. In July 1919 she was reassigned to the State Railways administration, then returned to the Navy on 13 January 1921 to be properly stricken on 16 November 1921 and BU.

Lepanto in service

Lepanto in Livorno Yard
Engraving of the Lepanto in Livorno Yard, prior to launch in 1883.

Lepanto was named for the Battle of Lepanto of 1571, and construction dragged on for 11 years with many design modifications in between so she ended quite different from her sister ship. Laid down at Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando shipyard, Livorno, on 4 November 1876, ten months after Italia she spent an amazing 6.5 years on slip before launching, eventually made on 17 March 1883. At that point ot was 2.5 years after her sister; Completion took another 4.5 years, ending on 16 August 1887. In UK, three pre-dreadnoughts were built in the same timeframe. Sea trials started and ended in May 1888.

Commissioned on 14 May 1888, she was assigned to the Permanent Squadron and took part with her sister to the annual fleet maneuvers (also Duilio, Dandolo, and the cruiser San Martino). She was present at the German Kaiser Wilhelm II honorary visit to Italy in 1889 and participated the the next year's annual fleet maneuvers, First Squadron, with the cruisers Piemonte and Dogali in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The scenario implied defending against an attacking "hostile" squadron.

Lepanto, date unknown

In 1891, like her sister ship, as Italy faced economic mishaps she entered a long period of "laternative service", with a year in reserve each time. Recommissioned in April 1892 she became flagship of the Permanent Squadron at the start of 1893 (Vice Admiral Prince Thomas, Duke of Genoa). On 27 April 1893 she hosted both King Umberto I and Kaiser Wilhelm II in another visit to Italy. She was in 1893 fleet maneuvers with Ruggiero di Lauria, the cruisers Euridice and Monzambano, from 6 August to 5 September. They similated French attackers on the Italian fleet.

Lepanto nearly collided with Italia during these. From 14 October 1894, the fleet was assembled in Genoa for another naval review, in honor of King Umberto I, the occasion beinf the commission of Re Umberto.

Lepanto in the Mediterranean

In February 1895, Italia and Lepanto were reassigned to the Reserve Squadron with Ruggiero di Lauria and Re Umberto. Unrest in the Ottoman Empire followed by killings of foreign nationals had great European powers sending their fleet to pressure the Sultan for a compensation, and the Italian squadron joined in by November 1895. Lepanto never dropped anchor off Smyrna however. It was part of a larger reinforcement force assembled in Naples (Francesco Morosini, Ruggiero di Lauria, the cruiser Elba, torpedo cruisers Calatafimi and Folgore). Coal and ammunition was stockpile in the event of joing the main force off Smryna, but the order was never given and Lepanto returned to the reserve.

Lepanto as a training ship in the 1890s

She became a training ship, for bridge personnel; from 26 March, and until 20 July 1896. By June 1897, she made a goodwill visit to Britain, representing Italy at the Queen Victoria Diamonf Jubilee Fleet Review. She also took part in the 1897 fleet maneuvers, assigned to the First Division, Reserve Squadron (also Duilio, Ruggiero di Lauria, the cruiser Lombardia). In 1898 Francesco Morosini replaced Duilio and and there were five cruisers. In 1899, the squadron also gained the Re Umberto, Sicilia, and three Ruggiero di Lauria-class ironclads in the Active Squadron, but Italia was only active for eight months, the rest if the year were spent with a sleleton maintenance crews.

The early 1890s saw the admiratlty questioning the obvious obsolescence of Italia and possible modernization. It was chosen to take Enrico Dandolo as a model, with brand new quick-firing 10-inch (250 mm) guns (and armor covers over the barbettes). Eventually she was to gain two pairs of 13.4-inch (340 mm) guns, but the plan was cancelled in 1902 due to budget issues and she was withdrawn from front-line service, by March 1902, now a gunnery training ship in La Spezia. She kept her main guns, four 4.7 in guns, while nine 57 mm, six 37 mm, two machine guns were fitted. Her torpedo tubes were also removed. She joined the Training Squadron in 1904, with Castelfidardo and Affondatore, Flavio Gioia and Caracciolo but took part in annual fleet maneuvers in late 1907, carrying observers.

Lepanto served as a gunnery training ship until 16 October 1910, the was converted as a barracks ship. When the Italo-Turkish War broke out in 1911–1912, she was assigned to the 5th Division with Italia and Enrico Dandolo. In December 1911, Italia and Lepanto were prepared to sail for Tripoli, replacing the three Re Umberto-class there. But this was never carried out. Lepanto was eventually stricken on 26 May 1912, but registered again on 21 January 1913 as a first-class auxiliary ship, train apprentices and specialists, anchored at La Spezia. Stricken for good on 1st January 1914, she sold on 27 March 1915 and BU, unlike her sister ship which saw WWI, but as a grain carrier.



1899 Edition Brasseys 1899
The History of the Italian-Turkish War, google books
Brasseys 1896
The navy and the nation; or, Naval warfare and imperial defence


Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1860-1905 and 1906-1921.
Beehler, William Henry (1913). The History of the Italian-Turkish War. Annapolis
Brassey, Thomas A., ed. (1889). "Foreign Naval Manoeuvres". Naval Annual, J. Griffin & Co.
Brassey, Thomas A. (1896). "Chapter III: Relative Strength". same.
Clarke, George S. & Thursfield, James R. (1897). The Navy and the Nation, Naval Warfare and Imperial Defence. John Murray
Garbett, H., ed. (November 1894). "Naval and Military Notes". Royal United Service Institution Journal, London.
Garbett, H., ed. (1898). "Naval Notes – Italy". Same.
Garbett, H., ed. (1902). "Naval and Military Notes – Italy". Same.
Greene, Jack & Massignani, Alessandro (1998). Ironclads at War, Origin and Development 1854–1891. Da Capo Press
"Italy". Notes on the Year's Naval Progress. Washington, DC, ONI 445–48 1895.
Sondhaus, Lawrence (1994). The Naval Policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918. Purdue
Vinogradov, Sergei (2020). "Italia and Lepanto: Giants of the Iron Century". Osprey.

Model kits

Large metal model at the Museo tecnico Navale, La Spezia
1/200 paper model by Heinkel models

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
WW2 British submarines
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries
naval aviation USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)
Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)
Hawker Sea Fury (1944)
Supermarine Seafang (1945)
De Havilland Sea Mosquito (1945)
De Havilland Sea Hornet (1946)

Supermarine Channel (1919)
Vickers Viking (1919)
Saunders Kittiwake (1920) Supermarine Sea King (1920)
Fairey Pintail (1920)
Short N.3 Cromarty (1921)
Supermarine Seal II (1921)
Vickers Vanellus (1922)
Supermarine Seagull (1922)
Fairey N.4 (1923)
Supermarine Sea Eagle (1923)
Vickers Vulture (1924)
Short S.1 Stellite/Cockle (1924)
Supermarine Scarab (1924)
Fairey Fremantle (1924)
English Electric Ayr (1924)
English Electric Kingston (1924)
Hawker Dantorp (1925)
Blackburn Velos (1925)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Saunders A.3 Valkyrie (1927)
Blackburn Nautilus (1929)
Saro A.17 Cutty Sark (1929)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Saro A.7 Severn (1930)
Saro A.19 Cloud (1930)
Saro Windhover (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Short S.15 (1931)
Blackburn Sydney (1931)
Short Sarafand (1932)
Short Knuckleduster (1933)
Saro London (1934)
Short Seaford (1934)
Short S.19 Singapore III (1934)
Fairey S.9/30 (1934)
de Havilland Hornet Moth (1934)
Blackburn Perth (1934)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 (1936)
Airspeed AS.30 Queen Wasp (1937)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Supermarine Sea Otter (1938)
Short S.30/33 Empire (1938)
Short S.20 Mercury (1938)
Short S.21 Maia (1938)
Saro A.33 (1938)
Blackburn B-20 (1940)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Supermarine Spitfire Seaplane (1942)
Short Shetland (1944)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
British Aicraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

British Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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