Nachi class Cruisers (1927)

Japanese Navy Heavy Cruisers Nachi, Haguro, Myoko, Ashigara.

The Nachi: First true IJN heavy cruisers

The heavy cruisers of the Nachi class* were laid down between 1924 and 1925, completed in 1928-29. This represented a brave leap forward in terms of capabilities of the Imperial Japanese Navy, as they reached the very limits of the Washington treaty contrary to the previous Aoba and Furutaka classes. Superstar designer Yuzuru Hiraga achieved another accomplishment with these, cramming five twin turrets in that hull, instead of the usual eight or nine (for US ships) seen in other navies. This turret arrangement was found for light guns with triple turrets on post-London treaty ships of the 1930s. Both for the Japanese, it became a new standard, applied to both classes of heavy cruisers in succession: The Nachi and Chokai classes, so eight ships in all, which formed the fulcrum of the Imperial Japanese cruiser force during the war. This also came with a generous armament of twelve fast reloadable torpedo tubes, with in addition the new "Long Lance" model. All in all, it went rather well with Japan's decision to retire from the league of nations. They were also among the most extensively rebuilt and modernized cruisers in the world. * or Myoko class for many authors as the latter was launched earlier, but completed later

This class was approved under the 1922–1929 Fleet Modernization Program and really were the first "true" heavy cruisers built within the design constraints of the Washington Naval Treaty, and even first "10,000-ton" cruisers built by any nation at that time. Their wartime records are impressive, they were soldiered in virtually all battles of the Pacific war, managing to survive into 1944-45. This is the story of the Mean and Mighty Myoko, Nachi, Haguro and Ashigara.

IJN Myoko post-reconstruction in sea trials, 1941
IJN Myoko post-reconstruction in sea trials, 1941

Design of the Nachi class

The design feat of cramming all that on a 200 meters long, slender and light hull announced officially as 10,000 tons standard were also capable of reaching 35.5 knots without excessive power either. The amazing width/length ratio indeed was almost unchanged from the Aoba, the same 12/1. Protection however was greatly improved overall, with a much thicker inner armoured citadel, triple hull and reinforced cross-sections and bulkheads. With successive modernizations this standard tonnage in 1941 reached 11,000 tons. Hiraga was able to keep its design from becoming dangerously top-heavy, by continually rejecting demands from the IJN General Staff, for additional equipments, but still, surviving ships reach 15,933 tons fully loaded in 1945.

IJN Myoko in 1930
IJN Ashigara in 1942. These two views are an easy way to see the differences between the two. In 1944, a new lattice mast was installed behind the bridge and the aft TTs were removed.

IJN Myōkō the lead launched ship, displaced 13,500 t (13,300 long tons) fully loaded, for exactly 10,000 tonnes standard as declared officially. The hull was basically based on the Aoba-class cruisers (1926), but with significant differences. Flush deck with two slopes on their predecessors, it was straight and levelled on the Nachi over 201.50 to 203.76 metres (661-669 feets) long overall, 193,39 m at the waterline (631 feets 2 inches) and a beam of 17,34 m at the waterline (56 feets 11 in), 19.5 metres (64 ft) overall, draft of 5,90 m standard (19 feets 4 in) down to 6.36 metres (20.9 ft). The hull was sloped downwards after the "Y" barbette and gently raised about 30 m from the bow which design was identical to the Aoba class. Like her, the prow was faired downwards under the waterline, in the rounded "icebreaker" style adopted as a trademark of Hiraga's designs and repeated on the next Takao class and following.

The differences in width are explained (after reconstruction) by a very slender beam at the waterline, "V" shaped hull downwards, topped by a massive superstructure above the citadel overhanging on both sides on its aft section, where the forward torpedo tubes bank is located. The latter is internal, like the second pair aft, avoiding battle damage. The top view reveals a very well profile hull without any parallel section, the largest beam, with flat sides, is located about 1/3 of the stern. Then the flanks are sloped, making for the finest waterline possible and optimized penetration. The ratio of 1/12 results in exceptional speeds for a moderately large powerplant, but is of course problematic for fast manoeuvres, heeling wildly in tight turns, hard rudder although this was compensated later by bulges and counter-keels. Outside vibrations, the design indeed suffered from instability, later corrected during refits.


Starboard forward Kanpon turbine set of Myoko configuration
Starboard forward Kanpon turbine set of Myoko configuration

Despite the space available below the waterline, and the width of the ASW protection, Higara managed to install in separated engines rooms, two sets of turbines, fore and aft, and separated boilers rooms, housing two in each of the six rooms forward of the single-impulse geared turbines. As the previous designs, the inwards turbines and propellers were used for cruising, and outwards for speed. All 12 Kampon boilers were oil-firing only, delivering a total output of 130,000 shp (97,000 kW) as indicated, which was superior to most cruisers of the time. The four shafts turned three-bladed propellers. This power, combined with that hull, gave a top speed as designed of 35.5 knots, but in sea trials, 36 knots were easily exceeded (67 km/h; 41 mph). To avoid excessive vibration and hull fatigue, it was in practice reduced to 34-35 knots in service. All four ships also carried 2,470 tonnes of oil, enough for a range of 8,000 nmi (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph), sufficient figures for the pacific.


The ship was overall better protected than the previous Aoba class. They were armored with a 102 mm (3.9 to 4.0 in) side belt, and a main 35 mm (1.4 in) internal armored deck however, the bridge was not armored to avoid stability problems, and the turrets were protected 0.98/1 inch armour faces (25 mm), and the barbettes were 3 in thick (76 mm), also for stability issues. This meant these turrets were very easy to cripple by even destroyer fire, 5-in guns. Despite these light armour figures, the hull as very well compartmented, with a triple hull at the bottom for at least the central section (below the citadel) and there was an underwater longitudinal arched bulkhead running also along this central section.

ONI - Nachi class


This is the armament as built and completed in 1928-29. See below for the 1930s and WW2 rearmaments.

Main armament

Nachi had a main battery of ten 20 cm/50 3rd Year Type naval guns (1923), which was the heaviest armament of any heavy cruiser afloat in the world at the time, but soon equivalent to the contemporary USN Pensacola class. Both differed in the way this armament was installed, in two triple and two twin turrets of the Pensacola, but five twin on the Nachi.

To compared both guns, officially called "50 caliber 3rd Year Type 20 cm Gun 1 GÔ (No. 1)", the Japanese ones were not "strict" 8 inches, being exactly lower caliber, as suggests their internal designation 20 cm/50 (7.9"). as compared to 8"/55 caliber naval gun, so real 203 mm and longer range. The Japanese guns fired fast however at 2,854 fps (870 mps) versus 2,500 feet per second (760 m/s) however, but the shell was lighter at 110 kgs (252 ibs) versus 152 kg (335 ibs). Range was 29,200 yards (26,700 m) at 40° versus 31,860 yd (29,130 m) at 41°. The rate of fire was around 3rpm, roughly similar. The Nachi class was the last to use the Mark I, developed to equip previously the Kaga, Akagi, Furutaka and Aoba classes. She used improved type D turrets. The next Takao class would use the much improved Mark II.

Read more about his gun. These guns were modified during the interwar, upgraded to the 203 mm (8 in) 2 GÔ version.

Secondary armament


Nachi's secondary armament included six 4.7 in (120 mm)/45 naval guns in single mounts abreast the funnels. After reconstruction it was changed to four twin mounts 12.7 cm/40 Type 89 (5 inches) at the same place. More on these. This made another point of comparison to the Pensacola class. However, as built in 1929, there was not other lighter AA gun on board, contrary to the Pensacola class, which had four quad 1.1-inch (28 mm)/75 caliber guns as built, so 16 in all.

Torpedo armament

An important point in the design was the use of no less than twelve Type 93 torpedo tubes, in four triple launchers. They were positioned below the aircraft deck on either side, and fixed, so firing a broadside only. In comparison the Pensacola only had two triple banks, which had some traverse, and Mark 15 torpedoes, but still certainly not a match for the Type 93.

Onboard aviation

Nakajima E4N
Nachi was equipped with an aircraft catapult aft of the mainmast and placed on the port side, with a lift and hangar in the center. She carried up to three scout floatplanes of various models during her service. It was for long the Nakajima E2N1, then E4N, replaced by the Kawanishi E7K Navy Type 94 after refit, or Nakajima E8N 'Dave' and after 1941, the Aichi E13A 'Jake'. Facilities were modified also during refits (see below).

Aichi E13A capulted from IJN Ashigara
Aichi E13A capulted from IJN Ashigara

Refits and modernizations

Nachi was modernized and upgraded throughout her career, especially after Japan retired from the League of Nations. This was in order to improved her AA capabilities, and at first, just two single 7.7 mm/80 machine guns were installed.

-1932: Myoko, Nachi (early 1934 for Haguro and Ashigara) had her five twin 200 mm/50 guns upgraded to the 3-shiki 203 mm 2-go gun mount.
-1935: All four received four twin 127/40 89-shiki, and four quadruple 610 mm TTs (16), plus 2 new catapults port and starboard, no hangar, and rails to store and manage three seaplanes of the E4N type. New additional bulges were fitted for better ASW protection, and breadth was now 19.0m. Full displacement rose to 15,313 or 15,391 tonnes fully loaded, more than 13,000 standard, way above Washington treaty limits. Top speed however was reduced due to the added weight, to 34knots. By the end of the year, they were also given their first light AA, two quadruple 13.2mm/76.
-1939-41: Haguro was refitted first, followed by Nachi both between 1939 and 1940, then Ashigara and Myoko in 1940-41. They were all ready before the attack on pearl harbor. They carried an additional four twin 25 mm/60 96-shiki AA guns and two twin 13.2mm/76, but just two quadruple 610 mm TT and 24 reloads. New catapults were fitted and fuel stowage was sacrificed, down to 2214t. Bulges were modernized an larger ones adopted, increasing the beam to 20.7m, draft to 6.40 m. Displacement rose to 12,071-12,342 tonnes standard and up to 15,840-16,007 tonnes fully loaded, while top speed fell to 33.3kts. -1942: Four twin 25mm/60 96-shiki, 4 DCR (12 in storage), 1-shiki 2-go radar.
-1943: Addition of eight single 25mm/60 96-shiki
-1944: 610 mm Torpedoes storage reduced to 16, addition of four triple 25mm/60 96-shiki, and sixteen single plus two shiki 2-go, and three shiki 1-go radars, new lattice mast. By the fall of the year, Ashigara and Nachi receved two of the new quadruple 619 TTs (16) and two additional twin 25/60 96-shiki, plustwenty single 25/60 96-shiki. Grand total for AA: 52 Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun guns and two Type 93 13 mm AA guns after her final upgrade.

IJN Ashigara an the Gref Spee in the background at Kiel in March 1937. Colorized photo by Hirootoko JR.

IJN Nachi in Yokosuka in the 1920s
IJN Nachi in Yokosuka in the 1920s. Colorized photo by Hirootoko JR.

Specifications (1941)

Displacement 13,000 t. standard -14,740 t. Full Load
Dimensions 203.76 m long, 20.60 m wide, 5.66 m draft
Propulsion 4 propellers, 4 turbines, 12 boilers, 130,000 hp.
Top speed 34 knots
Armour from 100 to 25 mm
Armament 5x2 203mm (8 in), 4x2 127mm (5 in), 8 x 25 AA, 12 x 13.2 mm AA, 16 x 610 mm TTs, 3 aircraft
Crew 773

Read more

The Myoko class on Kagero
On Scalemates
ONI 222 IJN reco. handbook
FCM30-50 ONI reco handbook
ONI Japanese Merchant Marine reco handbook
Conway's all the world fighting ships 1922-45
Lacroix, Eric; Linton Wells (1997). Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War. Naval Institute Press.
Stille, Mark (2011). Imperial Japanese Navy Heavy Cruisers 1941-45. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
Tamura, Toshio (2004). "Re: Japanese Cruiser Torpedoes". Warship International. XLI (4)
Whitley, M J (1995). Cruisers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Arms and Armour Press.
IJN Myoko Class Cruisers, Warship Pictorial Nr. 17, Steve Wiper

Nachi 1945 - author's HD schematics based on conway's reference (note: no longer accurate)

Myoko, camouflaged in 1944 (Made in 2000, updated 2021).
Note: Modern, HD illustrations of all four cruisers are coming.

The modeller's corner

-1:200 IJN Nachi (Answer-Angraf)
-1:350 Haguro, Ashigara, Nachi, Myoko (Aoshima)
-Aoshima 1:700 all four
-1:400 Haguro, Myoko (Tamiya)
-Also 1/700 all four, Tamiya
-Nichimo 1:500 all four

The Nachi class in action

IJN Myōkō

Early service

The launch of Myoko in 1927

The Imperial Japanese Heavy Cruiser IJN Myōkō was laid down at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, on 25 October 1924. She was launched and christened "Myōkō" (after Myōkō-shi, an old city located in Niigata Prefecture) on 16 April 1927. The launching ceremony was attended by Emperor Hirohito. She was commissioned on 31 July 1929 under command of captain Fujisawa Takuo. First ship in her class to be laid down and launched (which is why authors are divided to name of the class, either Myoko or Nachi), she was the third to be completed. IJN Nachi was first. Myōkō was modernized and upgraded as her sister ships several times during her 20 years long career.

The four cruisers, completed in 1928-29 were all assigned to the same unit, Sentai-4, 3rd Fleet, based at Sasebo Naval District. They trained together for all the 1930s. One of the earlier modifications was due to smoke bellowing on the bridge during a naval review in Kobe, on 26 October 1930. Therefore the forward raked smokestack was lengthened by two meters to avoid this interference. The First Shanghai Incident of February 1932 saw the four cruisers escorting the troop transports bound to the continent. In December 1932, the wole class was placed in reserve as the new Takao-class were commissioned.

The latter took their place as Sentai-4 and the Myōkō-class were relegated to Sentai-5. In 1933-1935, the while class was refitted with two quadruple rotatable launchers, and new secondary guns (see the modernization details). As the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out, IJN Myōkō took part in the Amoy landings, 10–12 May 1938. She was flagship of Sentai-9, 5th Fleet and would took part in the Hainan Island Operation in February 1939. Her second refit and modernization started, completed in April 1941. Not only she had double the number of "Long Lance" torpedoes but gained also many extra AA guns and new bulges, more for extra stability than ASW protection.

Myoko in 1931 (HD scan, cc)

Invasion of the Philippines
When the Pearl Harbor attack too place, IJN Myōkō and Nachi formed a single unit, Sentai-5 affected to the 3rd Fleet (Rear Admiral Takeo Takagi). They left Palau and were intended to cover the landings of "Operation M", invasion of the southern Philippines, starting at Legaspi on 11 December 1941. Myōkō and Nachi then headed back to Palau, reassigned to Rear Admiral Raizō Tanaka, and covering the landings at Davao (19 December), Jolo (24 December). On 4 January 1942 Admiral Tanaka’s force was attacked by USAAF B-17 bombers, at anchor. Myōkō was hit by a single 500-pound (227 kg) bomb. This however caused only superficial damage and she was repaired in drydock at Sasebo.

Battle of the Java Sea
On 1 March 1942 Myōkō, Nachi and Haguro teamed in an operation targeting ABDA, the remainder of allied fleets in the area, protecting the Dutch East Indies. At 11:50, Myōkō, Ashigara separated with their escort, the destroyers Akebono and Inazuma. They opened fire on the HMS Exeter and her escort and Myōkō claimed her, with her sister-ship that day. They also crippled the destroyer HMS Encounter, latter scuttled. Myōkō was later refitted at Sasebo and April hunted down for the Doolittle raid task force (which was never caught)

Battle of the Coral Sea
In May 1942, Myōkō covered a fraction of the Kido Butai, main Japanese Carrier Strike Force, in Operation Mo, covering the Tulagi invasion force. This was met with resistance, and ended with the Battle of the Coral Sea where she served as flagship fro Vice Admiral Takeo Takagi in overall command of the Carrier Strike Force (Shōkaku, Zuikaku, Rear Admiral Chūichi Hara) teaming with Haguro and five destroyers. Shōkaku was damaged and Zuikaku lost most of her air group, forcing a general withdrawal and saving Port Moresby.

Myoko in Kure, 1931 - Colorized by Irootoko
Myoko in Kure, 1931 - Colorized by Irootoko Jr.

Myoko in post-reft sea trials, 1941, colorized
Myoko in post-reft sea trials, 1941, same.

Battle of Midway
In June 1942, Myōkō was place under command of Vice Admiral Nobutake Kondō' covering his Support Force off Midway, as part of a fleet also comprising IJN Kongō and Hiei, and the cruisers Haguro, Atago and Chōkai, Yura, the light auxiliary aircraft carrier Zuihō, and seven destroyers. This Support Force saw no action during the battle and returned to Sendai on 23 June.

Aleutians Campaign
Myōkō was detached on 28 June to escort a convoy in the Aleutian Islands, covering the aircraft carriers Zuikaku, Zuihō, Jun'yō and Ryūjō, and teaming up with Maya, Takao, Haguro, Nachi, Abukuma, Kiso and Tama. The while fleet returned to Hashirajima on 12 July 1942, meeting no resistance.

Solomon Islands campaign
On 11 October 1942, Myōkō was in Truk, affected to the 2nd Fleet. She departed with Kongō and Haruna, Atago, Chōkai, Nachi, Isuzu and twelve destroyers and preceded Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo's Carrier Striking Force. Their mission was to escort troopships to reinforce the garrison of Guadalcanal, invaded by US troops in last August. Myōkō on 14 September was targeted by USAAF's B-17 bombers but only suffered light damage from near misses. On 15 October (at night), she bombarded Henderson Field with Maya. From 31 January and until 9 February 1943, Myōkō, which was refitted recently as Sasebo, covered the evacuation of Guadalcanal, also under cover from Zuikaku, Zuihō, Jun'yō, Kongō, Haruna, and the cruisers Atago, Takao, Myōkō; Haguro, Nagara and Agano plus 11 destroyers. In total, the evacuation of 11,700 troops was a success.

1943 Operations
In May 1943, Myōkō and Haguro returned to the Aleutians to help evacuating Kiska island. In June 1943 both were refitted at Sasebo, gainung four twin Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun mounts, and a Type 21 air search radar. They were scrambled to answer the US attack on the Gilbert Islands. Myōkō (under command of Vice Admiral Jisaburō Ozawa as flagship) was sent to track down the American carriers, with Shōkaku, Zuikaku, Zuihō, battleships Yamato, Nagato, cruisers Myōkō, Haguro, Tone, Chikuma, Mogami, Atago, Takao, Chōkai and Maya, Agano and fifteen destroyers. Making no contact, the force returned to to Truk. Myōkō and Haguro sailed on 1st November 1943 with two destroyers for a convoy escort to Rabaul and from there, joined Agano and Sendai, six destroyers to escort another convoy to Bougainville of 1,000 IJA troops, and the heading cruisers met and engaged theur US counterparts in what became the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay on 3 November 1943. The US force comprised light cruisers and eight destroyers. They sank Sendai with gunfire but while manoeuvering, Myōkō collided with Hatsukaze, latter finished off by USN gunfire. Haguro received minor damage and the USN lost the destroyer USS Foote by torpedo.

1944 Operations
On 17 November 1943, was refitted at Sasebo, receiving more AA. In January 1944 Myōkō sailed wth Tone and two destroyers from Truk to Kavieng and back, escorting a convoy. On 10 February she teamed up with Atago and Chōkai plus eight destroyers, while she was attacked by the submarine USS Permit, but the latter's salvo missed. In March 1944 Myōkō teamed with Shiratsuyu to escort an empty tanker convoy from Palau to Borneo. On 6 April, she was ambushed by the submarine USS Dace, which fired and missed an latter the USS Darter which could not manoeuvre in time to attack her. In June 1944, the heavy cruiser participated in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, saling with the rest of the fleet from Tawi Tawi after the invasion of the Marianas Islands. The main threat seemed to be now the heavy bombers based in the Marianas now in range of Japanese home islands. The "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot" followed, as the IJN lost some 300 Japanese carrier-borne planes (and its last finest pilots) on 19 June 1944.

Myoko in Singapore, aerial reco photo, 1945
Myoko in Singapore, aerial reco photo, 1945

Myōkō also participated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf while in Vice Admiral Kurita's First Mobile Striking Force, comprising four battleships and ten cruisers. Called the Center Force, it made its way unannounced through the Sibuyan Sea and fell on US Task Force 38. During the battle, Myōkō was hit by a torpedo, aft on the starboard side. She had her starboard propelers damaged, broke off and limped to Singapore at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) for repairs. She arrived on 2 November 1944 and departed for Japan, stopping en route at Cam Ranh Bay, when she was ambushed by the submarine USS Bergall at 17:35, on 13 December 1944. The latter fired a full salvo of six, and she took a single hiy on her aft port side. This impact blew her unprotected stern. Te whole steering mechanism was badly damage and unresponsive so she ended dead in the water. She could only count on her port screw to still sail at 6 knots, helping her towing by the destroyer IJN Ushio which previously attacked and repelled USS Bergall. She was escorted to Singapore but due to insufficient materials for complete repairs she was left there waiting her fate, together with the badly damaged Takao, after another submarine attack just before the battle of Sibuyan.

Myoko surrendering to British troops in a ceremony in 1945

IJN Myoko surrendering to British troops in a ceremony in 1945

Fate of Myōkō (1945)
In February 1945, an IJN inspection team determined Myōkō cold not be repaired at Singapore and could not be towed to Japan either. She stayed in Singapore as a floating AA battery with Takao. but both were targeted by British commandos, manning midget submarines, whith attacked them on 26 July, despite of this, she survived this new attack, and the war. Formally surrendered to the Royal Navy on 21 September 1945 she was towed to the Strait of Malacca and scuttled off Port Swettenham in Malaya as well as the submarines I-501 and I-502.

IJN Nachi

Cruiser Nachi on sea trials in 1929, showing her first appearance. Colorized photo by Hirootoko JR.

Like her sister-ships, Nachi, the first completed in this class, was based at the Sasebo Naval District part of Sentai-4, 3rd Fleet. Her first refit was lengthening of the forward smokestack and in 1932 she participated in the events following the first Shanghai Incident, escorting transports. By December 1932, she was reaffected to Sentai-5 and until 1935, she underwent her first major refit. Captain Teruhisa Komatsu took command in the meantime, followed by Captain Michitaro Totsuka from November 1936. As the second Sino-Japanese War on 20 August 1937, she transported HQ elements of the IJA's 3rd Division and 6th Infantry Regiment as part of a force of six cruisers and eight destroyers. By December her second modernization started at Sasebo Naval Arsenal.
Nachi was the Mako Guard District, Pescadores Islands in December 1941, Sentai-5, 3rd Fleet (Rear Admiral Takeo Takagi). First she was deployed from Palau to cover the landings of "Operation M" (Philippines invasion). Under Rear Admiral Raizō Tanaka she also covered landings at Davao and Jolo. On 4 January 1942 her units was attacked by B-17s without much damage and she became flagship for Admiral Tanaka while Myōkō was sent to Sasebo for repairs.

Nachi's sea trials in 1929
Nachi's sea trials in 1929 (original)

After covering landings in the Celebes, Dutch East Indies, and Ambon later, the fleet looked after the allied combined fleet. The matter was settled at the Battle of the Java Sea, and later Nachi and Haguro (plus Jintsū) chased down the last remants for the ABDA. On 27 February, these were Nachi's floatplanes that spotted the Allied fleet, and Nachi sank HNLMS Java by torpedo. Two days later Nachi and Haguro spotted and catch up with Exeter and sank her.

March 1941, Nachi was refitted at Sasebo to later operate in the Kurile Islands by April-May in a fleet commanded by Vice Admiral Boshiro Hosogaya. The Aleutian islands was lackluster and quiet, and she was back in Japan by 23 June, but departed Ōminato to escort another convoy to Kiska and remained there until 7 July. She was refitted in Yokosuka 14–30 July, assigned to the 5th Fleet and went on patrolling the Kurile Islands until March 1943, escoting yet another convoy to Attu in 7–10 March.

Sentai 4 in 1930
Sentai 4 in 1930

On 26 March, Nachi's planes spotted a small US fleet comprising the cruisers USS Richmond and Salt Lake City, the destroyers Bailey, Dale, Monaghan and Coghlan. Vice Admiral Hosogaya on his side, in addition to Nachi had the Maya, Tama, and Abukuma and two destroyers. Nachi’s aircraft were in the air after she opened fire and the starboard one was damaged during the fire by the blast. The remaining one was launched afterwards. The Battle of the Komandorski Islands saw at some point closing enough to launch her Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes. The battle lasted for four hours, and both Salt Lake City and Bailey were damaged, while Nachi took five hits. Hosogaya abandoned his reinforcement of Attu and decided to withdrawn. He was later sacked for this, and relieved of command in disgrace. After reparations in Yokosuka, and new AA, Nachi sailed to Paramushiro on 15 May, and Kiska in 10–15 July, starting the evacuation of the Japanese garrison. On 6 October 1943 while en route from Japan she was ambushed by USS Halibut. One of the four torpedoes, struck Nachi, on her starboard side, it as often, it was a dud. Nachi stayed in Ōminato until July 1944, in semi-reserve. Operations in the Philippines

Nachi in the late 1930s

Nachi was fully reactivated at Kure Naval District on 31 July 1944. In August she was training her new crew while her AA defences were reinforced. In October 1944, she joined the Philippines forces, under command of Vice Admiral Kiyohide Shima. At the Battle of Leyte Gulf Nachi and Ashigara teamed up in Vice Admiral Shoji Nishimura’s force. On 25 October, after te Battle of Surigao Strait, Nachi and Mogami collided and the former was wihtdrawn to Manila for bow repairs. But on 29 October, Nachi, and Kumano als there were bombed and strafed by the US aviation, from Task Force 38. Nachi was hit by a bomb, hitting her aircraft deck. She lost 53 and repairs went on for more months. On 5 November she was attacked by three waves from USS Lexington and Ticonderoga. On the second, she took five hits and 2-3 torpedoes while underway. The Third wave counted for five more torpedoes (all on the port side) and twenty bomb hits. She had her bow and stern cut, and was soon a burning wreck. At the time, Vice Admiral Kiyohide Shima was not on board but saw all the scene. After burning fiercely as she sank, she blew apart, northeast of Corregidor. 807 sailors drawn, including the captain, 220 survived picked up by IJN Kasumi and Akebono.

The sinking of Nachi, Battle of Manila Bay, 5 November 1945

IJN Haguro

IJN Haguro in construction at Mistubishi NyD, Nagasaki, 1928

IJN Haguro in the Yellow sea, 1936
IJN Haguro in the Yellow sea, 1936 - Colorized by Irootoko Jr.

IJN Haguro, Yamagata was named after a city in the Higashitagawa District and was laid down at the Mitsubishi shipyard, Nagasaki on 16 March 1925. Launched on 24 March 1928 she was commissioned on 25 April 1929 and from 1931 up to 1933 under captain Nomura Naokuni she trained, as part of the 4th Sentai, 3rd Fleet with her sister-ships. Nothing notable come to mind for the interwar perdiod. Haguro received the two refits her sister-ships underwent, the last raising their deep load displacement to above 16,000 tonnes. She participated in convoy escorts during the operations in China, in 1932 and from 1937, up to her refit in 1939. Her first combat debut was in the Dutch East Indies, at the battle of Makassar, 8 February 1942. IJN Haguro was also a key player in the Battle of the Java Sea on 27 February 1942, sinking the destroyer HNLMS Kortenaer and Doorman's flagship, HNLMS De Ruyter, in both cased by using the deadly "long lance" torpedo. HMLNS De Ruyter was by no means able to resist her, being only a modern light cruiser. Barely two days later, on 1 March 1942, off Borneo, IJN Haguro battered and sank HMS Exeter with another cruiser, and her escort the destroyer HMS Encounter.

IJN Haguro in 1929

On 7 May 1942, she took part in the Battle of the Coral Sea. Later she operated in the Solomon Islands, covering landings, convoy of reinforcements and shelluing Henderson field. She was able also to take part in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, 24 August 1942, and the evacuation of Japanese troops from Guadalcanal at the end of January 1943. At the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, 2 November 1943 Haguro also took an active part and was lightly damaged. On 19 June 1944, was at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, survived the onslaught, and in 23–25 October 1944, took some damage at the Battle of Leyte Gulf.

IJN Haguro underway in 1936
IJN Haguro underway in 1936

The end: Battle of the Malacca Strait (May 1945)
In May 1945, war was over in Europe, and IJN Haguro already veteran of a dozen battles en engagements, became a target during the British Royal Navy "Operation Dukedom". She was spotted and hunted down by the 26th Destroyer Flotilla, while she only had the destroyer Kamikaze as sole escort. The attack happened just after midnight, on 16 May 1945. IJN Kamikaze was lightly damaged, but Haguro both received concentrated gunfire and three Mark IX torpedoes hits. Slowing down, she started to list 30-degree to port and around 02:32, started to sink, stern first, in the Malacca Strait. It was about 55 nautical miles (48 nmi; 89 km) off Penang. Kamikaze, which survived, rescued 320 survivors but the cruiser went down with 900 men and Vice Admiral Hashimoto, as well Rear Admiral Sugiura, and the captain. At that point, she was the last major Japanese warship sunk in a surface action. She was officially stricken on 20 June 1945.

Haguro at Rabaul

Same photo colorized by Irootoko Jr
Same photo colorized by Irootoko Jr.

Her wreck was rediscovered on 4 March 2003 and explored by a group of specialised shipwreck divers (MV Empress). She layed 67 metres (220 ft) beneath the surface in the Malacca Strait, upright, and covered by discarded trawler nets and partly buried in the seabed at the level of her waterline, up to her stern well above the seabed. Mats, bridge, and most superstructures collapsed, and many elements missed like her funnels. One torpedo torned down and broke her bow, her No.1 turret and its barbette were lying out of the hull on the sea bed, No.2 turret trained full starboard had her roof collapsed, barrels and breeches missing (never repaired battle damage at Leyte Gulf). No.3 turret was trained to port and her stern turrets pointed astern while the wreck is broken in half behind them. There was another expedition in 2010 and she has been reported in 2014 to have been pillaged and further destroyed as a result.

IJN Ashigara

IJN Ashigara at the Spithead coronation naval review in 1937
IJN Ashigara at the Spithead coronation naval review in 1937

Like the other cruisers of her class, IJN Ashigara was first training at Sasebo Naval District, in Sentai-4, 3rd Fleet. She was flagship of Sentai 4 (Vice Admiral Nobutarō Iida) and after a review had her forward smokestack raised by two meters. She escorted transports in China after the first Shanghai Incident of February 1932, was in reserve in December 1932, and reaffected to Sentai-5. Refitted between 1933 and 1935, she was damaged this summer during training, off of Muroran, Hokkaido. There was a gun flashback during a gunnery exercise, which destroyed No.2 turret, killing 41. She was back in service in December. On 10 March 1937, she sailed to Europe, participating of the 1937 Spithead, coronation review for King George VI.

On her way she stopped at Singapore, Aden, crossed the Suez Canal and stopped also in Malta and arrive din May in Portsmouth. After Spithead, she departed to Kiel in Germany and her crew was on leave to visit Berlin, while the senior staff was received by Adolf Hitler on 24 May 1937. On the 31 May, IJN Ashigara was present in the German Kriegsmarine Day naval review and momorial of the Battle of Jutland. She stopped at Gibraltar, Port Said and Colombo on her way back to Japan. She escorted further transports at the opening of the second sino-Japanese war, still as flagship of Sentai-5 (July). She led the main convoy in August.

IJN Ashigara and Graf Spee in the background in Kiel naval celebrations
IJN Ashigara and Graf Spee in the background in Kiel naval celebrations, colorized by Irootoko jr.

On 11 December 1937 the ocean liner SS President Hoover ran aground in a typhoon off Taiwan and the nearby Ashigara arrived there in 14 hours to pick-up the stranded survivors. With a destroyer, they managed carry 330 crew and 503 passengers ashore. They were later repatriated by the liner SS President McKinley, and transfered were helped again by IJN Ashigara and her destroyer escort. The remainder were evacuated by SS President Pierce but the SS Hoover's wreck was guarded by an USN destroyer until relieved by a Japanese destroyer.

On 15 December 1937, Captain Kuninori Marumo assumed command and later Captain Marquis Tadashige Daigo in 1938 while she underwent her second reconstruction. Until the end of it she was commanded by Captain Michiaki Kamada. This was over in October 1940 and she covered a convoy bound to the occupation of Vichy-French CochinChina on 29 July 1941. Back to Sasebo in August 1941, she becmame flagship for Vice Admiral Ibō Takahashi, Sentai-16. In December, Ashigara was off Mako Guard District (Pescadores islands) with Maya and Kuma. She assisted the invasion of northern Luzon. On 10 December she was under attack by nine PBY Catalina bombers (no hit). She was attacked by five B-17s on the 11. She covered landings at Balikpapan and also Makassar in the Dutch East Indies by February.

During the Battle of the Java Sea on 1 March 1942, Ashigara hit HMS Exeter multiple times and the destroyer HMS Encounter, sharing the kills with Haguro. On 10 March 1942, she became flagship, for the Second Southern Expeditionary Fleet. The latter participated led invasion of Christmas Island, on 26 May 1942. She also became flagship of the Southwest Area Fleet from 10 April 1942. After a stop in Japan in June for maintenance and repairs, she was back to Makassar in July and until the end of the year, spent her time escorting rapid troop transports from Surabaya. Dry-docked at Seletar Naval Base, Singapore she was there in January 1943.

Until early 1944, IJN Ashigara escorted troop transports. Shhe returned in April 1943 in Yokosuka for a refit and receive a Type 21 radar and i February 1944, was reaffected to the 5th Fleet, northern waters receiving a Type 22 surface-search radar. She was based in Ōminato Guard District with Nachi during the summer. Refitted at Kure Naval Arsenal in September 1944 she was ma de ready for the upcoming Battle of Leyte Gulf in October. Under Captain Hayao Miura, as part of Vice Admiral Kiyohide Shima's force, she teamed with Nachi and eight destroyers. This force entered Surigao Strait on 25 October, following the destruction of Shōji Nishimura's First Raiding Force, Fusō, Yamashiro and their escorts.

They were ambushed by Rear Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf. IJN Ashigara and Nachi fired their torpedoes and retreated. IJN Ashigara took refuge in Palawan, and headed to Brunei, departing again on 17 November with Haruna and Ōyodo, for the Spratly Islands. Under Vice Admiral Shima's force she headed for Cam Ranh Bay in Indochina on 14 December. With Ōyodo and 6 destroyers she joined the Raiding Force on Mindoro where a landing was taking place. Spotted en route, they were soon attacked by B-25 Mitchell bombers and Ashigara was damaged by a direct hit, but arrived nonetheless and shelled American positions, spending 200 shells before retreating to Cam Ranh Bay on 29 December 1944.

IJN Ashigara drydocked in Singapore, 1942
IJN Ashigara drydocked in Singapore, 1942

On 26 January 1945, she was in drydock maintenance in Singapore and repairs. On 5 February, as part of the 10th Area Fleet she spent five months as a troop and supply transport in the Dutch East Indies and Bay of Bengal, and while underway on 22 April, was attacked by HNLMS O 19, which missed. On 7 June 1945, she sailed from Batavia to Singapore with 1,600 troops on board when she was ambushe dunderway by the USS Blueback, reporting their position but too slow to take an attack position. The report went to HMS Trenchant and HMS Stygian, which took positions on the northern end of Bangka Strait. On the morning of 8 June 1945 IJN Kamikaze, which escorted Ashigara, spotted HMS Trenchant on the surface and opened fire. The sub plunger immediatemy and both lost contact, and the destroyer found afterwards HMS Stygian.

Meanwnile, HMS Trenchant, now at persicopic depht, spotted the following Ashigara and prepared a torpedo attack abaft her starboard beam. Eight torpedoes left her bow tubes around midday and the cruiser attempted to turn starboard but cannot complete the maneuver in time. She took five hits, from 4,700 yards (4,300 m). Trenchant maneuvered and fired her stern tubes, but both missed. Ashigara took immediately a heavy list but sank slowly. IJN Kamikaze, lost contact with Stygian and returned for Trenchant, which submerged and escaped. She rescued 400 Japanese Army troops, 853 crewmen, including, Rear Admiral Miura. Still, 1200 troops and 100 crewmen drawned.

IJN Ashigara in 1940 post-refit sea trials, colorized by irootoko jr.
IJN Ashigara in 1940 post-refit sea trials, colorized by irootoko jr.

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Consolidated PBY Catalina
Brewster F2A Buffalo
Curtiss SOC seagull
Douglas SBD Dauntless
Douglas TBD Devastator
Grumman J2F Duck
Grumman F3F
Vought SB2U Vindicator
Vought Kingfisher
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Nakajima A1N
Nakajima A2N
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N Navy Type 97 "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N Tenzan "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y Navy Type 96 "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 "Betty" (1941)
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu Type 4 "Peggy" (1942)
Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 Type 2 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K Tokai-Ren "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M Navy Type 90 "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 43 K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Yokosho Rogou Kougata
Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go
Aichi H9A
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi E16A "Zuiun"
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi M6A1 Seiran
Aichi E11A "Laura"
Hiro H4H
Nakajima E2N
Nakajima E3A
Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu "Rex"
Watanabe E9W
Watanabe K8W
Yokosuka K1Y
Yokosuka E1Y
Yokosuka K4Y
Yokosuka H5Y

Italian WW2 air arm CANT 6
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
CANT Z.515
CANT Z.511
CANT Z.515
Caproni Ca.316
Fiat CR.20 Idro
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M3
Macchi M5
Macchi M18
Macchi M24
Macchi M41
Macchi M53
Macchi M71
Piaggio P6
Piaggio P8
Savoia-Marchetti S.55
Savoia-Marchetti S.56
Savoia-Marchetti S.57
Savoia-Marchetti S.59
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62

British Fleet Air Arm
Fairey Swordfish
Fairey III

The Cold War

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US Navy USN (1990)

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