The 1945-49 civil war

After 1945, the two liberation armies, armed and supported by future cold war adversaries clashed together. The northern communists eventually won in 1949, the former southern army trusted by the West forming what is Taiwan (Republic of China) today. With the formation of the PLA (Popular Liberation Army), the Navy branch was soon funded.

Mao Zedong asserted that "to oppose imperialist aggression, we must build a powerful navy". Already junks were used on Hainan Island assault. A Naval Academy was created at Dalian on 22 November 1949 (since then the Chinese PLAN major hub) with Soviet instructors. The navy itself was created in September 1950. Regional naval forces were fused under a single command in Jiangyan (now Taizhou, Jiangsu province).

Constitution of the Chinese PLAN

Coldwar PLAN

Modern PLAN

Early Sino-Soviet relations 1949-1960

The Chinese continental Navy, politically best known as the "People's Liberation Army Navy" is the result of the 1945-49 civil war. The communist country takeover was accompanied by the seizure of ports and shipyards as well as ships in various conditions.

The double drive to create a modern society and get rid of any foreign domination, plus the need of order after decades of turmoil led to this situation. Natural affinities meant China turned to USSR for legitimacy and support, despite Mao's well funded apprehensions, first to Stalin's own ambitions and later to the Soviet regime ambiguous views of their relationships with China.

And it's fitting in some ways that after so long cooperation and technology transfers in all military matters, including naval, that the Sino-Soviet split began in 1954 after the Soviets forcefully asked the Chinese to participated in a composite pacific fleet under Soviet supervision, the condition being Soviet deliveries to bolster the fledging PLAN's capabilities.

After China paid such a human price in this four-years long proxy war that was Korea, to the benefit of USSR without clear ROI, wasn't to play long in Mao's regime own game.

On the material side, this early contribution consisted in four ageing Gordiy class DDs, thirteen subarines, eight large patrol ships, two minesweepers, and fifty-fice P4 plus twleve P6 motor torpedo boats. In a second phase, they provided parts for the assembly of more modern ships and participated in the modernisation of some yards.

Eventually their greater contribution perhaps, befotre the split, was to send Styx antiship missiles. Later on the Chinese continued to produced domestic ships, still with a Soviet background tech, anec with a gradual opening to the west, eventually adopting some Western electronics and armaments.

The Sino-Soviet split and consequences

Another step was reached in 1954 after the death of Stalin when Kruchtchev denounced Stalin's cult of personality which Mao took as a personal attack. There was a resurgene on the Chinese side of re-disvovering unequal treaties passed with Russia and an overall rapacious attitude, and in 1960, already the Soviet premier has in return attacked Mao and retire all his technical advisers. There was one last shipment, part of a Golf-class submarine plus missiles but of course no warhead and no nuclear tech.

In the following years as relations became even colder, all technical assistance ceased, and all specialists still in China in many areas were withdrawn. But by the mid-1960 this left Mao in a precarious situation, without foreign allies and with a still weak industrial infrastructure and the 1958 "great leap forward", with backyard blast furnaces producing pig iron and widespread famine did'nt helped either.

The cultural revolution that followed wasted experts and previously soviet-trained Chinese specialists that were sorely lacking afterwards in the tech area. Just ike Stalin's own purge, it had erased any prospects for rapid technological progresses in many areas, including missiles and electronics for the Navy, accumulating a gap which lasted until the 1980s.

Not only development of torpedoes was stopped but for example the metallurgy quality was such that designing a reliable, scalable diesel engine was no longer possible. The result was almost a froze in technology, stuck in the mid-1950s, still by the 1970s, that Chinese isolation did not helped.

China's turn to the West

Probably the most amazing result of the complete break with USSR (which culminated with a 1969 large border clash between the two powers) was the capitalist uber-enemy the USA would attempt a rapprochement with China in the context of a war with Soviet-backed North Vietnamese Forces. This happened in 1971 under Nixon's administration, and although it did not drop decades of defiance towards the West, the situation was ease considerably and helped start opening China.

This was conpounded in the 1980s with the Soviet invasion and war in Afghanistan, that the Chinese saw as a Soviet agressive hegemonic policy that could destabilize the neighbourhood like Pakistan, which will came into the good grace of China soon (and became a premium customer and partner in military hardware).

The death of Mao and the new regime views of international relations changed a lot and with Deng Xiaoping capitalism was now a modernization, viable option. Doctrine was clearly toned down, only the party remained. Four "great modernizations" plans were set up, but in this, the military was a good last.

China indeed saw as much having placed the military first in Soviet directed economy has plunged the country into such misery. By 1990 this lesson could not being ignored anymore. It was time for China to show the world it has woken up. In the 1980s there was a rise in technology transfers and reverse engineering helping China to modernize the PLAN as well as the Air Force and Ground Forces big time.

A new array of ships appeared and brand new blue water navy plans were setup which helped the navy to transition from a third-world country navy to the second in tonnage worldwide.

The Fleets are created

By 1954-1955 the North Sea Fleet, East Sea Fleet, and South Sea Fleet, were created, along with a corps of admirals and naval officers inspired by the ground forces. Soviets shipbuilding assisted the Chinese yards until the Chinese were capable of producing their own designs, especially after the Sino-Soviet split of 1969.

But the PLAN really knew its surge to the lowest navy ranks at the end of the cold war, from relative parity with European Navies from the 1990s (Already by 1987 the third largest navy in the world), and a formidable increase helped by its miracle economical growth and new ambitions in the 2000s.

1987's Liu Huaqing reforms

Indeed by 1988, the PLAN benefited from Commander Liu Huaqing's energetic reforms, to make it a regional naval power, a very close relative to Deng Xiaoping, also hell-bent on Chinese modernization policies. Under his command, the Navy oriented itself from a traditional coastal force to a fleet oriented towards green-water operations.

That was at that time also that combined-arms operations were greatly enhanced, with the Marines and Naval Air Force well strengthened in the process. A first landmark of this renewal and jump in capabilities was the 1986 introduction of the Xia-class SSBNs and Han-class SSNs (armed with six SY-2 cruise missiles). The second phase was the adoption of the ex-Varyag, later refitted, modernized and put into service as the Liaoning, first aircraft carrier.

Navy structure in 1987 comprised the headquarters in Beijing, and three fleet commands, North (Qingdao, Shandong, East (Ningbo) and South (Zhanjiang, Guangdong) with a total of about 2,000 ships, 350,000 personal total distributed between the surface fleet, Air Force units (26,000), Coastal Defense Forces and Marine Corps (10,000).

The PLAN today

China awakened

In the 1950s there were concerns about China great "awakening", with the biggest population and the highest potential of any developed Asian nations. Since 1990 and the end of the bipolar threat, China has the ambition to create a blue water navy of such importance that it is rated nowadays the #1 concern for global American Strategic thinking. Ranking #2 just behind the US Navy, the PLAN (People's Liberation Army Navy) is resolutely Adopting a more active, ambitious, even aggressive stance, according to increasingly worrying Asian neighbors.

Luda class destroyers
Luda class missile destroyers, the backbone of the Cold war Chinese PLAN (cdts: )

Regional Tensions

There are tensions and concerns about the South China Sea, East China Sea EEZ, and Paracel Islands. Territorial disputes which concerns also Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, all navies that were comprehensively modernized since the 2000s, with much larger budgets. There are major tensions (new "incidents" are for the moment not excluded) towards the Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu), with a considerably reinforced JSDNF. Since commercial lines and Chinese oil supplied passes through the Indian Ocean, the Indian Navy also considerably reinforced its potential recently (an incident occurred already off the Vietnam coast with the INS Airavat in 2011).

Chinese PLAN battle line

Anti-Piracy Missions

On a more positive side, the Chinese Navy also participates actively to anti-piracy operations, a good way to train personal and justify the Navy's growing budget but moreover safeguard trade routes. A massive deployment started on 18 December 2008 in Aden's Gulf, in response to Somali pirates attacks on Chinese ships and hijacking attempts. Since then, more than 30 ships had been deployed in this area to this day. One ship also took part in the Libyan civil war, and another had some role in the Yemen conflict, in both case performing evacuation of nationals and not nationals like Pakistani personal.

Strength Today

The PLAN is in a transition phase from an essentially coastal defense navy in 1990 towards a blue water navy of comparable assets to the US Navy in this area. This goes in par with the building of new aircraft carriers (the first of which is the unnamed yet 001A), and a fleet of modern destroyers with a comparable to the US/Japan AEGIS type system to defend these task forces.

Chinese PLAN sailors, Qindao

From 2012 the asserted strength of the PLAN is about 280,000 personnel and approx. 500 ships excluding auxiliaries) and 700+ aircrafts, including carried helicopters and long-range naval planes. The Navy is divided into five branches: The Submarine Force, the Surface Force, the Coastal Defense Force, the Marine Corps (personal 10,000, well equipped) and the Naval Air Force (26,000 by 2015). The PLA Navy Headquarters directly under the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party. Actual Commander is Vice Admiral Shen Jinlong, assisted by Political Commissar Admiral Miao Hua.

Poster of Chinese PLAN ships - Retrieved from

In the wake of the release of The PLA Navy: New Capabilities and Missions for the 21st Century by U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) in April 2015, released publicly a comprehensive identification & recognition guides of China’s PLAN and Maritime Law Enforcement (MLE) ships.


-Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd
-Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company

The new Type 055 destroyers are the most ambitious so far. (credits

Typology as of today

CNS Kunming, DDG-172 (Luyang III class or Type 052D destroyers)

After the modernized Ashan class, discarded in 1991, the Luda class destroyers from 1966-77 were still in service. Since then were built the two Luhu class (1991), the Luhai class's Shenzen (1999), eight Luyang class (2004), two Luzhou class (2006) and the actual Luyang III class (2014) with five commissioned and height more in completion.
To this, four ex-Soviet Sovremenny-class destroyer were acquired and commissioned in 1999 to 2006.
But by far the most impressive, which gives a good measure of Chinese intentions is the Renhai class (Type 055 destroyer) in completion for 2018-2019. These are 10,000 tonnes destroyers, presented to the press by admiral Yin Zhuo like a 'game changer in naval warfare', an equivalent of the US Arleigh Burke class.

Compared fleets in 1990


Chinese PLA China

Japanese flag Japan

American Flag USA

Aircraft Carriers0815
Amphibious Ships513496
Missile attack crafts600
Sub Chasers16430

Chinese Fleets & Naval bases

The People's Liberation Army Navy is divided into three fleets:
-The North Sea Fleet: Yellow Sea and headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong Province.
Local yards and bases are Dalian, Jinxi, Jiyuan, Laiyang, Jiaoxian, Xingtai, Laishan, Anyang, Changzhi, Liangxiang and Shan Hai Guan.
-The East Sea Fleet: East China Sea and headquartered in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province.
Local yards and bases are Danyang, Daishan, Shanghai (Dachang), Luqiao, Feidong and Shitangqiao.
-The South Sea Fleet: South China Sea and headquartered in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province.
Local yards and bases are Foluo, Haikou, Lingshui, Sanya, Guiping, Jialaishi and Lingling.
These bases includes the Chinese naval air service.

Each fleet comprises traditional surface forces (destroyers, frigates, amphibious vessels etc.) and submarine forces, as well as coastal defence units and aircraft. Aircraft carriers are not part of the mix now. The only one in service (The Liaoning) is currently not attached to any fleet, since it's used for instruction, but deployed over the years in all three. The second aircraft carrier currently in building (still unnamed) is not scheduled to be attached to any fleet yet. Three are needed to create the expected local task forces.

The coast guard

The PLAN paramilitary maritime service is chiefly the China Coast Guard. Previously part of the provincial armed police border defense force command, it was reorganized and consolidated as an unified service. It includes the China Marine Surveillance (CMS) and Hai Guang, or People's Armed Police and sea militia. The CMS first primary duties are coastal and ocean search and rescue or patrols.

While Hai Guang operates hundreds of local small patrol craft for maritime patrol, the CMS uses larger, long range ships ships armed often with machine guns and 37mm antiaircraft guns supported by small aviation units whereas Hai Guang operates a fleet of Harbin Z-9 helicopters, and Harbin Y-12 STOL modified patrol planes. Coastal provinces had one to several Coast Guard squadrons, such as Fujian, Guangdong (3 squadrons), Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Hainan, Guangxi (2 each), or Heibei, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Shanghai (1 each).

PLAN's Marines corps

PLA Marines The People's Liberation Army Navy Marine Corps or PLAN Marines was originally created in the 1950s and reorganized completely in 1979. About 12,000 marines are organised into two 6000 strong Marine brigades based in the South China Sea, operating with the South Sea Fleet. They are considered elite troops, a rapid mobilization forces by contrast to war-mobilization raw recruits of the Army.

They are trained to amphibious warfare and Paratroopers and fighting spearhead. They had to create and secure bridgehead long enough for the Army to catch up and send massive reinforcements. These marines are equipped with the Type 95 Assault Rifle and the rest of Chinese PLA small arms, mortars and light artillery, with a strong armoured component with many amphibious AFVs and dedicated air support. These Marines does not have at present a significant amphibious assault ship

Chinese PLAN Marines at RIMPAC

With the PLAN's accelerating efforts to expand its capabilities beyond territorial waters, it would be likely for the Marine Corps to play a greater role in terms of being an offshore expeditionary force similar to the USMC and Royal Marines.

Marines amphibious ZBD-05 Infantry Fighting Vehicle Author's illustration - Tanks Encyclopedia

Marines amphibious ZBD-2000 Infantry Fighting Vehicle Author's illustration - Tanks Encyclopedia


-Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd
-Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company
-Post-1990: Underground nuclear submarine base near Sanya, Hainan.

regional fleets PLAN
Chinese military regions showing the three regional fleets.

Post-1990 evolution

In 1987 already, China was the third largest navy in the world in tonnage. Such instrument was a gift to ensure global ambitions, starting by territorial claims in several islands. The PLAN was indeed prominent to enable for a change in Chinese strategic priorities. Scenarios became a possible conflict with the United States and resurgent Japan in the Taiwan Strait or the South China Sea.

So a blue water navy was a priority early on, allowed by the collapse of the Soviet Union allowed China to transfer resources to the navy. In May 2008 the Daily Telegraph reported 20 tunnels built into hillsides to act as nuclear submarines pens. Targeting the the Pacific Ocean it was a challenged to local United States naval power. The same year, Major General Qian Lihua interviewed by the BBC stated that the PLAN planned to built enough aircraft carriers to expand the air defense perimeter. Next year, the head of the U.S. Pacific Command called the PLAN expansion plans "aggressive," raising concerns over the region.

A senator observed that obly the "United States has both the stature and the national power to confront the obvious imbalance of power that China brings" to situations such as the claims to the Spratly and Paracel islands.

Limitations or weaknesses were also observed like the lack of capabilities for sustained operations by large task forces overseas and joint operations with other branches like the army and aur force, C4ISR systems, anti-air warfare, antisubmarine warfare, MCM, and dependence on foreign suppliers for some key ship components.

-An important step was the acquisition of the discarded Ukrainian Varyag in 1998 converted up to 2012, as the PLAN's first aircraft carrier, Liaoning followed by the first indigenous Type 001A (Shandong) aircraft carrier launched in 2017.

-Another step was the introduction of the the world's first anti-ship ballistic missile, DF-21D, a direct threat against U.S. aircraft carriers. Also in June 2017 the Type 055 destroyer apparead, with its own AEGIS-like system and over 12,000 tons in displacement, second largest destroyer class in the world after the Zumwalt-class... Not to speak of the Jin class SSBNs and following (see after).


20 Chinese Destroyers

-4 Anshan class (modernized 1971)
-16 Luda class (service 1972-81)
-2 enlarged Luda II and 1 large Luhu class in construction

The last cruisers of the Chinese fleet dated back from way before the war of 1937. In 1949 it seems the new Chinese PLAN was just too small and had not the industrial capabilities to launch any cruiser program.

However in 1954, the PLAN made the acquisition of four ex-Type 7 Soviet destroyers. They all served until 1991 and constituted the basis for a domestic design after 1967, the Luda class destroyers in 1969-77.

26 Chinese Frigates

-4 Chengdu class frigates (1956)
-5 Kiangnan class frigates (1967)
-1 Jiangdong class frigate (1973)
-14 Jianghu class frigates (1975)
8 more Jianghu II planned.
-2 Jianghu III class Frigates (1984)
-1 Jianghu IV class frigate (1985)

Transferred and rearmed civilian ships

In 1949, the PLAN rearmed two civilian Canadian ships, converted Castle class Frigates HCMS Coppercliff (1944) first named Shih Lin and Yuan pei (ex Bowmanville), with two 130 mm guns, one 45 mm and five 37 mm. In military service the first was named Kuang Chou, the other being unknown and was discarded in the late 1960s while the former was stricken in 1986.

Three ex-British Flower class corvettes were also sold as merchant ships to China, rearmed with Soviet weaponry, 2 x 100mm guns, 1x45, 4x37 mm AA. The Kai Feng was disarmed in 1974 and converted as a survey ship (extant 1990). The Lin I (2x100mm, 2x37 mm) was discarded in 1979, but is not known if the SS Maw Hwa was rearmed or the details of it, she was discarded circa mid 1950s already.

New Frigates

The Chengdu class were basically Riga types, built after soviet plans and parts after the 1954 deal, which included also the transfer of four Soviet Gnevniy class (future Anshan class) destroyers.

They were comprehensively rebuilt and modernized in 1971 with SSMs. The next Jiangnan class (built at Kiangnan yard, Shanghai out of a purely domestic design). Completed in 1967-68 these four ships served with the Eastern sea fleet.

The larger Jiangdong class was of the 'enlarged Riga type', to provide an AA escort, but the SAM system was not operational before 1985 and Yintang sister-ship was discarded incomplete in 1982. The next mass-produced Jianghu type used the same hull, but resembled small destroyers with their two centerline SSM missile banks. Three were sold, two in 1985 (Egypt) and one to Bangladesh (1990). The next Jianghu II class in construction had new twin 100mm mounts.

The Jianghu III were much larger and more modern ships commissioned in 1986-92 with containerized Yi-1 SSM launchers. Four were planned, four more were to be built for Thailand. The Siping of the next IV class, was completed in 1986 with an helicopter pad, the first to be so. The next Jiangwei class in construction in 1990 were to have the new HQ-81 SAM system.

68 Submarines

14 WW2 era Soviet transfers

-1 series IV (coastal MIV) circa 1955, discarded 1963, used for training
-1 M39 serie VI bis transferred in 1955 and used for training, deleted 1963
-4 ShCh types transferred circa 1955, obsolete and deleted 1963.
-4 M200-203 ex-serie XV or MV also coastal types, transferred circa 1955, used for training, discarded in the late 1970s.
-4 Series IX renamed S400-403 oceanic submarines, still in service circa late 1970s.

99 Soviet types of Local construction

-21 Whiskey class (Tr.1955) renamed 119-267 with Soviet components to built five more. Entered service 1956-64 stricken 1989 (6) the other extant by 1995.
-78(68) Romeo class. These modern oceanic SSNs were transferred (four) just before the Sino-Soviet split of 1969, reverse-engineered and with the Chinese yards expertise on the previous Whiskey class, about 78 were built, split between several yards. All in service by 1990, they formed the bulk of the conventional Chinese PLAN submarine fleet.

Type 031 the first Chinese SSBN (1964)

The design for this NATO "Golf" class (Type 031) was supplied to China prior to the Sino-Soviet split and expulsion of Soviet advisers in 1960, and was completed at Luda in 1964 with whatever the Chinese can muster. Called 200 (serial) it housed three tubes abaft the large conning tower for SLBMs (which were not provided). One of these tubes was removed and replaced to test a new ballistic missile. NATO and intelligence speaks of a sole "Golf" type lost during a trial of the new CSS-NX-3 SLBM reported in August 1981.

It is not known if this was the same 200 refloated, or its sister-ship (apparently for globalsecurity) but this boat was again signalled in October 1982 making the first succseful launch of a Chinese SLBM and was still recorded in service by 1995 as trials ship. t was never considered operational but prepared the way for the more advance "Xia" class (see below).

type 031 SSG
Type 031 SSBN (Chinese Golf class)

12 Chinese modern submarines

Before the end of the cold war, China created, from the 1970s onwards, four types of locally-built submarines of modern standards.

Han class: The most ambitious were the "Han" class SNAs and the "Xia" class SSBNs. Both were given a "teardrop" hull, nuclear turbines and German engines and many other innovations. The last three (of five) were delivered in 1983-90 with a 8m lenghtened hull, but the hypothesis this was to make room for cruise missiles has been brushed aside by experts. Note the great gap between these: 401 was launched in 1970, 402 in 1977, 403 in 1983 and the 404-405 in 1990.

So technically these last two were not operational at the end of the cold war. The two early boats were retired in 2000 and 2002. They are replaced and backed nowadays by seven SNAs of the Type 093 Shang-class (2005) and the third generation Type 095 (unnamed yet) 2017 SNAs.

Han class
Han class SNAs

Ming Class: The next "Ming" class were launched from 1975 to 1988-89, in all seven attack submarines of conventional propulsion. They were basically modified "Romeo" types, with better propulsion, more modern diesel engines, up to 2500 hp for a top speed of 18 knots and 15 knots submerged.

They havd been preceded by failed attempts with regular Chinese-built Romeo class with triple screws and powerplants, soon discarded and broken up (Project 034) and also planned a cruiser-missile variant (project 036), never built. The Ming class in the end only gained 1/4 knot for a larger hull, not a great advantage.

However the modified Project 035 received modern Western electronics, namely French sonar, ESM and torpedo fire control. One (351) was launched in 1987 and modified as a cruiser missile submarine, known as the "Wuhan" class. This converted "Romeo" was given six TTs tailored to fire the C-801 cruise missile. It was tested to prepare for the next E5SG class (Project 036) conversion for the Ming class/Romeo type.

The programme ended and no unit followed. Apparently this submarine was still in service in 1995. However they are now planned for replacement by Russian-built kilo class (12 boats, from 1994) Song class (13 boats, 1998) and the new Yuan class (Type 039A, 2006) which is also exported.

Ming class
Xia class: The last and most impressive class was called "Xia" by NATO (after the first Chinese known dynasty). It is now known as the Type 092. For the whole world it was a huge step forward in terms of capabilities after China declared its first ballistic missiles. The "Xia" was built by the same yard responsible for the "Han" class, and basically used the same hull.

Her twelve tubes could launch the CSS-N-3 ballistic missiles tests previously on a unique Chinese "Golf" class called 200 from the 1960s, which made a first succesful underwater launching test in 1982. The Type 092 was remarkable as the first Asian SSBN. A second boat is thought to have been completed in 1982, but this is highly debatable as well as its possible loss in an accident in 1985.

That would have been strange, as "406" was completed in 1987 and was therefore in service after this alleged "second boat". So this unique SSBN is a problem, related to the need of having at least two of these types at sea at any time while two others are in refit for an efficient dissuasion (so four SSBNs).

That's the actual conclusion reached in the 1970s already by the players of the restrictve club of SSBN builders, namely UK, Russia and France, the US Navy playing on another league. However this unique boat is now backed by four SSBNs of the "Jin" class or more officially Type 094, launched in 2005 and following.

The Chinese Navy actually plan to acquire four of the new Type 096 submarines (FY 2020), armed with the JL-3 SLBM. This would make for a total of nine SSBNs, but with a "Xia" that is already obsolete (first drafted in 1983), and likely so eight in about 2025, which is sound, allowing four modern SSBNs to remain at sea at all time.

Xia class SSBN

Chinese Fast Attack Crafts

The cold war limited resources of China leaned towards a defensive policy, well before any plan for a "green water navy", let alone a "blue water" one. The best naval defensive ways had been submarines and missile or torpedo boats. On the last area, China acquired a great deal of small surface combatants.

(70) 5220 series 'P4' FACs
P4 class FAC

These seventy motor torpedo boats of the 'P4' ww2 class were transferred from 1952 by USSR to China. In detail, these were 55 boats of the 'P4' type, the remainder being assembled locally, among which six in 1965. Apparently 6 were transferred to Albania and 6 to Bangladesh and from 1976 they started to be discarded. About 50 estimated in service in the mid-1980s, probably kept in reserve in 1990 and scrapped afterwards.

(96) 5200 series 'P6' FACs

These more modern MTBs were transferred from 1954, twelve boats in all, plus blueprints to produce them locally. That way, the Shanghai yards and others were responsible to built eighty boats in 1956-66. They had two TTs and a more powerful and modern AA artillery, and electronics, a larger hull and greater autonmy. In 1967 six were stranferred to North Vietnam, but in 1990 they had been largely discarded, only twenty to ten were in reserve.

(200) Huchuan class hydrofoil FACs

A Pakistani Huchuan class hydrofoil FAC.

The Chinese however had the largest hydrofoil MTBs fleet worldwide in the 1980s. This unique move was due to the need to compensate for the lack of speed of torpedoes, compared to missiles: It was better to have the launcher closer to the target, much faster than a regular MTB. The only solution, already tested by the Germans in WW2, was to design an hydrofoil, to minimize the surface in contact with the water.

China was indeed the first country to deploy operational foil-borne attack ships. The design was completely Chinese, with no Soviet intervention at any stage. production started in 1966 and went on until the late 1970s, at Shanghai and other yards.

The first batches were based in the South China sea. With time, NATO identifiedtwo distinct types, one with a forward bridge and aft twin 14.5 mm KPVT AA MGs mount or the bridge further after ad two single mounts for and and aft. They carried standard 533 mm torpedoes, no reloads.

They used the "Skin Hear" radar, had three shafts with 12-cyl diesels giving them a top speed og 55 knots (for a combined output of 3600 hp) and a range of 500 nautical miles at a cruise speed of 20 knots (foils folded).

Out of 200 however only 120 were used by the Chinese PLAN, of which about 90 were still in service by 1990, whereas the others were exported: 32 to Albania, 4 to Pakistan, 4 to Tanzania, 4 to Bangladesh, 3 to Romania, 4 to Zaire.

3D rendering of the Huchuan class FAC - Turbosquid

(c90) Hoku class FACs
Hoku class FAC

Before the sino-Soviet split, USSR transferred seven or eight "Komar" class missile boats. After the split, the Chinese quickly devised a local version class "Hoku class" (1109 and 3125 series) and about 80 to 110 were built, since the last 1960s. So they formed the backbone of costal defense until the 1980s.

Their military value was eroded due to the adoption of ECM and in the 1970s transfers began, to Albania (4), Bangladesh (4), Egypt (4), and Pakistan (4). 70 approximatively were estimated in service in the 1990s. In the late 1970s a unique variant called Homa was tested with hydrofoils, but not adopted.

(c90) Huangfeng class FACs

Called officially the 3100 series, about 80 to 112 were built according to various sources. They were locally-designed Soviet Osa I type FACs. The first four were soviet-designed and acquired in 1965, with two twin 30mm QF guns, but the bulk of the boats produced from 1966 were designed and built at the Kiangnan and Shanghai yards.

They were double the displacement of the Hoku and better armed. Som received a new armament in the 1980s, 30mm guns (instad of the original 25mm) and new SSMs, less prone to ECMs. Some were transferred: 4 to Bangladesh, 4 to Pakistan and 5 to Iran. About 80 were estimated in service after the end of the cold war.

1 Hola class FACs
In the 1970s the Chinese tried to built a new fast attack craft (FAC) derived from the Osa, but heavier and better armed. They ended with the design called by NATO "Hola" but numbered 5100. This unique ship was apparently not a success and remained single.

She was armed with six SS-N-2 SSMs, had two twin 25mm turrets and a square Tie radar mounted on a aft mounted radome and folding mast. Note: Conways also note the single "Houjian" and a small class of "Houxin" class FACs but they are in reality ASW and missile corvettes classes in the 1990s (see later).

ASW ships

6 BO2 class submarine-chasers
The first year of the cold war, China had no submarine chaser. The Soviet Union transferred six "artillerist" class ships (part of BO2 type) in the mid-1950s, and retired in the mid-1960s, replaced by the Hainan class. All discarded in 1967.

20 Kronstadt class large patrol crafts
20 ships of the soviet-built class were also used by PLAN, starting with six transferred in 1956-57, and fourteen more built locally in Shanghai and Canton the same year (more assembled than "built") as soviet components comprised pre-assembled sections. They received locally-built 14.5 mm heavy MG twin mounts, three fitted on the deck instead of the original two machine guns. They remained in service until 1990.

SO1 class ASW chasers
Two ships, ex-soviet, were transferred in 1960s, but apparently discarded in the 1980s.

95 Hainan class patrol crafts
These 360 tons were the first Chinese local patrol ships, multipurpose. They had artillery, included AA defence, and ASW racks and deep charges. They were developed from the SO1 and basically reverse-engineered. The main difference was a considerably larger hull, to accomodate a heavier armament.

Strangely the first ships were armed with American Mark 26 3-inch guns for and aft, but local 57 mm were adopted for all ships as they were available. Production started in 1964 with four ships built yearly on average. Seven were transferred to Algeria, two to Bangladesh, eight to Egypt, ten to Myanmar, six to North Korea, four to Pakistan, reducing the overall numbers of units listed. Series were 200, 300, 600 and 800.

Amphibious ships

Work in progress

Patrol ships

Work in progress


Work in progress


wikipedia - People's Liberation Army Navy
PLAN ships list as of 2018
PLAN's naval air force
Illustrations, profiles: on
on - Chinese MIG29
Chinese Fleet intel report 2019
A Must read: Chinese PLAN Full Intelligence Report 2019

Six PLAN projects

Another point on the PLAN

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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