The Danish Navy: Skagerrak's Guard

In the 1930s already the population and elites spontanously agreed that the defense of the country was unfeasible. Pacifism also, like in the Netherlands, and from 1930 the world economical crisis, severely limited any expansion or modernization of the Danish Navy, which was quickly sunk or inactivated until the 1943 'coup' and scuttling of what was left of the fleet (see the Danish Navy in WW2). See the Danish Navy WW2 poster as a refresher. The context post-WW2 however, was different. Under the vigilant eye of the US, Western Europe started to rebuilt, facing a growingly defiant Soviet Union. Instead of the loose alliances and institutions of the past, the world in 1945 seemed more stable, with a more powerful UN, and from 1949, the creation of NATO. Meanwhile, Denmark had to rebuilt its navy from scratch. First, through war reparations, a few German ships were obtained. Some ships refugees in neutral Sweden came back also. At last, UK provided a number of vessels on loan.

From there, Søværnet, the Danish Navy, was rebuilt as well as shipyards were cleaned up and resupplied, with new installations and utility buildings. Naturally, Denmark was a signatory of NATO treaty and benefited financial aid to rebuilt its industry. Both the geographical situation, political will and NATO necessities in the area limited the size and scope of the Navy to a coastal one, with relatively small, but well-armed and versatile vessels, but nothing above the Frigate rank. Corvettes and Submarines as well as FACs and minelayers were also part of the ensemble. All in all in 1990 (as it was drastically reduced afterwards), this was a much more potent and well-rounded up Navy than in 1940, well able to interdict the Skagerrak to the Soviet Navy (for some time).



A long reconstruction


Delfinen at the Kiel week

Denmark endured decades of intense international military tensions of which the population was not always conscious, but that period left a lasting mark on naval personnel in service these 40 years for the Royal Danish Navy. Immediately after war, the Danish Navy was to to be rebuilt from the ground up like in 1807 and the first task was to sweep the Danish territorial waters so as marine traffic could resume, and economical activities as well.

To perform this, a large number of minesweepers were leased from Great Britain. Next re-establishing and upholding Danish sovereignty ans also guarding waters in the Faroe Islands and Greenland impose dthe purchase of longer range, more capable vessels. So the THETIS, a modest Flower class, well suited for these waters, and two frigates of the River class were also purchased, used for for inspection duty and training ships for cadets. The Copenhague Royal Naval DockYard was also restored after the German wholesale destruction, and the base modernized, while plans were made for new constructions, some interrupted by the war and resuming like the HUITFELDT class torpedo boats (1947), first of a long serie lasting until the soloven in the 1960s, the latter being already closer to fast attack crafts and Motor torpedo boats than traditional interwar TBs.

On the first anniversary of the liberation of Denmark on May 4, 1946, the Royal Dock Yard launched the first postwar Bille class TB, quite a landmark (the Huitfeld were started before the war). It was bolstered by the obtention of 12 German S-Boats (Schellboote) of the Bundesmarine, purchased in 1947-48. They were discarded in the 1960s.


Stigsnaes on trials, 1955.

Denmark joins NATO


The ancient Royal Arsenal

Membership for Denmark intervened as early as October 24, 1945 but of the UN, while discussion fo defence integration started right away. Establishing a joint Nordic defense cooperation was discussed but plans for joining it did not work out and instead, Denmark teamed with Norway to join The North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. On April 4, 1949, Gustav Rasmussen signed the NATO-treaty and the country became a valid member on August 24, 1949. There were not much dicussions about this: By controlling the skagerrak, Denmark also loced any possible sortie of the Soviet Baltic sea into the Arlantic. Tensions however cast a shadow over the whole region, with soon an icreasing activity from both Soviet submarine and long range bombers. Meanwhile, Denmark made its navy shine for more paciofic purpose, with the scientific expedition of the Corvette Galathea, circumnavigating the globe. It was a worthy successor of the first Frigate GALATHEA in 1845-47 and the marine research ship DANA in the 1920s. Creating the economic foundation for such a venture succeeded through private funds and the ship chosen was the ex HMS LEITH purchased from the British Royal Navy. Renamed GALATHEA like the first expedition's vessel she was modified as a survey ship and depatrted Copenhaguen on October 15, 1950 for a global deep-sea expedition, 1,5 year in all, back to the capital on June 29, 1952. It attracted great international attention and also put the light on the renewed Danish Navy.

The Korean war

The Korean War erupted in 1950, and international tension grew dramatically. Soon, a UN backed coalition led by the USA sailed to the peninsula to try to save the beleaguered South Korean army. For the Danish navy this pushed dramatically the readines status, but were many discussions about how the country could contribute to the effort. In 1950 the ØK motor vessel JUTLANDIA was setup as a hospital ship and sailed for a first tour of duty on January 23, 1951. Two other tours follwoed to Korea, all under the UN, Red Cross and Danish Naval Ensign, under command of Captain Kai Hammerich. She went back on October 16, 1953. Due to international tensions stil; ungoing in Europe as well, Defense Laws of 1950-51 were passed, which concerned the rebuiklding and modernization of the old coastal fortresses of STEVNSFORT and LANGELANDSFORT. They were tasked of the surveillance of the Southern access routes via the Oresund and Great Belt. It was also ordered to greatly expand depot capacities in order to provide improved storage for ammunition, mines and torpedoes, and thus register itself as part of the increased state of readiness of the Navy.

Tragedy struck however, as on November 23, 1951, fire erupted in a naval workshop, resulting in the explosion of eleven mines, making 16 victims, most from the Copenhagen Fire Department, and Falck Rescue Service. The blast destroyed all Kvintus naval mine buildings in the surroundings as well. Meanwhile, American arms assistance arrived, helping to rebuilt a significant naval arms industry and incorporating more ships, after the purchase of surplus RN vessels in 1949-50. In 1952-53 indeed, apart the obtention of German S-boats (GLENTEN class), three destroyers of the HUNT class, with modifications. The Danish–American agreement on arms-assistance provided the depot ship, HJÆLPEREN in 1953, the two minelayers VINDHUNDEN and BESKYTTEREN, converted landing crafts. In 1953-1957, four Italian-built corvettes of the Bellona class were provided through MDAP, six torpedo boats of the FLYVEFISKEN class, eight minesweepers of the SUND class, also helped by US funds.

The case of Danish Fishery Potection


PBY Catalina of the fishery protection squadron in the 1950s.

The lack of large vessels for the task plagued the postwar Danish fisheries inspection in the waters of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Naval Air Service soon aquired several CATALINA PBY-5A to remedy the sistuation, from the US and also under help in 1947. Also frigates were setup and provided for effective fisheries inspectionof these distant waters, resulting in several successful operations against illegal fishing. The most notable saw HDMS NIELS EBBESEN (s.g. E. T. Sølling) seizing the English trawler Red Crusader on May 30 1950, with warning shots and then offensive ones to stop the ship, which escaped to Scotland after releasing the prize crew. This became an example of enforcing international law regarding the use of force at sea. For added strength later in the same waters the ALOUETTE III helicopter was procured to Navy Air Force on May 28, 1962, adding more versatility to it. The latter was also deployed for more efficient SAR missions. From 1980, the Westland LYNX replaced it (photos).


Watch on the Skagerrak


Copenhagen naval base

The entire Cold War saw Denmark the main Soviet Navy's gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, for its baltic Navy. Thus responsibility was fully enforced and demonstrated during many Soviet Submersibles attempts to cross the Denmark strait. It should be noted that the only other way was the Kiel canal, under Bundermarine control. There was increased surveillance from Denmark with the daily passage through Danish waters of many ships from Warsaw Pact nations such as Poland as well. However they were allowed to pass anyway, as the Great Belt and Oresund were international waters.

The accepted rules stipulated that only six Warsaw-pact countries vessels were allowed at one time there. Submarines were allowed to pass only if they were on the surface, clearly indicating their nationality. But others tested their ability to do so submerged in a wartime scenario. This resulted in many "close contacts". There were collisions between NATO and Warsaw Pact ships as well and in fact both sides constantly looked at each other’s state of readiness. Danish warships often patrolled with their weapons loaded and the crew ready to all option.

Target practice was done often off Sjælland's Spit. Also on short notice, peacetime exercises could be interrupted by an increased alert state, which happened in the Hungarian and Suez crisis (1956), Cuba crisis (1962), Six-Day war (1967), and Prague Spring events (1968).


HDMS Hoegen of the Falken class, 1963


HDMS Nymphen in the 1970s

The Danish navy early typical operations requiring training for minelaying, performed with ships of the Falster class (17 knots, 2,000 GRT) which at the time were the world's largest minelayers, carrying also some two hunderd eight 900 kg mines. They would have been escorted in wartime by torpedo FACs such as the Søløven-class (54 knits, 158 GRT) and the missile FACs of the Willemoes class (45 knots, 260 GRT). Later was created a "mobile base" the self-sustaining mobile missile battery (MOBA), each truck managing four Harpoon missiles.[11] The Danish intelligence capabilities were also expanded and the Danish submarines trained for very shallow water operations, while a special naval force – the Danish Frogman Corps was created. The naval bases in Frederikshavn and Korsør plus the fortresses at Langeland and Stevns were created through NATO funds in the 1950s. In case of war all Danish combat vessels were assigned to NATO's Allied Forces Baltic Approaches's naval command NAVBALTAP.

RDN_mobile_misbat-Harpoon
RDN Mobil base (MISBAT) with harpoon missiles.

Danish Naval Bases & Fortifications

Since the early days of the navy, Copenhagen was the main base. The harbor naturally offered the best anchorage and was wode enough to host a sizeable base with academy, arsenal, depots, shipyards, fuel tanks and all facilities required, close to the main center of power. In connection with the expansion of NATO the need for more naval bases arose and at the end of the fifties, it was decided to built a new base in Korsør and Frederikshavn. On May 2, 1960 the first one opened, and on October 2, 1960 the second. Ships started to be distributed between them by specialization, although Holmen in Copenhagen remained the the main naval base and HQ.

To enforce sovereignty within NATO's frame, the STANAVFORLANT (Standing Naval Force Atlantic) was created, in which Denmark played an essential part. It was placed under command of the Supreme Allied Commander (SACLANT) which had its HQ in Norfolk (Virginia). In 1970, HDMS Peder Skram became symbolocally the first Danish ship tailored to operate with STANAVFORLANT, participating in many exercizes. She was also the first of a the two largest, modern warships ever built in Denmark. Six to eight destroyers supplemented with submarines at times made the STANAVFORLANT, coming from many NATO countries uusually operating, and thus, well familiar with the conditions of the northen Atlantic. Danish frigates and corvettes alternated in many iof these joint operations, increasing cooperation and interoperability over the years 1970-80s. PEDER SKRAM & HERLUF TROLLE, the NIELS JUEL class corvettes all operated in alternance in STANAVFORLANT, ensuring a constant presence of the Danish Navy withing this command structure. From October to December 1972 also the submarine DELFINEN became the first submarine to operate in the Standing Naval Force Atlantic and soon other Danish submarines followed.

On the topic of fortifications, Denmark had its most famous at the entrance to Copenhague, called the Trekroner ('Three Crowns Sea Fortress'), edified in 1700 and active from 1713 until the 1920s, erected on three old ships of the line sunk to form a basis for a battery, one called Trekroner. The fort saw action during the British attack on Copenhagen in 1807. In 1860 it was strongly enhanced, but in 1934 it was no longer relevant, sold to the Copenhagen harbour services. It was one of three artificial islands created to defend the entrance to Copenhagen's harbor. Prøvestenen was another, built in 1859–63 under supervision of Ferdinand Meldahl, but discarded in 1922. Hanstholm fortress was another, buuilt by the Germans. Its heavy guns were still relevant in 1945. However they were scrapped in 1951-52 and today, the remains were converted as a museum. A part of the Atlantic wall remained active for a short while, and condemned as being of no use since it was turned towards the West, not the east. The Faeroe islands were not defended and remained so while both Iceland and Greeland had neutral status.

Main bases:

-Holmen Naval Base
-Frederikshavn Naval Base
-Korsor Naval Base

Minor naval bases:

Marine Station Aarhus (Danish Navy fleet command base)
Marine Station Esbjerg (NATO reinforcements port)
Marine Station Grønnedal in Greenland
Marine Station Thorshavn in the Faroe Islands
Torpedo Station Kongsøre (Frogman Corps and mine divers base)
Lyngsbæk Pier (Naval mines depot)

Coastal fortifications:

-Stevnsfortet at the southern entrance to Øresund
-Langelandsfortet at the southern entrance to the Great Belt

Sea surveillance stations:

-Marine Station Møn
-Marine Station Gedser
-Marine Station Bornholm

Danish transition to missiles

The missile era started for Denmark halfway into the 1970's as in 1978, the missile FAC (fast attack craft) HDMS NORBY (P545) became the first Danish vessel to be fitted with HARPOON SSM canisters. These became a standard armament for the Willemoes class, but also the next Flyevisken (1990) as well as the 1978 Niels Juel class corvettes. They were also installed on the PEDER SKRAM class frigates during their planned upgrade in 1979-80. In addition, these frigates were also the first Danish warships to be armed with the sea sparrow SAM, giving them a full protection bubble, as they kept their classic artillery asn ASW systems as well. There was however a serious incident on September 6, 1982, when PEDER SKRAM (s.g. Jens L. Winther) made an accident launch of a Harpoon, which eventually ran out of fuel and fell in with fortunately inhabited summer cottages near Lumsås. It made headlines in the local press at the time.

The late cold war

Late 1980s Organization

Organization

-1st Squadron = The North Atlantic Squadron (Danish: 'InspektionsSkibsEskadren' (ISE)) with 5 ocean patrol vessels (1 Beskytteren class, 4 Thetis class), 3 ocean patrol cutters (Agdlek class) and 4 icebreakers
-2nd Squadron = The Frigate Squadron (Danish: 'FreGatEskadren' (FGE)) with 2 frigates (Peder Skram class), 3 corvettes (Niels Juel class), 14 StanFlex-vessels ( Flyvefisken class) and 6 seaward defence craft (Daphne class, decommissioned in 1991)
-3rd Squadron = The Mine Squadron (Danish: 'MineSkibsEskadren' (MSE)) with 4 minelayers (Falster class), 2 cable-minelayers (Lindormen class) and 7 minesweepers (Sund class, decommissioned in 1999)
-4th Squadron = The Torpedo Boat Squadron (Danish: 'TorpedoBådsEskadren' (TBE)) with 13 torpedo-/missile boats (8 Willemoes class, 5 Søløven class), 2 oilers (Faxe class) and a truck-detachment with missiles and radars called MOBA
-5th Squadron = The Submarine Squadron (Danish: 'UndervandsBådsEskadren' (UBE)) with 6 submarines (3 Tumleren class, 3 Springeren class) and the Frogmans Corps

Transition towards the digital age

The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 signalled a seriof dramatic events, putting a practical end of the cold war, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union made the threat of world war three far less relevant. Denmark's security politics however were based on NATO's obligations, and remains so. Budget cuts has been less sensible than in other countries, and naval programs has not been curtailed to the same extent as in some navies, notably the Netherlands. Indeed as of today were can describe it as a small, solid and well balanced navy. Some observations: -The three Niels Juel class corvettes were decommissioned in 2009 and scrapped in 2013.
-The whole Willemoes class FAC was decommissioned in 2000.

Organization (2020)

lindormen 1965
HDMS Lindormen 1965

Since the end of the Cold War, transition took place, from local defence to global operations with less, but larger ships. The defence agreement of 1995–1999 initiated this process seeing Cold War frigates and minesweepers decommissioned and the squadron structure revamped.

-The defence agreement of 2000–2004 was the origin of a larger restructuration, seein more decommissioning. The last Beskytteren class ship was donated to the Estonian Navy (Admiral Pitka). The 4th squadron was disbanded and assets integrated in the 2nd squadron.

Current formations

-1st Squadron with 4 ocean patrol vessels (Thetis class), 3 ocean patrol cutters (Agdlek class) and 3 icebreakers
-2nd Squadron with 3 corvettes (Niels Juel class), 14 StanFlex-vessels (Flyvefisken class), 2 oilers (Faxe class) and a truck-detachment with missiles and radars called MOBA and a new truck-unit MLOG with shops, spare parts, mechanics, etc.
-3rd Squadron = The Mine Squadron (Danish: 'MineSkibsEskadren' (MSE)) with 4 minelayers (Falster class) and 2 cable-minelayers (Lindormen class)
-5th Squadron = The Submarine Squadron (Danish: 'UndervandsBådsEskadren' (UBE)) with 4 submarines (3 Tumleren class, 1 Kronbrog class – leased Swedish Näcken class) and the Frogman Corps

On 1 January 2006, another reorganisation from DA 2005–2009 abandoned the 95-year-old Danish submarine service and the former four squadrons are fusioned into two squadrons, the first reaffacted to domestic affairs and the second to foreign affairs.

Current organization

-1st Squadron (NB Frederikshavn): Arctic Ocean affairs, maritime patrol in the Greenlandic and Faroese waters, surveillance, SAR and oil spill prevention/recovery (recovery vessel Gunnar Seidenfaden intervened after the Prestige oil spill). Also HDMS Thetis is used for the protection force programme (WFP) at the Horn of Africa. -2nd Squadron (NB Korsør) for Foreign affairs. International protection force operations, disaster relief, non-combatant evacuations. Also taking part in international standing maritime groups and maritime operations planned by NATO. -3rd Squadron (NB Frederikshavn): Domestic maritime affairs, territorial waters, patrol, SAR, icebreaking, oil spill operations.

Naval Academy

-Naval NCO and Basic Training School (Danish: Søværnets Sergent- og Grundskole (SSG)) near Frederikshavn -Danish naval academy (Danish: Søværnets Officersskole) at Holmen, Copenhagen -Naval specialist schools (Danish: Søværnets specialskoler):
Naval Warfare (TAK) at Frederikshavn and Holmen, Naval Weapons (VBK) at Sjællands Odde, Technical (CT) at Holmen, Damage Control (SHK) near Frederikshavn, Diving (CD) at Holmen, and the Naval Centre for Sergeant and Maritime Education.

Logistics

The Naval Operational Logistic Support Structure (OPLOG) is based in Frederikshavn and Korsør, plus naval stations. They are tasked to provide logistic support fhe the fleet through the OPLOG organization, maintenance and repair. There is an additional support to civilian agencies like the Danish maritime police and United Nations. Naval Base Korsør area of operations is limited to Zealand, Funen, Bornholm waters. For Frederikshavn, the area is Jutland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. They also provide exceptional support during international operations and must exercise for possible wartime or crisis scenarios. Smaller stations had more limited support, like in Holmen and Kongsøre.

Post cold war Operations

Niels_Juel_at_Harstad_port_F363
Today's large multirole frigate Niels Juel (F363) in Harstadt Port.

Danish Navy Cold War - Articles:

The Danish Navy in 1947

Order of Battle 1947:

-Holger Danske class: With Niels Ebbesen, these were two former River class Frigates, purchased 1945 and which became TS, stricken in 1959 and 1963 respectively.
-Corvette HDMS Thetis: A former Flower class purchased 1945, stricken 1963.
-Five TBs: Havkatten (1919, str 1948), German TBs T4, T19 stricken 1950-51, Two 800 tons Najaden class, stricken 1966.
-4 Havmanden class submarines (1937-40): Discarded 1949-50.
-3 ex-British U class subs. Springeren, Storen, Saelen returned 1957-58.
-3 Minelayers (Lindormen, two Lalland class): NATO 39,40,41, stricken 1969-74
-14 Minesweepers (Narhvalen, 3 Söbörnen class, 9 MS class); All stricken 1949-71.
-21 ex German MR class minesweepers, stricken 1949-57.
-20 ex-ME class minesweepers (British, on loan), returned 1948-50.
-5 MSK vessels, 3 ML motor launches, the first stricken 1969-73, second 1956-69.

Dannebrog
The Royal Yacht Dannebog in 1994. Built in Copenhagen NyD in 1931, refitted in 1979-80 with a more modern, silent machinery. She was armed with two 37 mm guns and mobilizable in wartime with the pennant A 540. Quickspecs: 1130 tons, 75 x 10.9 x 3.7 m, 2 shafts diesels 1800 bhp, 14 knots, crew 57.

The Danish Navy in 1965 Order of Battle

HUITFELDT class torpedo boats (1947)

Huitfeld in 1947
Two ships which were a massive improvement over the previous classes, more in line with contemporary German torpedo boats. They were laid down at Orlogsværftets in mid-1942 although the project was already approved by the Admiralty in 1939. The construction was authorized by the Germans in the hope they could later bolster the Kriegsmarine. Indeed after August 1943 breakdown, the Germans seized them, and the Huitfeldt and Villemoes became in German service KMS Nymfen and Najaden, however, construction stalled and stopped completely.

It was in between decided by the Germans authorities that the initial 533 mm torpedo tubes would be locally replaced temporarily by the 450mm banks previously removed from the Dragen class. In May 1945 they were captured intact, with barely any work done since 1943.

They were completed by the Danese with some modifications and launched in 1947. At that time, the design was revised with two 105/42 KM40 guns, two 40/60 Bofors M36 AA, six 20 mm/60 Madsen M41 AA, and two triple banks of 450 mm TT, 2 DCT, and 60 mines. The design was revised once more in 1951, they received the intended two triple 533 mm TT banks, 2 DCT, and 2 DCR plus navigational radar. In 1958 they were reclassed as patrol boats and discarded in 1966.

huitfeldt 1963

These ships displaced 782 long tons up to 890 long tons (900 t) fully loaded, 86.3 m (283 ft) long overall by 8.33 m (27 ft 4 in) and 3.51 m (11 ft 6 in) in draught, and were propelled by Geared steam turbines rated for 16,000 kW (21,000 shp), enabling them to reach 35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph). Crew was 92.

Ebern Snare class

Esbern Snare class frigates
HDMS Esbern Snare in 1962

Ebern Snare, Rolf Krake, and Valdemar Sejr were ex-Hunt type 2 ASW frigates, acquired in 1953. They were reconstructed in 1953-54, gaining a type 271 (for some) radar, a type 285 and type 291 radars, and a type 128 sonar. They were armed with three twin 4-in/45 Mk19, three 40 mm/70 Mk7 Bofors AA, two Depht Charges Throwers (DCT) and tw racks for 70 DCs in reserve. The original ships were built in 1940-41 A. at Stephens, Linthouse, and Swan Hunter, Wallsend, named HMS Blackmoor, Calpe, Exmoore. They notably had a new lattice mast typical of 1945 British ships. They were stricken in 1962 and 1966.

Bellona class corvettes (1955)

Bellona class
Bellona, Diana, Flora, Triton

These were Italian-built vessels funded for transfer by MDAP. They were sister-ships of the Albatros class, at first classified as sub-chasers. From 1954 they became corvettes, but still with a Frigate pennant, F344 Bellona, F345 Diana, F346 Flora, F347 Triton. Laid down 1954, launched 1954-55, completed 1955-57. They were propelled by two Ansaldo steamm geared turbines, powered by two Fiat diesels 409T. After about thirty years of service for some they were stricken from 1974(Diana), 1978(Flora) to 1981(Bellona and Triton).

Bellona class specifications

Dimensions79 m x 9.6 x 3m (259 x 32 x 9 feets)
Displacement800 t standard, 900 FL
Propulsion2 shafts turbines+diesels, 4,400 bhp
Speed/Range20 knots, 3,000 nmi/18 kts
Armament2x3 in (76 mm) OTO), 1x 40 mm, 2 Hedgehog, 2 DCT
SensorsNWS-1 radar, and CWS-1, sonar QCU-2
Crew109

Delfinen class submarines (1958)


Delfinen, Spaekhuggeren, Tumleren, Springeren

These were the first Danish-designed and built submarines since WW2. Springeren, the lead ship was funded by US "offshore" funds. They were laid down in Copenhagen NyD in 1954 for the first two, 1956 and 1962, launched 1956-63 and completed 1958-64. Replaced by the Kobben class and discarded 1981-89. They were powered by two Burmeister & Wain 12 cyl. in V diesls and Brown Boveri electric engines giving the same power above and underwater, and same speed. They also used an active and a passive sonars, new for Danish submarines. After joining NATO Denmark was assigned the defence of the Baltic Sea and thus required submarines. The Delfinen class were its first (and last) cold war submarines, designed locally at the Naval Shipyard in Copenhagen. The fourth one in the class, HDMS Springeren, was financed by MDAP wit the pennant SS-554. The class remained in service until the 1980s, replaced by former Norwegian Kobben-class in 1986. They were complemented by two German designed but Danish built Type 205, the Narvhalen class.

Dolphin_class_SPRINGEREN


Springeren
Springeren is now preserved as a museum ship at the Naval Museum in Aalborg.



Delfinen class specifications

Dimensions54.5 m x 4.7 x 4m (178 x 15 x 13 feets)
Displacement595 t standard, 643 t FL
Propulsion2 shafts Diesels+electric motors 1200/1200 shp/bhp
Speed/Range15/15 knots, 4,000 nmi/8 kts
Armament4x 533 mm Bow (21 in)
Crew33

Bille class Torpedo Boats (1946)

Bille 1954
HDMS Bille, Buhl, Hammer, Holm, Krabbe, Krieger

Authorized in 1941, these very classic torpedo boats were planned in 1942, but not ready for production, which was postponed until 1945. Construction resumed and the six ships were launched between 1946 and 1948. They were reclassified as patrol boats in 1952 witn new pennants, P-570-575, and rebuilt between 1953 and 1955 with their TTs removed and modern ASW weapons installed. They were all stricken in 1960.

Bille class specifications

Dimensions64 m x 6.4 x 2.3mm (210 x 21 x 7 feets)
Displacement392 tons standard, 400 tons FL
Propulsion2 shafts Atlas turbines 6,900 bhp
Speed/Range29 knots, ?nm
Armament3x40mm AA, 2x 20 mm AA, 2x3TTs 356 mm (15 in), replaced by Hedgehog, 2 DCT
Crew65

Flyvefisken class Torpedo Boats (1954)


Flyvefisken, Hajen, Havkatten, Laxen, Makrelen, Støre, Sværdfisken, Glenten, Gribben, Lommen, Ravnen, Skaden, Viben.

These were basically modernized S-Boats built in Frederikssund Ship Yard, launched in 1954-55 and comploted at Naval Dock Yard in Copenhagen. They were not much larger than ex German S-Boats, with a 132.2 tons displacement, 35.90 m long, propelled by three Mercedes Benz diesel engines 9,000 Hps, but also the same range at 760 nautical miles at 32 knots, for a max speed of 42.8 knots. They were armed with a 40 mm Mk M/48 LvSaand a 20 mm Mk M/42 LvSa AA guns, two internal tubes (buried in the hull nose) of 533 mm with two torpedoes in reserve, and two 51 mm Rocket Launcher M/48 III for illumination. They were decommissioned in 1975, pending the arrival of missile FACs.



class specifications

Dimensions35.9 m x 5.5 x 2.10 m ()
Displacement132.2 t standard
Propulsion3 shafts diesels, 9,000 bhp
Speed/Range43 knots, 700 nmi/32 kts
Armament2 TTs, 1x 40mm, 1x 20mm AA, see notes
Crew22

Falken class Torpedo Boats (1960)

Glenten
Falken, Glenten, Gribben, HØgen


These ships were built at the Naval Dock Yard, Copenhagen as improved Flyvefisken class. Falken was laid down on November 1, 1960, launched on December 19, 1961 and commissioned on October 4, 1962. Armament comprised four torpedo tubes facing forward, but also two 51 mm Rocket Launcher M/48 III for illumination, and there were rails for mines on the deck. AA defence comprised a 40 mm Bofors forward and 20 mm Oerlikon aft. They were active for not very long, decommissioned in the late 1970s with the arrival of the Willemoes class missile FACs.

class specifications

Dimensions36.34 m x 5.42 m x 2.08 m
Displacement132.5 t standard
Propulsion3 shafts MTU Diesel Engines 9,000 shp
Speed/Range43.1 knots, 1,420 nmi/17.6 kts
Armament4 TTs, 2 RLI, 1x40mm, 1x20 mm AA
Crew23

SØLØVEN class Torpedo Boats (1962)


Søløven, Søridderen, Søbjørnen, Søhesten, Søhunden, Søulven

Denmark purchased six Søløven-class fast patrol boats (FPB)s based on the Britsh Brave-class, with a larg hull and 3-Proteus powerplant, mixed with wooden construction as in the Ferocity class. They were armed with two 40 mm Bofors guns, four fixed forward torpedo tubes. Søløven and Søridderen came from Vosper, Søløven being paid by the US and named PT-821 and the rest under license by the Royal Dockyard in Copenhagen. All went into reserve in 1988, replaced by the Flyvefisken-class in 1992 and sold for BU.



class specifications

Dimensions79 m x 9.6 x 3mm (259 x 32 x 9 feets)
Displacement800 t standard, 900 FL
Propulsion2 shafts turbines+diesels, 4,400 bhp
Speed/Range20 knots, 3,000 nmi/18 kts
Armament2x3 in (76 mm) OTO), 1x 40 mm, 2 Hedgehog, 2 DCT
Crew109

Links & resources - The Royal Danish Navy 1947-90

On navalhistory.dk
On navypedia.org
The Danish Navy wk
naval-technology.com
Official forsvaret.dk
On navalnews.com
Same but latest articles
On seaforces.org
The thetis class on naval-technology.com
On helis.com
whitepaper increase on defensenews.com
On usni.org
Danish Naval bases cold war

The Danish Navy in 1990 Order of Battle

Hvidbjornen class Frigates (1962)

Hvidbornen, Vaedderen, Ingolf, Fylla


This ship class were started officially as "inspection vessels", ordered in 1960. They were tailored for sishery protection in Greeland, the Faeroe and North sea waters. They carried first an Alouette III helicopter replaced in the 1980s by a Lynx. About 2/5 of her lenght was used by the hangar and fight deck. The class has a sturdy superstructure and hull, tailored for heavy weather. Armament was limited to a light gun and depht charge throwers. She also had a surveillanvce radar, navigation radar able to detect icy formations, and sonar. They were launched in 1961-62, F348 at Aarhus Flydedok, F350 at Svendborg and the two others at Aalborg. They were stricken from the lists in 1991-92.

hvidbjornen

class specifications

Dimensions72 m x 11.5 x 5m (238 x 38 x 16 feets)
Displacement1,345 t standard, 1,650 FL
Propulsion1 shaft 4x GE diesels, 6,400 bhp
Speed/Range18 knots, 6,000 nmi/13 kts
Armament3-in Bofors DP, 2 DCT, 1 Helicopter
SensorsRadar CWS-1, NWS-1, Sonar M26
Crew85

Frigate Beskytteren (1976)



A single improved "inspection vessel" but still rated as frigate despite her small dimensions (pennant F340), built in Aalborg, designed and equipped especially for Greenland service alone. She had a slightly longer hull but higher prow and better seakeeping capabilities in heavy weather, a taller bridge, no ASW weapons and better electronic and navigation equipments. She also had a new powerplant with still a single shaft but powered by three Burmeister & Weign "Alpha" diesel engines whioch developed a total of 7440 bhp for 18 knots and same range. Thanks to more automation the crew was reduced to 60 officers and sailors. At some point like the Hvidbornen class, she received the same radome AWS-6 radar. She was acquired by Estonia on 24 January 2000 and renamed Admiral Pitka, until decommissioned in 2013. She was scrapped in Tallinn in 2014.

Beskytteren profile

Beskytteren class specifications

Dimensions74.4 m x 12.5 x 4.5m (244 x 41 x 15 feets)
Displacement1540 t standard, 1970 FL
Propulsion1 shaft, 3x B&W diesels, 7,440 bhp
Speed/Range18 knots, 6,000 nmi/13 kts
Armament3-in (76 mm Bofors), 1 helicopter
Crew60

Peder Skram class Frigates (1965)

Fregatten_Peder_Skram

Kieler_Woche_1970_HerlufTrolle

F352 Peder Skram, F353 Herluf Trolle

Certainly the best, largest and best known cold war Danish Frigate class. These were the main surface combatants of the Danish Navy until the arrival of the Thetis class in 1990. Still a relatively small vessel at 2,200 tonnes, she was well armed to answer all threats and was modernized in the 1970s with a full missile upgrade, SAM and SSMs as well as the electronics. Both were designed in Denrmark and built at Helsingör, but financed by US "offshore" funds. They were designed as conventional gun vessels, with two twin turrets forward, superfiring, of the standard 5-in/38 US pattern (127 mm) DP, four Bofors 40 mm AA, aft and on the sides, under cover, and a single triple TT bank in the cebter, in between the funnels, with 21 inches torpedoes, plus deep charges racks aft.

The original design however had the Terne ASW missile provided, but development was still ongoing in 1963 and both vessels were ultimately started without. They were completed in 1966 and 1967. In 1976-78 they were completely modernized, with the aft turret removed, and the TT removed. Instead of turret 'B', two canisters with Harpoon SSMs were installed, a sea sparrow SAM aft (octuple launcher), two triple 324 mm ASW homing torpedoes on the broadsides, main deck fring Swedish wire-guided models. The electronics was also modernized. In 1982, Herluf Troll suffered a massive fire but was repaired and recomm; the next year. The first was in reserve from 1987, stricken but preserved as a museum ship later, while Herluf Trolle was BU in 1995. They were a "busy", design overloaded as the German contemporary Hamburg class.



Peder Skram class specifications

Dimensions113.6 m x 12 x 4.3m (396 x 39 x 14 feets)
Displacement1,540 t standard, 1,970 FL
Propulsion2 shafts CODOG, MTU diesels+GE turbines, 44,000 shp
Speed/Range32 knots, 2500 nmi/18 kts
Armament2x5-in, 4x40mm, 1x3 21-in TTs, DCs
SensorsCWS-2/3, NWS-1/2 radars, Mk66/91 FCS, M26 sonar
Crew200







In the Copenhaguen Museum



Thetis class frigates (1989)

Thetis, Triton, Vedderen, Hvidbjornen

F357_Thetis_6018

The "stanflex 2000" design ordered in October 1987 to replace all previous frigates with a more modular and evolutive design. They were used for fishery protection and survey duties, but Thetis was also used as an oil survey ship off Greenland, leased to the company Nunaoil cons. They were built with a large hangar and flight deck for a Sea Lynx helicopter. They were conventionally armed and only equipped with Burmeister & Wain 12V 28/32 diesels, but the program development in the 1980s was much more ambitious as they would have been armed with two quad canisters with Harpoon SSMs, and two octuple sea sparrow SAMs. Near post-cold war financial difficulties curtailed this plan. All four were built in new facilities at Svensborg, laid down in 1988-91 and completed about a rate of one per year. In 2016 she adopted a MH-60R as new helicopter. These ships are currently making the bulk of the Danish Navy surface fleet. They are intended to stay in service until 2030 at least due to their upgrade capabilities. Automation largely reduced the crew (more than half) compared to the Peder Skram class.

Thetis

Thetis class specifications

Dimensions112.5 m x 14.4 x 6m (369 x 47 x 19 feets)
Displacement2,600 t standard, 3,500 FL
Propulsion1 shaft 2x B&W diesels 12,000 shp
Speed/Range32 knots, 2500 nmi/18 kts
Armament1x3-in (76 mm OTO), 1x20mm AA, 2 DCR, 1 helicopter
SensorsMil 009, FR 1505, AWS-6, sonar CTS-36, Salmon VDF, ECM Sabre, Scorpion jammer
Crew61


Niels Juel class corvettes (1979)

Niels Juel, Olfert Fischer, Peter Tordenskjold


Three small ships designed in the 1970s, ordered in 1975 and interesting by its international mix of armaments, propulsion and systems. They were missile vessels, heavily armed for a small package and relatively fast. The powerplant for example comprised a CODOG arrangement with a single German MTU 20V 956 diesel engine procuring 4800 bhp for 18 knots and a General Electric LM 2500 Gas turbines procuring 12,400 shp. For a 1190 tonnes standard design, the Gas Turbine gave 28 knots by itself, so more than 30 knots combined. The main gun forward was an Italian OTO Melara "super rapido" 76 mm gun, but she also had an American octuple sea sparrow aft and two quad canisters of Harpoon SSMs abadft the funnel. Electronics are British and Dutch. Due to the small designs, two systems were not installed: An ASW suite with two acoustic TTs and sonars, and in 1991 the American Rolling Air Frame SAM system with two 10-rounds system per ship, which competed against the French SADRAL SAM and British VISRAD/Sarstreak. Technically replaced by the three 6,640 tons Iver Huitfeldt class (2010) which reused their armaments and systems from the Niels Juel-class corvettes and Flyvefisken-class patrol vessels.

Niels Juel

Niels Juel class specifications

Dimensions84 m x 10.3 x 4m (275 x 34 x 13 feets)
Displacement1,190 t standard, 1,320 FL
Propulsion2 shafts CODOG, 1 diesel, 1 turbine 23,000 shp
Speed/Range32 knots, 2,500 nmi/18 kts
Armament1x 3-in (76 mm OTO), 1x8 Sea Sparrow SAM, 2x4 Harpoon, DCs
SensorsAWS-5, Skanter 009, Philips 3cm, 9LV-200, %k91 mod1, Sonar Ms26
Crew90

Narhvalen class submarines (1970)

Type_205_submarine

Licence-built Type 205 submarines built in Copenhagen: S320 Narhvalen, S 321 Nordkaperen. Laid down in 1965-66, launched 1968-69 and completed in 1970. Specs 370/500 tonnes, 44.5x 4.6 x 3.8 m, 1 shaft 2x Mercedes Diesels, 2 electric motors 1,500/1,500 bhp, 12/17 knots. Eight 533 mm (21 in) in the bow, actove and passive sonars, crew 22.

Quickspecs: 419/455 t tons, 44.30 x 4.59 x 3.80 m, prop 2x 440 kW (590 hp) Mercedes-Benz 4-stroke V12 diesel engines each coupled to a BBC generator, 1,100 kW (1,500 hp) SSW electric motor, 10/17 knots, Range 3,950 nmi (7,320 km; 4,550 mi) at 4 knots surfaced, 228/4 kts submerged, tested at 100 m (330 ft) depht, crew 4+18, armed with 8 × 533 mm (21 in) bow TTs, also magnetic mines.

Tumleren class submarines (1970)

S324_Springeren

Another version of the popular German Type 205 was the Norwegian Kobben class (also known as Type 207) a customized version. Fifteen were built for use by the Royal Norwegian Navy in the 1960s, seeing service with Denmark and Poland, all withdrawn from service in the three countries, the last in 2020. The Kobben class will be treated as a standalone post.
Quickspecs: 435/485 t 47.2 x 4.7 x 3.8 m, prop 2 MTU 1,100 hp (820 kW) diesels+ 1,700 hp electric motor, 10/17 knots max range 4,200 nmi/8 kts, max depht 180 m, crew 24, 8x 533 mm (21 in) bow TTs compatible with NATO T1, Mk-37 Mod 1/2, Tp 61, Tp 612, Tp 613.

Willemoes class FAC (1976)


Bille, Bredal, Hammer, Iver Huitfeldt, Krieger, Norby, Rodsteen, Sehested, Suenson, Peter Willemoes

The Willemoes-class missile boat was a Royal Danish Navy class of fast missile boats serving from late 1970s until 2000.[1] Designed by Orlogsværftet, in conjunction with the German yard Lürssen, the Willemoes class could achieve a maximum speed in excess of 40 knots (74 km/h; 46 mph). Their weapons consisted of one 76 mm (3 in) OTO Melara gun and combination of RGM-84 Harpoon missiles and torpedo tubes. When the full assortment of eight Harpoons was carried, two 553 mm (22 in) torpedo tubes were carried as well. With Harpoons removed, up to four torpedo tubes could be mounted. The guided missile boat HDMS Sehested is now a museum ship at Holmen.

Norby P547_Sehested


Willemoes class specifications

Dimensions44/46 x 7.4 x 2.2m (144 x 24 x 7 feets)
Displacement240 t standard, 260 FL
Propulsion2 shafts CODOG, 3 RR Proteus GS+3 GM Diesel 12,750/800 hp
Speed/Range40 knots, 2,000 nmi/12 kts
Armament1x 3-in (76 mm OTO), 2x2 Sea Harpoon, 2x 533mm TTs, 6 RFL, mines
SensorsNWS-3, 9LV-200
Crew24

Flyvefisken class FAC (1989)


Hajen, Havkatten, Laxen, Makleren, Storen, Svaerdvisken, Glenten, Gribben, Lommen, Ravnen, Skaden, Viben, Soloven

The Flyvefisken class were designed at the very end of the cold war to replace several types at once: The torpedo boats of the Søløven class, coastal minesweepers of the Sund class and seaward defence craft of the Daphne-clas, thanks to an innovative modular design known as StanFlex: The standard hull received containerised weapons and system, allowing to rapidly change roles, with a conversion done in 48 hours. The new ships could be configured to be therefore used for Surveillance/pollution control, Combat, Mine countermeasures/minehunter and Minelayer tasks. In addition they were propelled by a CODAG arrangement, with a pair MTU 16V396 diesels and a single Fiat-General Electric LM-500 gas turbine.

These containers are 3.5 by 3 by 2.5 m each (11.5 ft × 9.8 ft × 8.2 ft). One in is the foredeck the other on the quarterdeck. Construction used sandwiched fiberglass with a core of PVC cell foam. This reduces maintenance costs so much construction of additional vessels was made over 20 years. To replace the Søløven boats capable of 54-knot, the Flyvefisken had their Harpoon missiles. Replacing the wood and bronze Sund class, the Flyvefisken also used non-magnetic composites and the latest tech as minehunters with their side-scan sonar and ROV not even available at the time. They also can be fitted with depth charges and anti-submarine homing torpedoes. The lead ship was laid down on 15 August 1985, launched on 26 April 1986 and commissioned on 19 December 1989. Seven ships were made of the Series I, until 1992, then six of the Series II (1992-96) and the Soloven, sole Series 3 in 1996.

In patrol ship and MCM configuration (OPVs) they carried an OTO Melara 76 mm/62 rapid fire gun plus two heavy Browning machine guns and in FAC configuration, two twin canister Harpoon SSMs, plus the same 76mm and two 533mm (21 in) torpedo tubes.



Flyvefisken class specifications

Dimensions54 m x 9 x 3m (177 x 29 x 9 feets)
Displacement320t standard, 380t ?FL
Propulsion3 shafts CODAG, 1 Gas Turbine+2 diesels, 5,680/6960 hp
Speed/Range35+ knots, 2,000 nmi/18 kts
Armament1x 3-in (76 mm OTO), 2x12.7mm HMGs
SensorsAWS-6, Terma Pilot, Sonar TSM2640 hull, ECM, jammer, decoy
Crew17-19

Daphne class Patrol Boats (1960)

Havfruen 1961
HDMS Havfruen 1961

DAPHNE, DRYADEN, HAVMANDEN, HAVFRUEN, NAJADEN, NYMFEN, NEPTUN, RAN, ROTA

These nine ships (pennants P530-538) were constructed at Naval Dock Yard, Holmen, based of the British FORD Class patrol vessels. The first eight were built under the joined Danish-American Cost Sharing Programme, five paid for by the USA and the three left by Denmark while the ninth was a purely Danish project. They were originally painted in olive green like the Fast Patrol Boats but reverted to standard light grey in 1980-1984. They were discarded in 1989-91, P532 HAVMANDEN in 1978 after an accident. They were identical but the late serie P534-P538 were just 4 tons heavier.

Quickspecs: 2 Maybach Diesel engines MD655/18/1,800 Hps and a later cruising Foden Diesel engine FD6 Mk.III (115 Hps), 2 Propellers, plus an additional mounted after 1970 for cruising, with the Folden Diesel. Range 638/670 nautical miles, top speed 20.56-22.33 kts. Armed with a single 40 mm Machine M/48 two 7.62 mm LMGs, 2 DCM, 2 DCL (32), 6 mines, a 51 mm Rocket Launcher (1986-87, replaced by a 20 mm Machine Gun M/42 LvSa). Crew: 23.

Danish Minelayers

Beskytteren class

The two ex-USN LCM-390 and 392 of 1944 were transferred after reconstruction as minelayers in the USA. HDMS Beskytteren and Vindhunden were acquired in 1954, transferred in June. They served until stricken in 1966.

HDMS Langeland (1950)

hdms langeland
N 42 HDMS Langeland was designed and built in Copenhaguen NyD, launched in May 1950, comm. in 1951 as the first minelayer of controlled minefields. She was 310/330 tons, 41/44 x 7.2 x 2.2m, propelled by two shafts Burmeister & Wain diesels rated for 770 bhp and 12 kts. Armed with two 40 mm AA, and two 20 mm. Placed in reserve in 1982, HDMS Langeland was stricken afterwards.

Falster class (1962)

falster
HDMS Falster 1970s

The Falster class were ordered in 1960 and 1962 (Falster, Fyen, Moen, Sjaelland) and built in Naksov and Frederikshavn, launched 1962-63. They were a special "Scandinavian" NATO design, a new type of large minelayer, able to carry 400 mines. Fyen was also used to train midshipmen and Sjelland also acted as depot ship for submarines & TBs, both in peace time. They were equipped with US armament and sensors and remained in service until 1991, refitted notably with modern electrincs, and a short range Stinger MANPAD as planned, and updated combat data system with satcom. Final armament after 1994 was a twin 76 mm Guns Mk M/60 OTO LvSa2, three Stinger Lv M/93and four Seagnat/SBROC Mk. 36 (4x6). They were decommissioned in 2000-2004.

Falster class specifications

Dimensions73/77 m x 12.5 x 4m (252 x 41 x 13 feets)
Displacement1800t standard, 1900t FL
Propulsion2 shafts GM 16 diesels, 4800 bhp
Speed/Range17 knots, 5,820 nmi/11 kts
Armament2x 3-in (76 mm OTO), 4x 20 mm AA, 400 mines
SensorsCWS-2, NWS-2/3 radars, M-46 sonar
Crew120

Lindormen class (1977)

lossen 1993

HDMS Lindormen and Lossen (N 43-44) were a new generation of Danish minelayers, both built at Svensborg to replace the 1950s Beskytteren class and Langeland. They were designed as coastal controlled minefield layers, commissioned in 1977-78. Lossen also doubled as a depot ship. The other served as a command and support ship (STANAVFORCHAN) but both ships were decommissioned on 22 October 2004. They were resold to Estonia in 2006, renamed EML Tasuja (A432) and EML Wambola (A433, in service with NATO Mine Countermeasures Group 1. Wambola was replaced by Tasuja in 2016.

Both were built at Svensborg in 1976-1978 with a steel hull in part also to be used as support vessels in peacetime. They were propelled at first by two 800 horsepower Frichs diesel engines with adjustable propellers. They were replaced during their first overhault by two MTU diesels (1600 kW) as found underpowered and slow. At first also they only had two Oerlikon 20 mm cannons fore and one aft but in the same refit in 1985, a third 20 mm was added to the forecastle. In 1997, they also received two FIM-92 Stinger, later removed when sold to Estonia. In place, the latter added two M2 Browning machine guns. They had two I-band NWS-3 navigation radars, two cranes and two utility boats, a large mine deck for 50-60 naval mines, but they were not very versatile.

Lindormen class specifications

Dimensions44.3/45 m x 8 x 2.5m (147 x 26 x 8 feets)
Displacement1800t standard, 1900t FL
Propulsion2 shafts Wichmann diesels, 4,200 bhp
Speed/Range14 knots, 2,500 nmi/11 kts
Armament2x 20 mm AA, 60 mines
SensorsNWS-3 radar
Crew27

Danish Minesweepers


HDMS Soridderen on trials.

AMS/MSC types (1954)

Ulvsund 1980

Aarösund, Alssund, Egernsund, Grönsund, Guldborgsund, Oösund, Ulvsund, Vilsund.

These were NATO Bluebird-class MSC 60 type vessels transferred under MDAP, launched 1954-56. Specs are identical to the latter. Pennants M 571-878. Two discarded in 1981, cannibalized, three stricken 1988. Guldborgsund was modified with a new superstructure deckhouse between the funnel and bridge for survey duties. She was the last stricken, in 1992. Grönsund and Vilsund were modified also that way and stricken in 1995.

ASVIG class inshore minesweepers (1960)

Mosvig

Asvig, Mosvig, Sadvig, Saelvig (M 579-82).

Four small vessels built in Copenhaguen, started 1959 launched 1961-62. As their type implies they were restricted to coastal waters. All were stricken in 1977.
Quickspecs: 180/200 tons disp., 35.4 x 7.2 x 1.7 m, 2 shafts diesels 1100 bhp, 14 kts. Armed with a single 20 mm Oerlikon AA gun. Crew 14.

MRF-1 drone minesweepers (1991)

MRF4

MRF1-MRF6.

Although a bit off-scope here, they were designed as a concept from 1986. Construction started in 1990 at Danyard, Alborg. Both were drone mineswepers, meaning they could be operated remotelly, and were designed to operate as a pair with HDMS Flyveisken or the rest of the class as two per one Standard 300 multipurpose combatant. Both were of GRP construction, and were pilots followed by MRD3, 4 in 1995 and MRD5, 6 the next year. They were discarded rapidly, in 2009 MRD1, 2, 5, 6 and in 2010 MRD3, 4. They were not armed. Quickspecs: Displacement standard, t 32 Displacement 32/38 tons, 18.2 x 4.75 x 1.20m, 2 shafts azimutal waterjets, 2 General Motors Detroit Diesel diesel 350, 12 kts, Mini-Dyad magnetic minesweeping gear, Furuno radar, TSM2054 sonar. Crew: 4 or none (remote operation).

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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