Consolidated PBY Catalina (1936)

USN aviation USN flying boat (1935)

The angel of the Atlantic

The PBY Catalina was during WW2 both a spy and vengeful angel of death for U-Boats, and an angel of mercy for their victims. With more than 3,300 produced, perhaps more than 4,000 in all versions, it was the most common flying boat of WW2. Like the Swordfish also one of the most memorable fleet air arm aircraft for its historical significance. A few spotting fleets often decisively, while thousands others just served reliably and without fanfare, far more often saving lives than taking those. The Catalina also had a very long career spanning the cold war and beyond, notably in the civilian market, still in service today, 80 years after its introduction. In ten years from now (2020), some still flying would be 100 years old. Their pilots kept fond memories of these rugged beast of burdens, yet agile and powerful. The Catalina definitely passed into the legends of aviation and easily can be the most underrated US plane of WW2. What are your thoughts ?

Development

The saga of the PBY started, as often, with a requirement. In the 1930s, USN doctrine emphasised the use flying boats in a wide variety of roles today handled by many special-purpose aircraft. Previously, the USN used the Consolidated P2Y and Martin P3M in 1931, but both soon appeared underpowered and lacking both range and payload. Therefore three years afterwards, the U.S. Navy contracted several companies to submit tenders for a long range patrol flying boat capable of covering the Pacific. Missions were diverse, locating and attack enemy transport ships to disrupt supply lines (the Japanese being the most likely), and reconnaissance. The ASW and rescue roles were also integrated but less paramount. Such companies were Consolidated, Martin and Douglas, all known for their heavy duty planes. In October 1933 they were given subsidies to build prototypes in order to make a campaign of comparative tests.


Consolidated P2Y, the predecessor of the PBY. It first flew in 1929, and 78 were made, the last dedicated as school planes and retired in 1941. The base principles were found on the PBY.

Consolidated and Douglas delivered on time a single prototype each. Called XP3Y-1 and XP3D-1 they had quite numerous differences. The Douglas XP3D-1 was relatively compact, slightly ungainly with engines truncated over the main wing on supports rather than installed into the wing's curve but this was a cantilever configuration, the wings started from the fuselage. The tail was about the same and engines had relatively similar panel. The cockpit was singulat as having a step-down glass towards the nose. On its side, the Consolidated XP3Y-1 was just an evolution of the XPY-1 which competed unsuccessfully earlier for the P3M contract, combined with the small production XP2Y authorized by the Navy. The Douglas showed good characteristics overall, but the Navy eventually chose Consolidated's design, notably because of the projected cost per plane of just $90,000.

Design of the PBY

The XP3Y-1 design (internally called company Model 28) indeed differed as having, like the Sikorsky and previous company's planes, a parasol wing, with external bracing struts. It was mounted on a single pylon over the fuselage. This configuration allowed better sustentation overall, raised the engines above seawater sprays as they were mounted on the wing's leading edge, and cleared the way for observers. The wings's wingtip stabilizing floats were in addition retractable in flight, which was the main innovation of the design. This reduced drag massively, as they fit inside cavities at the tip of the wings, forming their streamlined wingtips; This was not a US invention, as it was indeed licensed from Saunders-Roe, a partner of the company in the US. The two-step hull design was about the same as the P2Y, but roomier, and using a cantilever cruciform tail, and not a strut-braced twin tail as on the previous P2Y. This wade for a sturdier construction. Overall, the fuselage was also larger and roomier.

After many tests, this had cleaner aerodynamics, giving it better performance, and in all-metal with a stressed-skin of aluminum sheet. That also was found superior to the more mixedbag assembly of the P2Y. The ailerons and wing trailing edges stayed framed in metal but covered with fabric. Another master ace of Consolidated Type 28 its power, procured by two 825 hp (615 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-54 Twin Wasp radial engines. They were trusted engines, well able to allow the plane to take-off and stay aloft for much longer than previous models. less anemic than previous models, they allowed the plane to carry a larger crew and more gasoline, but still authorized some defensive armament, no less than four .30 in (7.6 mm) Browning AN/M2 machine guns installed in the nose turret and in both side observation niches. It also had up to 2,000 lb (910 kg) of bombs attached under the wings.

The prototype XP3Y-1 NAN7-61 in 1936
The prototype XP3Y-1 NAN7-61 in 1936

From the XPBY-1 to the PBY-1

The XP3Y-1 made its maiden flight for the company on 28 March 1935, and it was transferred U.S. Navy for service trials. The USN appreciated the performance improvement but requested further development to reach their desired new class of patrol bomber. By October 1935, the XP3Y-1 was returned to Consolidated. First, engineers mounted as requested more powerful engines, the 900 hp (670 kW) R-1830-64 models from P&W. It was redesignated XPBY-1 and its vertical tail was redesigned, notably to avoid the latter to be submerged on takeoff. The new XPBY-1 flew the first time on 19 May 1936, establishing afterwards a record non-stop distance flight at the time, of 3,443 mi (2,992 nmi; 5,541 km). It was delivered to the USN for operational testings, joining VP-11F in October 1936. VP-12 was the second squadron to receive the first pre-production run models, in early 1937. The USN read the reports which were good, and in between had already ordered a second production run on 25 July 1936.

Catalina OA-10 used by USAF
Catalina OA-10 used by USAF

About the name:

The official navy ordnance designation "PBY" was a product of the 1922 USN aircraft designation system. "PB" translated as "Patrol Bomber", Y was the Consolidated Aircraft Manufacturer code. Canadian Vickers planed were designated "PBV", Boeing Canada "PB2B" and Naval Aircraft Factory "PBN". The British Commonwealth also had their own designation, giving their own flying boats after coastal port towns. The RAF maintained "Catalina", but the RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force) called it the "Canso" from the namesake town in Nova Scotia. The U.S. Navy was last to adopt the name of "Catalina" in 1942 but the USAF called it OA-10. The name came from the Santa Catalina Island, California, coined in November 1941, when Great Britain ordered 30 aircraft. Consolidated, base din San Diego, was not far away from the island indeed.

Design

cutaway showing the interior of the PBY
Large cutaway showing the interior of the PBY and location of all sub-systems. Old J.H. Clarke drawing from "The Aeroplane" magazine - src: http://www.seawings.co.uk via pinterest
See also (Atlas Editions)


Large interior cutout plan, src drawingdatabase.com

The PBY was a "flying boat", meaning it was meant to take off and land at sea, first and foremost; It was not a converted plane equipped with float (seaplane/float plane). Its hull was shaped as as a boat hull, complete with a bow, fuselage wave deflectors, electric windshield brooms and heater for removing water from the cockpit glass when taking off in splashes, and a boat-like tail end under the fuselage. Like many flying boats of the era, the PBY had a wing mounted high up, connected to the fuselage by a large central pylon and supported by two large struts on either side. There was no bracing. The tail was rounded, and made higher after a design revision, and modified also in later variants. It had a cantilever cruciform arrangement, as the aileron were placed relatively high, to compensate for the position of the main wings. The wings's ends contained the foldable floats, electrically deployed.



The PBY's most defining feature were its two side gun blisters. They had both purposes: Providing an excellent observation point first, and provide additional defense point on either side as well. Made in plexiglas, it could become very hot when the planes were idle, anchored at sea level. Fortunately, the large aft window part of the blister was absent to allow side firing and the gunner to access and exit the place, using a ladder affixed in a dedicated location. There was a railing to mount two cal.50 Machine guns, port and starboard, but the M1919A4 was also often used. There was also a radio compartment located in the central pillar under the main wings. The PBY was designed as amphibious, fitted with two large wheels located at the bottom flanks under the wings, deployed by using a hydraulic main gear. There was also a tail wheel, located under traps underbelly just before the tail. In its final configuration, the PBY had a crew of 9-10: Typically, a pilot and a co-pilot, a bow turret gunner, a flight engineer, a radio operator, a navigator, a radar operator, two waist gunners and a ventral gunner. One of the waist gunners was often formed as a mechanic as well to assist the flight engineer. The PBY was the first USN place with a permanent flight engineer/mechanic on board wit his working station.

Power & performances

The final main production version was given two Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 Twin Wasp 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, which delivered 1,200 hp (890 kW) each, 2,400 total. This was for a total weight of 20 to 35,420 lb (16,066 kg). The 10 tonnes Hellcat fighter had the same power in 1944. These engines had 3-bladed constant-speed propellers. Due to the very large production there were more powerful engines (see variants).
The Power to mass ratio was 0.067 hp/lb (0.110 kW/kg), and their large (1,400 sq ft, 130 m2, for a drag erea of 43.26 ft2 (4.02 m2)) wing area provided a reduced wing loading of 25.3 lb/sq ft (124 kg/m2).

The main focus was range, not speed. These Catalina were slow burners, capable of a top speed fo 196 mph (315 km/h, 170 kn), a cruise speed of 125 mph (201 km/h, 109 kn) over a range of 2,520 mi (4,060 km, 2,190 nmi). They could climb up to 15,800 ft (4,800 m), at a rate of 1,000 ft/min (5.1 m/s).

Armament

This too, was also not their main concern, although the design contract precised these planes were to be used as along range Pacific bombers as well. Defensive armament was certainly not to the scale of the B17 Flying fortress, but good enough to put a fight, and the planes were stable and sturdy as well, surviving with man bullet holes. They generally carried three .30 cal (7.62 mm) Browning M1919A4 machine guns, a fual mount in the nose turret and one in the ventral hatch close to the tail, only there to cover the "dead angle". The sides were covered by two .50 cal (12.7 mm) M2hB machine guns, in each waist blister, on pintles. The payload was carried under wing, and the total could represent 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) of bombs or depth charges (four 454 kgs -1000 ibs General-Purpose Bomb for example) torpedo racks were also available, although these were the standard 457 mm aerial model, and were rarely seen on photos.

The PBY in action

PBY_5A_Catalina-pacific The PBY was the most produced and common flying boat of WW2, totalling 3,300 aircraft built, and was used for more roles for it was planned initially, mainly in anti-submarine warfare, but also as planned patrol bombing and convoy escort, but also search and rescue missions (SAR) and were nicknamed "Cat" on combat missions and "Dumbo" in air-sea rescue service, or cargo/staff transport. Its internal space was roomy to accommodate 5-6 passengers. The Catalina served on all theaters of WW2, from the warm waters of the Mediterranean and south Pacific, to the Atlantic, and cold of the cape north, the Aleutians or Russia. It served with distinction and played a prominent, invaluable role notably in the Pacific against the Japanese.
With time, land-based bombers used for maritime patrols started to replace the Catalina in this role, as well as the longer range, larger Consolidated LB-30 and Coronado, notably to replace them for the logistic strategic air lift in the Pacific and the Catalina kept the role of advanced reconnaissance plane for the US and Royal Navy fleets, with a range far greater for lighter land-based recce planes or carrier-based planes. In its recce role, a British RNAS Catalina (piloted by an American) located the Bismarck after she successfully evaded the British ships shadowing her, allowing to catch her before she reached the safety of French waters. Catalinas were deployed in the vicinity of Pearl Harbour, but were too few to cover an immense area and missed the Kido Butai.


PBY's of 205 RAF-RNAS Squadron in Singapore, 1941

ASW role

Although it was not a specialty as planned initially, the Catalina gained during the battle of the Atlantic a fantastic reputation as sub-killer. The "angel of death" constantly patrolling above the long convoys, searching for the ominous dark grey shape visible by clear weather at 10-15 meter deep underwater. The shape of an U-Boat. This is one of the reasons Wolfpacks preferred to attack by night on surface. There was no air cover, and the low visibility allowed them to penetrate the convoy "box" on surface at max speed. Both the Catalina and Sunderland became very instrumental in ASW patrols, but could attack as well. Sometimes they carried a combination of bombs and depth charges, but it was rare to catch an U-Boat on surface. They could be heard coming and were quick to dive before the Catalina was on them. However the depht charges did not needed to dive for long, and the Catalina had the advantage of seeing the submarines after their dive.

Consolidated_PBY-5A_Catalina_in_flight

Catalinas was used in this role both in the Atlantic, north and south, and Pacific but also the Indian Ocean, from the Seychelles or Ceylon, both important ASW flying plane bases. They were also used over convoys bound to Murmansk, braving the extreme cold and bad weather. By 1943, U-boats realized their threat and were packed with anti-aircraft guns. Two Victoria Crosses were won by Catalina pilots badly damaging on sinking U-Boats while under heavy fire like John Cruickshank (RAF) for U-347 and David Hornell RCAF on U-1225. In all, Catalinas destroyed 40 U-boats but took losses as well. A special class of U-Boat, used for FLAK was added organically to wolfpacks. The Brazilian also participated in the battle of the Atlantic and used Catalinas, one sinking U-199 in Brazilian waters on 31 July 1943.

Maritime patrol

PBY-5A_VPB-6-CG_over_Narssarsuak_Greenland_1945

The Catalinas were also good at long range reconnaissance. Key to their success in their their role was their parasol wing and large waist blisters which both provided excellent visibility. Long range and reliable engine also ensured they were long and often in the air, what it mattered. The RAF made great use of them over the Atlantic as the production of flying boat never was sufficient to cover the needs of the RNAS. RAF Coastal Command flying boat, piloted by Ensign Leonard B. Smith (U.S. Navy) that flew from Castle Archdale Flying boat base in Northern Ireland, located the German battleship Bismarck, which proved instrumental to finish off the mighty battleship before she reached the safety of French waters. In all, the British "cats" sunk at least 48 confirmed U-Boats during the battle of the Atlantic.

Also on 7 December 1941, the Japanese landings on Kota Bharu in Malaya were spotted by a Catalina from No. 205 Squadron RAF. It was shot down before radio reporting the fleet by five Nakajima Ki-27 fighters and Flying Officer Patrick Bedell and his crew became the first Allied casualties in the war with Japan. Catalinas were also at the origin of the success at Midway, spotting the Japanese fleet approaching the Island at the start of the Battle. The vital intel provided by the "Cats" one day before the battle was one crucial element counting for the win on the US side. Later, one of these PBYs scored ...the only successful torpedo hit of the battle, with the oiler IJN Akebono Maru.

A "Canso" from the RCAF (Squadron Leader L.J. Birchall) also detected a Japanese carrier fleet approaching Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean fleet on 4 April 1942, allowing the allies to organize their defence. In rare occasions, one such flight was enough to foil plans as destroying surprise.


Pearl Harbor attack: A Catalina PBY can be seen in the background. These planes payed a heavy price that day, and on the 81 in service there at Oahu -some since 1936, only eight survived (seven already in flight when it happened, searching for the Japanese fleet). Given suhch statistics, it was deduced they were targeted specifically by IJN pilots after Yamamoto's instructions, knowing the great threat they posed as the "eyes" of the USN fleet. It's also one of these PBY's that first spotted one of the attacking midget subs. The flying boat attacked it before leaving hand to the USS Ward which finished her off. It was the first USN air action in WW2, not counting the numerous attacks performed with British catalinas in the Atlantic, often with US pilots (such as the one that spotted the Bismarck). Not long after during the January Philippines evacuations, one such PBY's turret gunner shot down a Japanese fighter, perhaps the very first japanese air to air kill of this war.

Only three weeks after Pearl harbour, the USN launched their first air raid, six "Cats" (the only ones with the range) at Jolol island in a bombing mission, SW of the Philippines. Without training or previous experience on this, they came at 12,000 feets, and attacked the IJN fleet at dawn, equipped with Norden bomb sights. The latter were only good for large, fixed targets so some pilots tried dive bombing... and in the end scored two near-misses. While four of the PBYs never returned, lessons were learned and low altitude attacks became a preferred tactic from then on, despite the obvious risk it represented. It became the staple of the "black cats" actions during the early phase of the war in the Pacific.

This was on 10 December 1941, when IJN Ashigara (Nachi class) was in a holding position in the South China Sea, circa 200 miles (320 km) NW of Manila Bay. There too, were IJN Maya, Kuma, and the destroyers Ikazuchi and Inazuma, under command of Admiral Takahashi, which also headed the Philippine Invasion Force. She was spotted by U. S. Navy air patrols which came from Luzon and soon, the a single PBY-4 Catalina from VP 102, Patrol Wing TEN, located the fleet and repoted their position. Soon, Five of the wing took off from from NAS Sangley Point (Manila Bay) under command of Lieutenant Commander J. V. Peterson. They attacked at noon, dropping together twenty 500 lb demolition bombs in a tight pattern, from 13,500 feet. Splashes were clustered astern of IJN Ashigara, and two hits reported; Since AA fire was heavy, no confirmation could be given and all withdrew while a PBY sustained minor damage. The two heavy cruisers were identified as battleships back then andthe unit reported Kong has been hit. There were two follow-up strikes but they could not locate them;

Night maritime patrol

The famous "Black Cats" of the pacific were named that way for a reason: They were painted black to ensure night patrols (at first improvized paint with soap and oil burning lamp residues) and mechanics improvized flame suppressor devices on the exhausts. At Midway already, four PBYs of Patrol Squadrons 24 and 51 performed a night torpedo attack on the nearby fleet on the night of June 3–4, 1942. One scored a hit, badly damaging the fleet oiler Akebono Maru. This was the only successful USN aerial torpedo attack of the entire battle of Midway.

Due to the defensive nature of the war, "Cats" pilots often learned how to stay in the ckpuds as much as possible during their transit to a search area or transport mission, and by night all lights shut. They were resilient in case of attack, but stood little chance due to their large size, poor agility and slow speed. Hiding was also a matter of organization: To avoid grouping these planes in large, fixed flying boat bases, the PBYs used to be supplied as much as possible with dedicated seaplane tenders, depot and supply ships, many being former converted "four-pipers".

The Black Cats of Guadalcanal

The one and a half year long Guadalcanal campaign saw USN PBYs painted matte black for the first time, specialized for night bombing and carrying torpedoes, even be used as "gunships" in strafing missions, against Japanese supply fleets, notably the infamous "Tokyo Express", always operating by night. They multiplied interdiction raids and accumulated success, proving an hinderance to the Japanese in this area. In December 1942 VP-12, was the first "black cats" squadron, followed by thirteen more. They were flying slowly almost to ship's mast height, in order to avoid radar and visual detection. They sank and damaged 6,000 to 8,000 tonnes per plane, per month on average (as cited in a documentary of the time, alltogether 41,000 tonnes, also damaging 43,000 tonnes) as well as devastating land-based Japanese installations, in addition to their usual recce and SAR duties. When attacking, it was always with bombs, rarely with torpedoes. One veteran pilot affirmed his squadron alone sunk an damaged a cumulated 200,000 tonnes of Japanese shipping, and fourteen squadrons of "Black Cats" operated in the same area. The "Black Cats" received the PB4Y-2 from early 1944 and were disbanded by mid-1945.

PBY-5A_VP-61_Aleutians_March_1943
PBY-5A of VP-61 over the Aleutians in March 1943

RAAF's Catalinas

The Royal Australian Air Force also used their Catalinas was night raiders, with the Squadron 11, 20, 42, and 43. They started with minelaying missions laying by 23 April 1943 until the end of the war and concentrated their area of operations at first in the southwest Pacific, but they operated deep in enemy controlled areas. They excelled at mining ports and shipping routes. IJN convoys were condemned to take on the open sea, now easy meat for USN submarines. Their action was sensitive in particular at Balikpapan, home of about 80% of the oil supplies consumed by the IJN. From late late 1944, these missions, with prepositioned supply vessels, could last 20 hours, and like the Black Cats they flew very low, around 200 ft (61 m), which was excessively dangerous in some hilly volcanous archipelagos.

Their minefields also trapped IJN vessels inside Manila Bay, ensuring no supplies would come from there during General Douglas MacArthur's landing at Mindoro. They also mined Jinamoc in the Leyte Gulf, and along the Chinese coast, from Hong Kong to Wenchow. They also were proficient in night bombing raids, and RAAF "black cats" crews were proud of their motto "The First and the Furthest". They repeatedly bombed Rabaul, using "terror bombs" replacing traditional bomb loads with scrap metal, rocks, beer bottles with razor blades, not only producing screaming noises but also deadly shrapnells, keeping the Japanese awake. Thanks to their long range, one of the major base was Drimmie Head, Gove Peninsula in the Australian Northern Territory.

Catalina preserved in a USAF museum used for SAR
Catalina preserved in a USAF museum used for SAR "Snafu Snatchers"

The angels of Mercy

As true the Black Cats were hatred by the Japanese, they were beloved by every sailors which ship was sunk n the middle of the Atlantic or aviator stranded on a forgotten island in the pacific. The U.S. military used the Catalina first as their main rescue aircraft. Some achieved good results, like LCDR Adrian Marks (USN) PBY which score was of 56 sailors, all from the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis in 1945, saved from sharks. As room was lacking inside, they climbed on the wing, and the PBY housed and protected them from shark attack until rescue ships arrived. This SAR role went on for many years after the end of WW2 and the Catalina proved very popular in civilian service, commercial air travel, exploration, fire fighting, inter-island supply, and some are still flying today, preserved and maintained with a well-deserved love. Afte the war they were considered surplus and sold to many navies around the world, seeing service until the 1970s and sometimes well beyond, proving their extraordinary resilient design. In some way they were the flying boat equivalent of the DC-3 Dakota...


Canadian Vickers SA-10A Catalina

Variants, exports, and post-war use

Production and variants:

Back-and forth remarks between Consolidated led to many design developments and no less than 16 variants, including the very different PB-1 Nomad from the Naval Aircraft Factory, which became a new model of its own.

-XPBY-1: Prototype version (Model 28) made for the contact comparative tests of the USN
-XP3Y-1: Same but with two 900 hp R-1830-64 engines as requested for pre-production.
-PBY-1: (Factory Model 28-1): Initial production, two 900 hp R-1830-64 engines (60 built)
-PBY-2: (Factory Model 28-2), small chages in equipments and improved engines (50 built)
-PBY-3: (Factory Model 28-3), re-engined with two 1,000 hp R-1830-66 engines (66 built)
-PBY-4: (Factory Model 28-4), re-engined with two 1,050 hp R-1830-72 engines (33 built, including the XPBY-4/XPBY-5A).
-PBY-5: (Factory Model 28-5): 1,200 hp R-1830-82/92 engines, extra self-sealing fuel tanks (683 built)
Also used by the FAA/RAD as Catalina IVA, US Coast Guard and Soviet GST.
-XPBY-5A: PBY-4 pure amphibian, first flew in November 1939.
-PBY-5A (Factory Model 28-5A): Pure Amphibious version, two 1,200 hp R-1830-92 engines. 124 with 0.3in bow gun, the others with two (803 total).
-PBY-5R: Staff transport, with amphibious gear, no nose turret, additional windows.
-PBY-6A: Pure Amphibious, two 1,200 hp R-1830-92 engines, taller fin and rudder, radar scanner above cockpit, 2x 0.5 in nose guns (175 built, 21 for USSR)
-PBY-6AG: Single Staff transport for the US Coast Guard.
-PB2B-1: Manufactured by Boeing Canada 1942 for the RAF and RCAF (240 built)
-PB2B-2: Boeing Canada built version of the PBY-5 but with the taller fin of the PBN-1. 67 built. Most supplied to the RAF as the Catalina VI.
-PBN-1 Nomad: Naval Aircraft Factory versions with a 2ft bow extension, new hull lines, modified step, new wingtip floats, tail surfaces, revised electrical system.
All lend lease: 155 RAF Catalina V + 138 Soviet Navy (KM-1).
-PBV-1A/Canso A Canadian Vickers PBY-5A version 1943-44 (380 RCAF, 150 for RCAF, rest for USAF OA-10A)
-OA-10/10A/10B: USAF designation respectively for the PBY-5A (105), PBV-1A (230) and PBY-6A (75).


Bernt Balchen's Consolidated PBY with dog sled in Greenland, 1943

A sailor mechanic refueling a plane at the Naval Air Base Corpus Christi
A sailor mechanic refueling a plane at the Naval Air Base Corpus Christi

The British Commonwealth Catalina Mark I to Mark VI

After the US, Great Britain was the largest user of the PBY, locally named "Catalina", but not produced at home. Some were Canadian-built by the majority was US-Built. Total 771, some with RCAF and RAAF.
Catalina Mark I: PBY-5 (six 0.303 in guns, bow, waist blisters, hull step aft) 1,200 hp R-1830-S1C3-G engines (109)
Catalina Mark IA: RCAF "Canso" (14)
Catalina Mark IB: PBY-5Bs (225)
Catalina Mark II: Some Equipment changes (6)
Catalina IIA: Made by Vickers-Canada (5)
Catalina IIIA: Former PBY-5As (12)
Catalina IVA: PBY-5s (93)
Catalina IVB: PB2B-1s, a few with the RAAF (240)
Catalina VI: PB2B-2s RAF and RAAF (67)

PB2Y_Coronado

The Consolidated Coronado, planned successor of the Catalina. Despite its more ambitious conception, it never was as popular. Entering service in 1942, only 217 were ever made. They were all quickly scrapped in 1946-47. Reasons were multiple, but first, the heavier Coronado had an inferior range and could no stay aloft as much, so basically the "Cat" was more fuel-efficient, adding to having only two engines instead of four. Also, the cost. A coronado costed as much as three Catalinas, and it was also three times more expensive to maintain, wheras scale production had made the Catalina unit cost far lower.

The company also made a prototype of the Consolidated XP4Y Corregidor, never adopted, nor the projected Consolidated XPB3Y. The company was busy with the famous Liberator heavy bomber and its numerous derivatives. The Navy appreciated the range, speed and armament of the Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer in the Pacific.

The Catalina was used by the following *(PW) is postwar: Argentina (PW), Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile (PW), China, Colombia (PW), Cuba (PW), Denmark, Dominican Republic (PW), Ecuador (PW), France, Iceland (PW), Israel (PW), Japan (PW), Mexico (PW), Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua (PW), Norway, Paraguay (PW), Peru (PW), Philippines (PW), South Africa, Spain (PW), Sweden (PW), Soviet Union, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay (PW). Civilian operators: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Republic of China, France, Hong Kong, Indonesia, New Zealand, Paraguay, Philippines, Venezuela, United Kingdom, United States, etc.
Very popular in their SAR role, USN Catalinas were active until 1957, the Coast Guards used them a bit longer, and the Brazilian Naval Ar force retained theirs until 1982.

PBY-5 Specifications

Dimensions:Length: 63 ft 10 in (19.47 m) Wingspan: 104 ft (32 m) Height: 21 ft 1 in (6.43 m) Wing area: 1,400 sq ft (130 m2)
Weights:Empty weight: 20,910 lb (9,485 kg) Max takeoff weight: 35,420 lb (16,066 kg)
Crew:10: Pilot, copilot, mechanic, 4 Gunners, navigator, 2 operators
Propulsion:2 Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 Twin Wasp 14-cyl. AC radial engines 1,200 hp (890 kW)
Fuel cap.:370 US gal (310 imp gal; 1,400 L) internal fuel
Propeller:3-blades constant-speed CS propeller
Top speed:196 mph (315 km/h, 170 kn)
Cruise speed:125 mph (201 km/h, 109 kn)
Service ceiling:15,800 ft (4,800 m), ROC: 1,000 ft/min (5.1 m/s)
Range2,520 mi (4,060 km, 2,190 nmi)
Armament-3 x .30 cal (7.62 mm) machine guns (2 nose turret, 1 ventral hatch) -2 x .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine guns (waist blisters) -4,000 lb (1,814 kg) of bombs, depth charges, torpedo racks under wings



A Consolidated PBY-3 Catalina landing, circa 1942


Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina is armed at Adak (Aleutians) in 1943

Read More/Src
http://www.pbyrescue.com/
https://www.navalaviationmuseum.org/history-up-close/aircraft-in-spotlight/pby-cutaway/
https://catalinaaircrafttrust.com/
AN 01-5M-3 Handbook of Structural Repair for Navy Models PBY-5, PBY-5A, PBY-6A Army Model OA-10 Airplanes, 1945 (PDF)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_seaplanes_and_amphibious_aircraft
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consolidated_PBY_Catalina
Also: Google books on the PBY

Books:
Bridgeman, Leonard. "The Consolidated Vultee Model 28 Catalina." Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946.
Cacutt, Len, ed. "PBY Catalina: Ocean Patroller." Great Aircraft of the World. London: Marshall Cavendish, 1989.
Creed, Roscoe. PBY: The Catalina Flying Boat. Annapolis, Maryland: US Naval Institute Press, 1986.
Crocker, Mel. Black Cats and Dumbos: WW II's Fighting PBYs. Huntington Beach, California: Crocker Media Expressions, 2002.
Dorny, Louis B. US Navy PBY Catalina Units of the Pacific War. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2007.
Freeman, Elmer (1984). Those Navy Guys and Their PBY's: The Aleutian Solution. Spokane, Wash.: Kedging Publishing Co.
Gaunt, Coral and Robert Cleworth. Cats at War: Story of RAAF Catalinas in the Asia Pacific Theatre of War. Roseville, NSW Australia: J.R. Cleworth, 2000.
Greenhous, Brereton et al. The Crucible of War 1939–1945: The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Vol. III. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.
Gunston, Bill (1986). American Warplanes. New York: Crown Publishers Inc.
Hendrie, Andrew. Flying Cats: The Catalina Aircraft in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: US Naval Institute Press, 1988.
Kinzey, Bert. PBY Catalina in Detail & Scale. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 2000.
Knott, Richard C. Black Cat Raiders of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: US Naval Institute Press, 2000.
Legg, David. Consolidated PBY Catalina: The Peacetime Record. Annapolis, Maryland: US Naval Institute Press, 2002.
Miller, Nathan (1997). War at Sea: A Naval History of World War II. New York: Oxford University Press.
Petrescu, FLorian Ion and Reilly Victoria Petrescu. The Aviation History. Stoughton, Wisconsin: Books on Demand, 2012.
Ragnarsson, Ragnar. US Navy PBY Catalina Units of the Atlantic War. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2006.
Scarborough, William E. PBY Catalina in Action (Aircraft number 62). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1983.
Scarborough, William E. PBY Catalina: Walk Around. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1996.
Wagner, Ray. The Story of the PBY Catalina (Aero Biographies Volume 1). San Diego, California: Flight Classics, 1972.

Modeller's corner

The old Atlantis kit, 1/104 scale
The PBY has been covered by Revell, Academy and Minicraft as well as Atlantic (old kit)
Modeller's plan: https://outerzone.co.uk/plan_details.asp?ID=8213
Shop now

Video:
https://youtu.be/iOi0o91Sw7U
The most underrated WW2 US plane: The PBY Catalina by Greg's Airplanes and Automobiles
Gallery of models:

PBY-1 at San Diego, VP-12, patrol wing 1, 1937. Note the dark blue underbelly


PBY-2 at NAS San Diego, VP-11, 1938. These had yellow top wings and the same silver finish


PBY-5A used in neutrality patrols, mid-Atlantic, March 1941. The neutrality red bands were removed after May 1942 from all planes and the red roundel in star cockade later as sometimes confounded with the Hinomaru. The camouflage was a mix of light and darker blue grey.

PBY-5 VP-34 FAW 17
PBY-5 VP-34 Fleet Air Wing 17 in the Pacific. The plane was deployed to search for survivors of down planes after the raid on Truk, Operation Hailstone, 17–18 February 1944

PB-5Y VP-63 Morocco 1944
PB-5Y VP-63 of Fleet Air Wing 15 in Port Lyautey, French Morocco, February 1944. Note this simplified production version had its wheeltrap welded shut. It was purely amphibian.

PBY-5A-VPB-63-1944
PBY-5A of VPB-63 Atlantic 1944 with a two-tone livery base don white also used by the fleet air arm.

PBY-5A of VP-54 Black Cat Guadalcanal, 1944
PBY-5A of VP-54 "Black Cat" Guadalcanal 1944 with the eyeball turret and radome

PBY-5A assigned to ComAirSoPac
PBY-5A assigned to ComAirSoPac on Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides, which landed in August 1942 at Guadalcanal.


PBY-5 in the Pacific night patrols

PBY-5A Catalina of the USN at Midway, June 1942
PBY-5A Catalina of the USN at Midway, June 1942

Vickers-Canada Canso (PBY-5A) RCAF, 1943
Vickers-Canada Canso (PBY-5A) RCAF, 1943

PBY-5A Catalina of the RNAS, Western Approaches 1944
PBY-5A Catalina of the RNAS, Western Approaches 1944


PBY-5A Catalina of the RNZN in 1944


RNAS Catalina Mark I from 209 Squadron, Lough Erne, May 1941. This plane located the German battleship Bismarck on the morning of 26 May.


Catalina IVA of the Free Norwegian Naval Air Service

Catalina IV D for Dagwood, N°11 Sqn Fleet Air Arm
Catalina IV "D for Dagwood", N°11 Sqn Fleet Air Arm

Catalina Mk.IVA of 302 Squadron Fleet Air Arm
Catalina Mk.IVA of 302 Squadron Fleet Air Arm

Catalina Mk.VIA
Catalina Mk.VIA (PBY-6A) "David Hornell VC" in 1945

Consolidated Vultee
Consolidated-Vultee PBY-6

Consolidated-PBY-6A-Catalina-RAAF
Consolidated PBY 6A Catalina of the RAAF

Catalina-MkIVA-Sqn202-LoughErne
Catalina MkIV.A of Sqn202 in Lough Erne, 1942

Catalina-MakVIA-Dutch
Catalina Mark VIA in Dutch service, 1945

PBY-Catalina-Dutch-KNIL
PBY Catalina of the Dutch KNIL in 1945

PBY-5-A-Catalina-RAAF-blackcat
PBY-5A Catalina of the RAAF "blackcat", south pacific 1943

PBY-5A-Catalina-RAAF
PBY-5A of the RAAF in 1943

PBN-1
PBN-1 Nomad, a tailored version made in the US for the USSR, delivered in 1944-45. This one was delivered from NAS Kodiak, September 1944. In Soviet service they were called GST for "Gydro Samoliot Transportnyi" and built in USSR.

Cold War


OA-10A Alaskan Div ATC 1946

Canadian vickers OA-10 USN Rescue squadron 1947
Canadian vickers OA-10 USN Rescue squadron 1947

PBY-6A-NAS-SanDiego-Feb48
PBY-6A NAS n°17, VU-7 San Diego in February 1948

PBY-6A NAS New York 1949
PBY-6A NAS New York 1949

PBY-5A-Catalina-MarineLuchvaartDienst
PBY-5A Catalina of the MarineLuchvaart Dienst in 1948




PBY-5/5A and 6 in service with the Argentine Navy 1948-1960

PBY5-Catalina-French-4F-small
PBY-5 Catalina French 4F flotilla 1950

Photos































Esta imagem é parte do Fundo Agência Nacional Série FOT Subsérie AEO






































More CC photos: //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Consolidated_PBY_Catalina

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
WW2 British submarines
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries
naval aviation USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)
Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)
Hawker Sea Fury (1944)
Supermarine Seafang (1945)
De Havilland Sea Mosquito (1945)
De Havilland Sea Hornet (1946)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Supermarine Channel (1919)
Vickers Viking (1919)
Saunders Kittiwake (1920) Supermarine Sea King (1920)
Fairey Pintail (1920)
Short N.3 Cromarty (1921)
Supermarine Seal II (1921)
Vickers Vanellus (1922)
Supermarine Seagull (1922)
Fairey N.4 (1923)
Supermarine Sea Eagle (1923)
Vickers Vulture (1924)
Short S.1 Stellite/Cockle (1924)
Supermarine Scarab (1924)
Fairey Fremantle (1924)
English Electric Ayr (1924)
English Electric Kingston (1924)
Hawker Dantorp (1925)
Blackburn Velos (1925)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Saunders A.3 Valkyrie (1927)
Blackburn Nautilus (1929)
Saro A.17 Cutty Sark (1929)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Saro A.7 Severn (1930)
Saro A.19 Cloud (1930)
Saro Windhover (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Short S.15 (1931)
Blackburn Sydney (1931)
Short Sarafand (1932)
Short Knuckleduster (1933)
Saro London (1934)
Short Seaford (1934)
Short S.19 Singapore III (1934)
Fairey S.9/30 (1934)
de Havilland Hornet Moth (1934)
Blackburn Perth (1934)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 (1936)
Airspeed AS.30 Queen Wasp (1937)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Supermarine Sea Otter (1938)
Short S.30/33 Empire (1938)
Short S.20 Mercury (1938)
Short S.21 Maia (1938)
Saro A.33 (1938)
Blackburn B-20 (1940)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Supermarine Spitfire Seaplane (1942)
Short Shetland (1944)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
British Aicraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

British Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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