Poltava class Battleships (1894)

Petropavovsk, Sevastopol, Poltava

And only Tchesma would remain...

Before the Petropavlovsk class dreadnoughts, Russia built locally a class of pre-dreadnought battleships already called by that name, but which did not existed anymore after 1905. Only Tchesma (ex-Poltava, ex-Tango) was in service in WW1, after being recovered. In fact all three were victims of the double maritime disaster that was the Russo-Japanese war..

Poltava after launch, Swedish postcard
Poltava after launch, Swedish postcard

Development of the petropavlovsk

In 1882, the Tsar Alexander III patronized its most ambitious naval plan in the History of the country (-save from Peter the Great's reforms), that would have raised it on par with the largest navy at that time, the Royal Navy, and the French Marine Nationale. This plan asked for no less than 16 battleships for the Baltic Fleet alone, but to be delivered on 20 years. Naval Ministry, Vice Admiral N. M. Chikhachev ten years later, proposed a combination of six 1st class and four 2nd class battleships complemented by armoured coastal battleships to made for the numbers. The Petropavlovsk-class was required to fill this first-class battleship tranche, meeting requirements for a well armoured ship, 10,500 long tons in tonnage and capable of 17 knots for a 3,750 nautical miles range and excellent seagoing capabilities.

Design of the petropavlovsk

Designers started working on larger Imperator Nikolai I class, but improved, with four 12-inch (305 mm) guns in barbettes as main armament. Another design that was studied was the Imperator Aleksandr II class for its bad casemate-mounted secondary cannons unusable in rough weather. The Naval Technical Committee also studied the American Indiana-class battleships praised for its massive secondary armament of 8-inch (203 mm) guns all in turrets on the upper deck. This system allowed to only mount lighter barbette armament in the hull, helping design a flush-deck hull that would save weight and gave high freeboard.

Sevastopol
Sevastopol

Comprised in the 10,000 tons tonnage, the armour included a full-length waterline armor belt compounted with the slope gained by making a slight tumblehome in the cenral section. The final blueprints were reviewed in comission and approved in January 1891. The designed speed of 17 knots could only be reached by forced heating, therefore rather than to redesign the ship, the Navy was content with 16 knots. Compromised in the belt had to ebe taken. To accomodate the upper belt, the waterline belt was shortened so both ends were protected only by sloping armor deck. The final blueprints also included the change from the planned 8-in guns to more reasonable 6-in, allowing to cram four more, protected by Sissoi Veliky's turrets instead of barbettes. In the end, with a metacentric height of 5.43 feet (1.7 m) all three were good seagoing battleships, and stable firing platforms.


blueprint - Brassey's annual

Armament details

The main armament comprised two pairs of 12 in/40 cal. guns and turrets fore and aft propelled by hydraulic power, both for loading and traverse, while ammunitions were electrically lifted from deep storage (58 rounds per cannon). The rate of fire was 90 seconds, but in service if fell to just one by three minutes instead. The turrets had to be reinforced later to withstand the stresses. Maximum elevation was 15° and each shell weighted 331.7 kg (731-pound), fired at 792 m/s (2,600 ft/s) to about 10,980 m (12,010 yards) at 10°, the maximal ballistic trajectory.

The Liuzhol stadiametric rangefinders were relatively innovative for the time. They used the angle between two vertical points, generally the visible ship's waterline and crow's nest, to estimate the range. This data was transmitted to the gunnery officer to calculate the right elevation and deflection, his commands were then transmitted via a Geisler electro-mechanical fire-control system to each gunnery station onboard.

Sevastopol arriving at Port Arthur in February 1904
Sevastopol arriving at Port Arthur in February 1904

The secondary armament comprized twelve quick-firing French Canet Model 1892 six-inch guns of 45 caliber. Eight were paired in four turrets on the upper deck, the remainder four were mounted in embrasures in the sides of the hull a deck below the turrets, and alternating for weight distribution and stresses. Loading, and traverse were electrically-powered but traverse was manual. The latter was 135° for the turrets at +15° elevation, or down to −5°. The rate of fire 2–3 rounds per minute or more. However the ammunition hoists seemed troublesome and reduced the rate of fire. The hull embrasure guns had a 100° traverse. 200 rounds, each weighing 91.4-pound (41.46 kg) were stockpiled for each gun. They fired at a muzzle velocity of 792.5 m/s (2,600 ft/s) at a max range of 11,523 m (12,602 yards) wat +20° optimal incidence.

Battleship Petropavlovsk
Battleship Petropavlovsk

Tertiary armament destined to fight torpedo boats included twelve QF 47mm (1.9 in) Hotchkiss guns, also in hull embrasures, the remainder were located high up in the superstructure. Each shell was 3-pound (1.4 kg) ans was fired at a muzzle velocity of 569 m/s (1,867 ft/s). In addition, Twenty-eight smaller Maxim QF 37-millimetre (1.5 in) guns were located also in hull embrasures, superstructure and higher up in the armoured fighting tops, each 1-pound (0.45 kg) and fired at 402 m/s (1,319 ft/s).

For close-quarter combat, both battleships had four 15-inch (381 mm) torpedo tubes above water on the broadside, and two smaller broadside underwater 18-inch (457 mm) tubes. Only the aft 15 in torpedo tubes were protected, by the upper armor belt. Both ships were also designedto carry rails able to support 50 mines. As customary for Russian practice, they replaced the anchoring ASW net, making a wide protective bubble around the ships in any area.

Sevstopol at Kronshtadt in 1900
Sevstopol at Kronshtadt in 1900

Petropavolvsk

First of its three ships class in service, she departed Kronstadt in October 1899, reaching Port Arthur on 10 May 1900 as flagship of the Pacific Squadron. Commander Vice Admiral Nikolai I. Skrydlov first assignation was to suppress the Boxer Rebellion. Petropavlovsk became in February 1904, at the eve of the Russo-Japanese war, the flagship of Vice Admiral Oskar Victorovich Stark. The second day, Petropavlovsk was engaged and took three hits in the bow but no significant damage, without however scoring back any hit. Stark was relieved of his command and replaced by Vice Admiral Stepan Makarov in March. Petropavlovsk sortied but headed back to Port Arthur, joining the rest of the Pacific Squadron under the protection of coastal fortifications when discovering the main Japanese battlefleet. Unfortunately Petropavlovsk struck one mine and sank in less than two minutes with massive casualties, including Admiral Makarov. Only 7 officers and 73 crewmen were rescued.

All three battleships of the Petropavlovsk class

Sevastopol

Third ship of the class to enter service on 1 June 1895 (in service by 1900), the Sevastopol went to Port Arthur in 1904 and also fought two days after her arrival, being hit without casualties. She sortied in March to support cruisers and destroyers, but after discovering the main Japanese fleet, went back to the harbour, but passed through the minefield without hitting any mine. The new commander, Vice Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft, tried to conduct the fleet to Vladivostok on 23 June, but abandoned after encountering the Japanese. Back to Port Arthur, Sevastopol struck a mine and was heavily flooded, with about 1,000 t of saltwater, but survived (with the crew prompt reaction) and reached back the port, being under repair until 9 July. She suffered an accident, making some casualties. All of light guns in the embrasures were removed and partly remounted on the superstructure or use to bolster the land defenses of Port Arthur, facing a Japanese landing.

Port Arthur
Port Arthur, seen from Gold Hill

Vitgeft tried to break out again the Japanese blockade on 10 August, pressed by Tsar Nicholas II, but was spotted and had to face the Japanese might in the early afternoon, at the Battle of the Yellow Sea. Sevastopol was the last battleships in the Russian column but Vitgeft masterfully maneuvered, and convert the sortie into a stern chase. Before sunset Vitgeft was killed by a lucky hit and Rear Admiral Prince Pavel Ukhtomsky tried to regain control of the squadron, leading the ship in the night back to Port Arthur. Sevastopol had been hit several times and deplored 62 wounded and one KiA. On 23 August, Sevastopol sortied again to shell Japanese troops besieging the port, but struck a mine when turning back home. It blew up the hull near her forward magazines, and was completely flooded, but she was towed back into port. Repairs lasted until 6 November and Rear Admiral Robert N. Viren, the new fleet commander, preferred to dispatch men and guns in the defenses of Port Arthur. Sevastopol lost all of its remaining 37mm guns guns, and she was damaged by a land bombardment, being hit by 280mm Japanese batteries. Unfortunately for the Russians, the Japanese took Hill 203, allowing to see the harbour and direct the fire with precision in December. While Poltava was sunk Sevastopol (Capt. Nikolai Essen) took refuged under the only surviving coast defense guns outside the harbor, rigging torpedo nets and laying a protective minefield. Repeated attacks failed, but on 16 December a torpedo hit the ship in the stern, a lucky hit in a snowstorm. Sevastopol was towed to deep water only to be scuttled when Port Arthur surendered in January 1905.

Poltava sunk at Port Arthur
Poltava sunk at Port Arthur

Tchesma (ex-Poltava)

The only survivor of a class of three ships of the Petropavlovsk class, the Tchesma, was formerly the Tango, within the Japanese imperial navy, and before the Russo-Japanese war, the Poltava. Second ship of the class, she was launched in Saint Petersburg in 1894 and completed in 1899. She was therefore recent in 1904. The Petropavlovsk design was inspired by the English Royal Sovereign class, while using French model turrets and French guns for the secondary and tertiary artillery. Her vertical protection extended over 66% of her length of the ship and the horizontal protection was guaranteed by a "turtle back" ranging from 50 to 76 mm. The belt maximal thickness was 370 mm likely to minimize the impact of a torpedo, and all steel-nickel Harvey compound. "Tchesma" was not the same of the first Russian battleship, the previous one, stricken in 1907, was a 1886 Ekaterina II class battleship.

Tango
IJN Battleship Tango (ex-Poltava) in 1908-1909 At Port Arthur, all three battleships were the spearhead of the fleet, bearing the mark of Admiral Makarov. The Poltava sank alongside Sevastaopol in the harbour after a deluge of accurate land firing and was later refloated and repaired to serve as the Tango from 1908. However during WW1, because of the alliance of Japan with the triple entente, Tango was delivered back to Russia, renamed Tchesma on April 5, 1916. She made a journey from Vladivostock, her first assignment, to the White Sea (Arctic) passing through the Indian Ocean, Suez Canal, Mediterranean, Atlantic and the North Sea. She was not assigned there until February 3rd, 1917, and rearmed (see specs). She was seized by the allies in 1918, and broken up by the soviets in 1923.


Battleship Tchesma in 1921

Tchesma
Author's illustration of the Tchesma in 1915

Specifications Tchesma

Displacement: 11 350 t standard
Dimensions: 112,70 x 21,3 x 7,8 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 16 Cyl. boilers, 11,250 cv. 16,5 knots
Armour: Blockhaus 203mm, decks 50-76mm, belt 370mm, turrets 305-254-120 mm
Crew: 643
Armament: 4x 305 mm (12 in), 8× 152 mm (6 in), 2x 76 mm AA (1917), no TTs, no mines.


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Read more/Sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petropavlovsk-class_battleship
https://www.fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/1ere-guerre-mondiale/marine-russe1914.php#cuirasses

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Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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