IJN Taihō (1943)

Japanese Navy Japanese fleet aircraft carrier, 1941-44.
The Imperial Japanese Navy Taihō was a modern Fleet Aircraft Carrier designed as a successor to the Zuikaku class (1940)? She was desugn ti give a quanlitative edge ti the Japanese, just as Yamato was for capitl ships. As the head of a planned serie, IJN Taiho was the first with an armoured flight deck, also integrating a raked funnel in her island, and other novelties, some never implemented (like catapults and an extra lift). However her career was short, as she started in March-April and was sunk in June 1944 at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, doomed by the one single flaw in her design and inept damage control teams.

An armoured fleet carrier with grave flaws


3D Rendition

Taihō (Great Phoenix) was approved for construction in the 1939 4th Supplementary Programme and to speed her design, she was essentially an improved Shōkaku. She was laid down was laid down on 10 July 1941 in Construction number 130, at Kawasaki NyD (Kobe). However the Modified Fleet Replenishment Program of 1942 planned that Taihō was to be the lead vessel of a new generation of Japanese fleet aircraft carriers, seconded by no less than fifteen of a modified Hiryū type design, the Unryū-class and five of an improved Taiho, called the G-15 Project. They were the armoured 1st line and unarmored 2nd line carriers of the 1936 naval plan.

However the industrial situation of Japan, amidst crippling losses caused by US Submarines, dregraded fast, hit by shortages of many kinds and the Navy competed soon for resources with the other branches of the military. Thus, construction dragged on until 7 April 1943 when she was launched, and commissioned after almost a year in 7 March 1944. By then, the strategic situation had dramatically changed: The Kido Butai (1st Air Fleet) had been decimated at Midway, while operations mostly counted on the pair of Shokaku, which lost in between most of their experiences pilots and had been damaged. In March 1944, Japan was definitely in the defensive, and the naval plan was more difficult to enforce, with resources now taken faster to convert escort carriers and ASW vessels.

Nevertheless, IJN Taiho was perhaps one of the most ambitious and successful of the Japanese carriers in WW2, her design bringing many interesting novelties whereas she was criticized at the same time for safety issues in a post-midway context, leading to the G-15 Project. So she remained alone in her class. Most of her pilots being lost in the "great marianna turkey shoot", she in fact ended her days because of a single torpedo from USS Albacore, and very lucky hit.

The interesting point in the story here is that she was not supposed to sink. However the explosions that ravaged her uncontrollably were mostly the result of a single original design flaw, compounded by particularly poor damage control. This came in full contrast with the USN crews, saving their carriers at several occasions after far worse damage. The scenario repeated itself with the loss of Shinano, torpedoed by USS Archerfish at her first combat sortie on 29 November 1944.

Doctrine


2 Views, drawing.

The Modified Fleet Replenishment Program of 1942 precised to simply design time, a modified Shōkaku. The latter is indeed considered the pinnacle of Japanese fleet carrier design. They were fast, reasonably well armed and protected, and carried the largest air group or any other Japanese carrier at the time. Engineers were tasked to improve on every level. First off, they were asked to create a cheaper and simpler version for future large production and carried more planes.

But the underpinning theory that she was to be essentially a 1st line carrier, closer to the enemy and thus exposed quicker to attack but also more able to deliver a fatal first strike. Unarmoured carriers were to be in second line, and in that case, the future Unryu class. They woukld be exposed by a counter-strike or 'trigger' the enemy strike and thus expose the location of opposing forces, to sent a combined devastating counterstrike. Still, the admiralty wanted to muster a sizeable, viable first-strike from its armoured carriers and this was incompatible with threaties (were were in 1936 when wargames exposed that doctrine).

Design development: Project W102/G13


Rear section, IJN Taiho, ONI.

However in 1936, Japan denounced the treaties, only way to carry out their ambitious new naval plan, formulated as 12 battleships, 10 aircraft carriers, 20 armoured cruisers and 8 light cruisers. This Project W02 (later W102) was born in 1937 to fill such need for armoured aircraft carriers; The first drawings were delivered in November that year to be discussed. At first, the design called for a 33,600 ton ship, 250m and 27.7m wide, still capable of 33.4kts and 10,000 nautical at cruise speed, armed with the new twin 10cm AA Type 98 developed at the time. The air group called for 18 planes and three reserve/spare for each category, fighter, dive bombers and torpedo bombers the latter being pushed to 21 and one spare, 57 active, 7 spare total while extra 7 bombers and 5 torpedo planes could be parked on deck for a first strike. The design also incorporated for the first time a hurricane bow.

The design also inciroporated for the first time an upright funnel integrated in the island, but the variant showed an open forecastle and no hurricane bow. What followed was months of protracted development, approved on December 8, 1938 but then refined until December 1939 as Project G-13. Further refinemùent drawn from the war in Europe led to several redesigns so she was eventually laid down on July 10, 1941. This one year was before Midway and she ended quite different a simple modified Shokaku as first intended. The truth is that Japan had in no way the industrial capability to deliver it's intended fleet or 1st and 2nd line aicraft carriers: The G15 (armored carriers) were not even laid down while the second line Unryu class entered service far too late.

Design of IJN Taihō



Both: From Encyklopedia Okretow Wojennych 39: Taiho Volume 1

Hull and general caracteristics

The hull was made longer (260 vs 257m) and narrower (27.4 vs 29m), with a slightly higher draft but lesser tonnage overall, from 32,200 to 29,770 tonnes standard while the hull shape wwas supposed to procure a greater speed at equal power. But it was not the case. From the same 160,000 shp, Taiho obtained 33.3 kts though, compared to 34.5 on the Shokakus, but improved slightly on autonomy at 10,000 nm. However the design was suppose to have more planes and an armored deck, which was its main interest.

Taihō had an island in which a single large funnel was built in, but angled 26° to starboard, with all exhaust gases tunctated in. This arrangement helped keeping the smoke out of the flight deck but was atypical of most Japanese carriers. This was considered a success and reproduced on the Junyō and Hiyō conversion as well later on IJN Shinano.

Three Type 96 searchlights were installed on the edges of the flight deck on the port side, one to starboard aft of the island. They could be lowered below flight deck level to allow normal flight activity. The fourth searchlight located on the starboard side island, was installed on a projecting sponson and permament.

Powerplant

There was nothing particularly impressive or innovatove on that chapter. IJN Taiho was given four propeller, on shafts driven by four Kampon geared steam turbines. They were located in their own separated compartment, as well as the eight large oil-fired Kampon RO-GO boilers (two per room), for a total output of 160,000 shp (120,000 kW), the same as the previous Shokaku. This made for a top speed of 33.3 kn (61.7 km/h; 38.3 mph). However more oil was carried, 5,700 short tons, making for 10,000 nmi (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 18 kn.

The was an agile ship though, with two rudders along the longitudinal center-line, one semi-balanced, main, requiring less force to turn astern and an unbalanced auxiliary rudder forward of it. They were turned by a system of electro-hydraulically powered steering gears and in case of failure there was a diesel backup for the auxiliary one. This was innovative compared to the Shokaku class. As a note, she also had a more pronounced bulge on her bow, believed to improve her hydrodynamics. Her tactical diameter was 1,012 m (), when full hard rudder port or starboard.

Protection, active and passive

Passive protection


2 Views showing the hangar outline

The general same scheme was repeated, with an armored Belt between 55 to 152 mm thick (2.2–6.0 in) at the waist and tapered down to 40 mm (1.6 in) below the waterline. It varied over various areas, being the thinnest, 55 mm (2.2 in) abreast the machinery, and the largest, 152 mm (6 in) around the magazines. It was designed to resist to a 300 kg (660 Ib) explosive warhread, common on torpedoes. However these figures were generally inferior to the Shokaku. In addition to her flight deck and lower hangar, both elevators were armoured. Her final displacement and draft however was greater than expected and and lower hangar deck was barlerly above the waterline, both bottoms of her elevator wells were below it, which were major flooding hazards. This played a huge part in her loss.

Taihō was the first Japanese aircraft carrier with an armored flight deck, something learned from British actions in 1941-42 in the Mediterranean. The flight deck was designed indeed to withstand multiple 500 kg (1,100 lb) bomb hits with reduced damaged. There were various protective areas on more or less enseible parts, about 75–80 mm (3.0–3.1 in). This was a sort of extra layer over the proper enclosed upper hangar. Its sides and ends were not protected however. The upper hangar floor also was unarmored but the lower hangar deck itself was 32 mm (1.3 in) thick. There is no particular information about an equivalent to the US STS steel use; but Japanese steel was in general of overall better quality by its composition and foundry methods. Another borrowing of British CVs was the plated bow up to flight deck level like on the Illustrious-class.

Her aviation fuel tanks (avgas) were only partially armor protected. Her designers preferred to focus on the bomb and torpedo magazines instead. Empty air spaces around the aviation fuel tanks were in hindsight, a completely overlooked hazard, as fumes or heat can built up there; After her loss, this had them filled with concrete on Shinano and the Unryu class.

In a general way, the weight of her armour forced designers to have her sit down considerably more than other Japanese designs, which a lower hangar way too low above the waterline, for the sake of stability.

Active hangars fire protection

Fire safety was even better designed compared to the Shokaku, although the same main solutions were reused: The two hangars were divided into five and four sections in the upper and lower ones respectively. Each of these was separated by fire-proofed fabric curtains which could be deployed rapidly to limit air supply when a fire broke out and delayed the fire from spreading further. There was also an extensive network of piping to spray foam, with two rows of pipes and nozzles along the walls and at the ends. The lower hangar also had an extra carbon dioxide sprayer in case of fuel vapor building-up. But all of this dependded on electrical current and backups were not always ensured.

Armament

On this chapter, IJN Taiho innovated also. She kept the usual combination of dual-purpose guns and 25 mm AA guns but had six twin Type 98, 4 inches (100 mm)/64 naval guns, a much faster type than the 12.7 cm/40 Type 89 naval gun used on the Shokaku and other carriers. They were also used on the light cruiser Ōyodo, and large Akizuki-class destroyers. They were locared under the flight deck level and could not make cross-deck fire, the same design issue than previous carriers. Three either side, two forward port, one aft port, and one starboard forward of the island, two aft. Specs in short: For closer range she also had firty-one Type 96 25 mm (0.98 in) anti-aircraft cannons in seventeen triple mounts. These were the same models as for previous carriers and their issues are well known: Excessive vibration, slow elevation and traverse, blinding muzzle flash, inadequate sights, work-heavy reload with magazine clips. They were located one either side, eight in three series of sponsons port, and seven starboard plus at the stern, on elevated platform just before the landing lip and above the poop deck. These had practical firing rate of 110–120 rounds per minute and limited to 3 km (1.6 nmi; 1.9 mi) range.

To serve the dual purpose guns, two Type 94 triaxially stabilized fire control directors were mounted on either side, on the flight deck level, starboard, ahead of the island for one. The other was on a sponson port amidships and below flight deck level. They were electro-hydraulically powered. The 25 mm AA guns on their side were controlled by seven Type 95 fire control units on the sponsons controlling each 2-3 mounts.

Radars

Taihō's original design had no radar installation by September 1939 as no existed. By January 1941 though, to remedy to that huge discrepancy a Japanese naval technical mission arrived in Germany. They started to received blueprints and an example of a pulsed radar, returned to Japan, and by August, the Navy Ministry initiated a crash plan for radar development whioch succeeeded in providing the IJN with the the Type 21 and Type 13 air search radars.

Therefore due to her lenghty construction Taihō was soon planned to be fitted with two Type 21 air search radars: One was mounted atop the island (AA control platform) while the other was located on the lower bridge deck, immediately aft of the island. A single Type 13 air search set with antenna was later added on the signal mast, above the bridge. The Type 21 allowed a detection range of 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi), the Type 13 54 nmi (100 km; 62 mi).

Aircraft Facilities

Hangars


Cut at the island level showing the amidship hangar section

The hangars size and shape was optimized originally to carry up to 82 planes, ten more than the Shokaku (72). Her upper and lower hangars measured 150 m (492 ft 2 in) by 5 m (16 ft 5 in) in height. The upper one however was 1 m (3 ft 3 in) wider than the lower due to the hull shape with an inverted armor plating, sloping downwards. Fighters were stowed in the middle and forward sections, upper hangar and lanched via the bow elevator in rapid handling fashion. Dive bombers, which needed more space to take off, were placed aft in the upper hangar and torpedo bombers were stowed in the lower hangar, using both the aft elevator and were parked far astern. This became the new standard for deck aircraft operation.

Storage

She carried almost double bombs and aviation fuel as other Japanese carriers: For example she carried 990 tons of avgas, while Zuikaku only carried 496 tons. She had ninety 800 kg bombs aboard, four hundred sixty eight 250kg bombs, and the same of 60kg bombs, plus one hundred foorty four 30kg incendiary bomblets. Also forty eight Type 91 Mod 6 torpedoes were stowed aboard, nine could be moved simultaneously through lifts, moved from the lower stowag areas to the lower hangar where torpedo bombers were prepared.

Catapults

Taiho's original design specified two catapults forward, however, when the ship was close to completion, no workable catapult had been developed for carrier decks and they were simply deleted. Instead, there was the choice of using the more flexible rocket-assisted take-off gear (RATOG). This system used two solid-propellant rockets - using standard cordite- strapped on the aircraft fuselage. They were able to deliver 700 kgf (1,500 lbf) of thrust and burst for just three seconds but did the trick as getting a plane the required speed for take off on a shorter distance. This helped to maximize spotting but the system was in reality rarely used as both dangerous and long to setup.

Elevators

Taihō's both elevators were armored, roughly pentagonal and weighting 100 long tons (100 t) each. They could lift up to 7.5 long tons (7.6 t) aircraft and served both hangars. One was installed far aft and the other forward of the island with dedicated role, either carrying fighters or torpedo bomber. Plans included at the origin another elevator amidship but for simplification it was cancelled. The elevators were similar in shape and size both 14 m (45 ft 11 in) long and wide. They took 15 seconds to raise or lower an aircraft from the lower level to the flight deck.

Arrestors cables and barriers

The deck was fitted with fourteen hydraulically operated arrester wires transversely across, located between the fore and aft elevators. In addition the new carrier was fitted with three hydraulically powered crash barriers, that can be elevated at each landing and were sometimes used in case of botched landings. Two were abreast the island, one "last chance" at the bow, to avoid collisions with fighters or the elevator.

Flight Deck

The flight deck was in fact the longer of any IJN carrier: It measured as much as long as the hull itself, 257 m (843 ft 2 in) for 30 m (98 ft 5 in) wide which made the largest area. IJN Shinano due to her lvery large island offset to port had otherwide a larger area. IJN Taihō's flight deck also innovated as being cladded, nbot by wood as was usual, but the steel was covered with latex coating, over 6 mm (0.24 in) in thickness. Not only it was cheaper and lighter, it was faster to apply and repair, and cushioned landings. However this mediocre reacted badly with salty water spray and was bad as anti-skid material, degrading fast, becoming brittle. As usual, the flight deck, which never was camouflages, received landing markings and taking off marks, well visible over the greyish dark deck.

Air Group


Mitsubishi A6M5 "Zeke" onboard


Yokosuka D4Y1C Suisei (601 kokutai) onboard IJN Taiho, July 1944


Nakajima C6N Saiun "Myrt". Unfortunately i could not find one belonging specifically to IJN Taiho.

As planned she had the greatest so far of IJN any carrier; past or present (even the gargantuan Shinano carried a pathetic 47 aircraft). However in reality, this was 65 in combat while the shikaku had 72 plus 12 spares and later in wartime, fell to just 52 less spares. Initial prospects (see sources like armouredcarriers.com) in 1941 were for a 63 strong air group with 15 additional reserve so 78 in all: 18 A5M4 "claude", 18 "Val" and 27 "Kate".

At the time she was operational in March 1944, she had 27 A6M5 Zero fighters*, 27 Yokosuka D4Y1 Suisei "Judy" dive bombers and 18 Aichi B6N torpedo bombers and three Yokosuka D4Y1C Suisei reconnaisance planes (or Nakajima C6N for other sources probably by mid-1944), for a total of 75 planes which seemed the maximum figure given in most data. However in June it seems down to the following: -22 Mitsubishi A6M5, 22 Yokosuka D4Y, only 3 Aichi D3A and 18 Nakajima B6N. This seems odd as the latter was not offensive, but still, the B6N could carry bombs.

Other sources planned a final 18 Mitsubishi A7M1 Reppū "Sam" fighters (never ready); 36x B7A1 Riusei "Grace" torpedo/dive bombers (replacing both the B6N and D4Y) and six C6N1 "Myrt", which was more balanced. This was never implemented. 13 aircraft, 7 Grace and 6 Myrts were her permanent deck park. One for a rapid defensive strike, the second for reconnaissance. Fighters coming forward via the first lift could provide a CAP at any notice.

The G-15 project 'improved Taihō'

Under the 1942 Programme it was supposed to build seven more a few advanced aircraft carriers of Taiho class (G-15 design) with increased area of flight deck (261.5õ29.9m). Two ships were ordered to Kawasaki (No801 and 802) and five to Mitsubishi (No5021-5025). However war and economic situations forced Japanese to refuse this planes. Two slightly improved Taiho’s were listed in the 1942 construction program, as the yet unnamed Hulls 801 and 802.

This revised design was to receive an heavier anti-aircraft batteries, with eight twin duel purpose 100 mm Type 98. To accommodate these and their ammunition stores they were to be even longer, 4m more for 264 m overall, and thus took 1,600 extra tons, but with the same powerplant, resulting in a probable speed loss to 32.5 knots. In the and the Japanese admiralty planned to lay down five of the G15 aicraft carriers by late 1942 (Hulls 5021-5) and eventually if a single one was ordered, none was laid down, based on expected completion time pushed back to 1947-48. Even the most stubborn knew Japan would have been steamrolled well before that and the program was cancelled in favor of the Unryu class and faster cruiser conversions such as the Ibuki class. And with that, the 1936 doctrine was cancelled altogether.

IJN Taiho illustration
Old author's illustration of IJN Taiho

⚙ Specs Taihō 1944

Dimensions260.6 x 27.7 x 9.6 m (855 ft x 89 ft x 31 ft)
Displacement29,770 t standard, 37,270 t FL
Propulsion4 Kampon geared steam turbines, 8 Kampon Ro-Go boilers, 160,000 shp (120,000 KW).
Speed33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph)
Range10,000 nmi (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)
ArmorBelt 55–152 mm (2.2–6.0 in), 40 mm (1.6 in) bw, Deck 75–80 mm (3.0–3.1 in)-32 mm (1.3 in)
Armament6×2 100 mm/65 Type 98 DP, 17x3 (51) Type 96 25 mm AA
Aviation & facilities65 (82 planned), 1 crane, 2 elevators
Crew1,750


IJN Taiho career


Underway on trials, March 1944

A short service


HIJMS Taiho anchored in Tawi-Tawi, the Philippines (May 1944).

IJN Taihō was formally commissioned on 7 March 1944 with Captain Kikuchi Tomozo in command. Several weeks of trials followed, in the safety of Japan's Inland Sea. She departed Kobe to join the Third Fleet, CarDiv 1, Mobile Fleet and sailed to Kure. On 12 March 1944 she left Kure and final preparation for a first Inland Sea area for a first run of trials. She was back in Kure for fixes on 19 March. She departed on the 24th for Iwakuni, and more intensive training without her air group. On 27 March she departed Iwakuni for her first mission, at first via a top to Heigun-shima, departing the following day with her escort, the destroyers IJN HATSUZUKI and WAKATSUKI, and bound to Lingga. On 4 April 1944 she arrived at Seletar Naval Base, with IJN Shokaku that she met underway. She deployed first to Singapore mostly for oil reserves and deliver spare aicraft for local defence. From the 5th she trained and on the 15th, arrived at Lingga Roads, her naval anchorage off Sumatra. There, she trained intensively in close coordination with IJN Shōkaku and Zuikaku, forming the First Carrier Division of the First Mobile Force (what was left of the Kido Butai).

All three at that time were the best the IJN had to offer. They trained intensively, practicing launch and recovery, acting as targets for mock aerial attacks from Singapore airfields. On 15 April Vice-Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa transferred his flag to Taihō, appreciating her extensive command facilities. The First Mobile Force departed Lingga for Tawi-Tawi (Borneo) on 14 May 1944. There, the fleet refuelled at Tarakan Island with crude oil, await further orders. Meanwhile, Ozawa worked out and refined Kantai Kessen Operation A-GO. She made a training sortie with her air group pn the 18th. On the 22th it was signalled the Carrier CHITOSE had been attacked by a submarine just outside Tawi Tawi as CarDiv 3 was proceeding to pilot training and Ozawa cancelled further training voyages.

USN carrier strikes against the Marianas immediately signalled the admiralty that Saipan was next. The staff then initiated A-GO on 11 June and Taihō departed Tawi-Tawi on 13 June and went through the Philippine Islands, heading at full speed for Saipan, hoping to surprise the US carrier forces, not yet located. A mission for which Taiho prepared to launch her last air park: nineteen A6M5 "Zeke", twenty D4Y1 "Judy", a single D3A2 "Val" and sixteen B6N2 "Jill". She no longer had her C6Ns initially planned.

On 13 June at 09:30 she departed Tawi Tawi anchorage to head for the Guimaras, a strategic launch spot to await enemy forces attacking Saipan. At 18:30 "A-GO" was activated and further orders transmitted and the following day, at 14h00, she arrived with the division at the Guimaras for overnight layover. There, the Mobile Fleet commenced refueling. On the 15th, at 07:17 executing orders were given per ship. The carriers departed the Guimaras at 08:00 and advanced through San Bernardino Straits, toward Saipan. They proceeded that way through the 16, 17 and 18 June.

Battle of the Philippines Sea

Taihō at anchor at Lingga Roads in April 1944
Taihō at anchor at Lingga Roads in April 1944. The carrier Shōkaku is in the background.

On 19 June 1944, IJN Taihō was part of nine Japanese aircraft carriers that took part in the epic battle. At 07:45 her captain ordered she turned into wind for her first strike, comprisng 17 "Judy" dive bombers and nine "Jill" torpedo bombers escorted by 16 A6M5 Zero Fighters: They took off later, as part of the second attack wave. While they were circling overhead to form into formation, the USS Albacore, a Balao class submersible, spotted Ozawa's carriers earlier and sneaked intop the prefect attack position, to fire a spread of six torpedoes.

Warrant Officer Sakio Komatsu in fact saw the torpedo wakes and broke formation to try deliberately crashing his planed into the path of one torpedo, preventing a hit, while the remaining four missed. The sixth however, hit her just ahead of the island. The explosion blew a hole on her starboard side and the blast also split a joint in the armour above the forward avgas tank and fractured the aviation fuel tanks themselves. They also jammed the forward elevator in an in-between the upper hangar and main flight deck. At this early stage, a small fire broke up, but it was contained by inrushing seawater quickly as to escape more submersibkle attacks, top speed was maintained at 28-27 kts.

Immediately she took a list and flooding down to 1.5 m (5 ft) by the bow while her forward elevator pit, now well below waterline level, was quickly filled with a mixture of seawater, fuel oil and aviation gasoline. Taiho's captain Kikuchi, still not fully aware of the extent of the damage, order to reduce speed by just 1.5 knot (maintaining a speed of 26 knots) to slow seawater ingress. At that point the damage was "dry" in the sense that no fires had started yet, well controllable. Vice-Admiral Ozawa onboard immediately ordered her open elevator to be planked over by a flight deck damage control party to resume normal flight operations as soon as possible.

By 09:20 am indeed, wooden benches and tables from the petty officers and sailors mess rooms were removed and dismounted, allowing the deck team to complete their task at the satisfaction of Ozawa, ordering the launch of two more waves afterwards, emptying the carrier's hangar. At that point onboard, officers believed the carrier still could carry one normal operations abnd largely underestimated the damage. As it happened meanwhile, all these waves were sacrificed in the "Mariannas Turkey Shoot".

Nevertheless, due to the rupture tanks, leaking aviation gasoline accumulated in the forward elevator pit. Soon vapors and fumes reached out the upper and lower hangar decks. The crew there smelled it, recognised the danger, but their response was poor to say the least, disorganized and protracted. After trying to pump out the damaged elevator well, they failed to spray foam or making a proper use of the fire suppression system. This all slowly trigerred a time bomb.

Frantic efforts for nothing


USNI Damage assessment

As her hangars were completely enclosed, mechanical ventilation duct gates were opened at No. 1 and No. 2 sections while the aft elevator was lowered to increase draught, failing however and restructing air operations, until resumed at noon. Damage control teams after hours started to use brute force with hammers to try smash out glass portholes for more ventilation.

Taihō's chief damage control officer realizing the full amplitude of the issue eventually ordered the general ventilation system switched to full capacity... He also ordered all all doors and hatches opened but it just created drafts which drew more fumes in previously unexposed sections. Now it only was left to a single spark, litterraly, to have the ship burning like a torch, or spontaneous ignition by any cause. The inevitable happened at 14:30, 6½ hours after the torpedo hit that trigerred this chain of events.

Taihō was rocked by a tremendous blast, shattering glass, falling masts, with all crew member lifted off the ground or toasted over. A senior staff officer on the bridge in fact would later testify about the flight deck heaving up, bulging, just before its sides blew out. Needless to say the carrier now crippled, fell out of formation and ceased all normal operations. Speed beld out until she was a stitting duck. Admiral Ozawa refused to transfer his flag to another ship and assumed sharing the fate of her captain, go down with the ship. But his staff for 30 minutes arguing, prevailed, and convinced him to leave. Ozawa transferred his flag to IJN Haguro, taking wit him the Emperor's portrait, via a destroyer.

There was the possibility of Haguro taking her in tow but this was already out of question and at this point, Captain Kikuchi realizd she was doomed and ordered to abandon ship.

Soon, he turned his gaze back at the carrier with his staff after hearing another tremendous explosion onboard Taihō. The latter was fatal, breaking her hull. The flood was very fast and she sank, stern first at 16:28. She was still settling upright, but leaned over to port while nodding by the bow. All testified that she levelled below the waves on a semi-even keel. There were still 1,650 officers and men that went with her, for Japanese sources, 28 officers and 632 petty officers and men were missing and presumed sank with her. From 2,150 total, about half escaped immediately at the abandon ship order and later recued by destroyers over the next hours.

At 12-05'N, 138-12'E were she sank, Destroyers Iokaze, Wawatsuki and Hatsuzuki rescued indeed some 1,000 officers and men including the Captain. The sinking was so quick all her engine room personnel went with her. Firemen from 2 and 6 boiler rooms however managed to escape topside through overhead deck hatches. She would be stricken much later, on 26 August 1945. News of her sinking were covered up, while the crews were ventilated between active units to avoid spreading the news at home, a common practice at the time.

Sinking and controversy


Colorized photo by Irootoko Jr.

So what went wrong ?

IJN Taiho had many safety features that could have stemmed the damage of properly used, but also a fatal flaw: Sure, her aviation fuel storage facilities were not fully encompassed by the main belt as her torpedo protection system. Now, to be very clear, it's not the fact that her lower hangar and lift sat very low at waterline level which sunk her. Her machinery was still working as did her pumps and water could have been maintained low, while damage control parties could have try to patch the hole or ensure other compartments around remained tight. It's the failure of controlling vapors entering both hangars by the teams whoch doomed her. Fortunately enough officers and men survived the sinking to piece together a relatively good picture of what happpened.

For six and a half hours, the teams failed to appreciate the amplitude of the damage and to react accordingly. In less hours allowing the crippled USS Enteprise or Yorktown to survive, the situzaiton onboard Taiho was only worsening. The first explosion and the second intervened in a gap of about two hours between 14 and 16 hours, so the ship sunk in effect eight and a half hours after being torpedoed. USN cadree examining the facts as well as authors well after the war estimated that with her safety measures in place, and even her design issues, with the properly managed and trained damage control parties (at USN standards), no doubt the ship could have, and should have been saved. There was plenty time for it.

For long, her loss has been surrounded by somewhat "mysterious circumstances" and a book was written by Richard Wolff on the subject. Japanese records are unaninmous that the carrier sank nearly on an even keel very much like USS Lexington (CV-2) at Coral Sea and so fuelling the scenario of the greatest explosion forward. But it's clearly the action of the damage personel that were lacking. Given the action report, it seems they just didn’t know how to deal with the issues. Portable pumps were used in vain, to dump the volatile fuel into the sea but foam sprayers, crucially, were not used.

Perhaps unawaere if the danger, both the Captain and Ozawa prioritiez air operations and directed most efforts into revovering the forward 100ton back into operation, jammed with a loaded, filled A6M5 fighter on it. Basically the lift's cables slackened, the pulley broke and it partially collapsed, enough to jam into place by it's own weight.

Damage control parties thus plated over the lift as ordered, but this eliminated chances for any natural ventilation there. To improve airflow opening ventilation ducts were evtentually opened on both sides, further helped by the aft elevator, but with little effect. Soon Ozawa ordered the lift back in use again for air operations. The chief damage control officer also failed to order all ventilation systems activated to full capacity. Her reported the issue and acted far too late. Perhaps panicking at this point, he ordered all doors and hatches opened and portholes broken, but it had the exact opposite effect, spreading furher the heavy fuel-air mixture. When the explosion happened also, the 'slit' vents in the hangar sides failed to release the pressure. After the first explosion there was nothing much left to do, the ship was doomed whatever the efforts of the remaining damage parties.


IJN Uryu, to compare.

Sources/ Read more

Books

Conway's all the worlds fighting ships 1922-1947

Links

On armouredcarriers.com
On combinedfleet.com
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Video: Drachinfels on IJN Taiho - Always train your crew.

The model's corner

The 1:700 waterline series from Tamiya
The 1:700 waterline series from Tamiya

The subject has been covered by Japanese brands at 1:700 and 1:350. There are of course tabletop 1:3000 versions. The largest was the Answer-Angraf/CPM 1:200 version. Very Fire created a 1:350, and Fujimi/Tamiya the 1:700. Many photo-etched and decals has been produced as well. Scalemates general query

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
Seaplanes
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)



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