WW1 American Battleships

USA - 46 battleships The development of WW1 era American battleship really started with the USS Texas in 1890. Despite these humble beginnings, American policy to leave the traditional isolationism, combined to the ideas of Mahan and Sims, the (strong) will of President T. Roosevelt made for a rapid rise, from the obscurity to the world's third rank in 1914 and second in 1918. Battleships were the cornerstone of the Navy, a powerful fleet which was split between two oceans but never seriously tested before 1941, by then the world's largest battleships force.


WW1 American Battleships
USS Texas (1891)
USS Iowa (1896)
Indiana class battleships (1898)
Kearsage class battleships (1898)
Illinois class (1898)
Maine class (1901)
Virginia class (1804
Connecticut class (1905)
Mississippi class (1906)
South Carolina class battleships (1908)
Delaware class battleships (1909)
Florida class battleships (1910)
Arkansas class battleships (1911)
New York class Battleships (1912)
Nevada class Battleships (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class battleships (1917)
Tennessee class battleships (1919)
Colorado class battleships (1920)
South Dakota class battleships (1920)
Lexington class battlecruisers (1921)

From Ironclads to Dreadnoughts: 1862 to 1908

Until there was the need to project power on the oceans, and ending American isolationist policy, the rise of the "Hawks" at the White House and Congress, which culminated with the 1898 war and the "great white fleet" afterwards. the American civil war was the first time the 'old navy' experimented with armour at sea since the Demologos in 1814, a paddle-propelled wooden-clad.

Fulton's Demologos, created to counter the mighty Royal Navy, the granddaddy of all USN Battleships

At first, to answer the Confederate threat of the USS Virginia ex-Merrimack. With the USS Monitor, the Union Fleet deployed a ships way ahead of her time, with a revolving turret instead of broadside guns, minimalistic superstructure to protect itself, armour all around and steam only. The first became so famous it gave its name to a genre which knew success under various forms until the Vietnam War.

WW1 American monitors

USS Puritan at Matanzas

There were still a dozen of Monitors in service during the great war, used as coastal defence vessels and gun platforms to be deployed in areas that required their presence on the Mississippi and some of its tributaries, close to home, even in the Caribbean or South American waters. Still on the lists were the USS Puritan (1882), Amphitrite class (1883), and USS Monterey (1891).

USS Amphitrite

The most recent were the the four Arkansas-class monitors (USS Arkansas, Nevada, Florida, Wyoming) launched in 1900 and completed in 1902-03, the culmination of this type started in 1863. They are somewhat designed as the equivalents of standard battleships with only one turret and riverine capabilities. Their Mississippi "police" role became of little help as part of Roosevelt's projected fleet. Nevertheless, the class was renamed BM7 to BM10 in 1909, and later Ozark, Tonopah, Talahassee, and Cheyenne to free the names for 1911 dreadnoughts. In 1914 they served as submarine refuellers along the coast.

USS Monterey
USS Florida BM9
BM-9 ex-Florida at Hampton roads, tending submarines in 1917.

Displacement: 3225t, 3600t FL
Dimensions: 77,75 x 15,24 x 3,81m
Propulsion: 1 RP steam engine, 4 boilers, 2400 hp. 12.5 knots max.
Armor: Barbettes 280 mm, Turret 250 mm, belt 280 mm
Crew: 220
Armament: 2 x 305 mm (1x2), 4 x 100 mm, 3 x 47 mm.

The New Navy's first ironclads: 1890-1898

Historically, the USN (by then the Union Navy) started with Ironclads at the start of the civil: It was the New Ironsides, made in response to the word that the Confederates were converting the Merrimack as their first ironclad, the Virginia. However the latter was a riverine casemate ship while the second was an authentic sea-going Ironclad comparable to those in service with the French and British Navies.

However soon, the nature of the operations dictated the use of a variety of riverine armoured ships, and the development of the Monitor. Therefore next was the USS Dictator, first sea-going monitor of the USN (1863). After the war ended, the USN fell into an era of budget constraints which saw the "old navy" disappearing.

The "New Navy" program of the 1880s saw the first two ships authorized as "coast defense battleships", USS Maine was constructed as a 'cruiser' rather than a battleship, perhaps to make it "less painful" on the Congress. The USS Texas (BB1) became the very first American battleship ever, so first also to be detailed in this post. But again, the Congress in its majority was certainly not willing to go this way. The "hawks" were not there yet and Mahan's voice was still inaudible to the majority.

The threat posed by the Brazilian ironclad Riachuelo, by then the most powerful warship on the continent, 'woke up' the US admiralty and Congress. The 'New Navy' was born.

It would take Brazil's delivery of the battleship Riachuelo in 1883 and rival Argentina and Chile own acquisitions to question US Maritime power on the western hemisphere. The USS Texas was then authorized by the congress in 1886 only to balance that gap "at home", but by doing this, the "New Navy" has a start. More so, to be more easily accepted, the Texas was seen as a coast guard armored ship, with just two 12-in guns, rather than the usual four on European battleships, twice that tonnage and long range.

The USS Maine was even planned as an "armoured cruiser" and indeed only carried two twin 10 in (254 mm) guns but was very well armoured, between 10 and 12 in. But her construction time was nine year. So when she was in service, ACR-1 was hopelessly obsolete.

USS Texas
The coastal nature of USS Texas in 1890 was a prudent step forward, still compatible with the isolationist policy of the United States.

The "great white fleet"'s pre-dreadnoughts 1907-1909

The 'Great White Fleet', referring to the color of the hulls, became the popular nickname of the powerful United States Navy battle fleet in 1906. This fleet started a journey around the globe started on 16 December 1907, until to 22 February 1909. This came as an order of the then United States President, Theodore Roosevelt. Like any individual ships of the time, the mission was a classic "good will tour", each ship acting as an ambassador and part of the territory of the country at sea. Courtesy visits multiplied whereas was displayed the brand new U.S. naval power to the world, in full regalia.

uss connecticut postcard

Apart naval reviews, Jubilee and coronations naval parades which were localized, the "great white fleet" was the first time an entire battle fleet was at sea in peace time that way. However there has been previous events of similar scope: In 1891, a large French fleet visited Kronstadt, Russia, to pressure negotiations. The Germans were invited to send their best ships as well in 1902 to New York and these years, courtesy visits frequently implied many warships of the same Nations, entire squadrons. Another USN squadron arrived in North Africa by 1906, to settle a diplomatic crisis between France and Germany over Morocco: Eight USN battleships entered the Mediterranean Sea to stay.

The great white fleet

This fleet was composed of the 16 battleships available, divided into two squadrons, and escorts ranging from the latest armoured cruisers to older protected cruisers a tenth of their displacement. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate what the American military achieved, completing its status as a blue-water naval superpower, only comparable to the top five. Another objective was to enforce treaties and protect overseas possessions of the US, like the Philippines, recently acquired, against any naval ambitions by a regional power. The United States Congress secured funds for the ships as well as for the tour. The Great White Fleet was also sent in the pacific, showing muscles to an growingly ambitious and overconfident Japan after the victory at Tsushima.

great white fleet trip

The fleet displayed very disparate battleships however, those of the early generation, barely more than glorified coastal capital ships such as the Maine, Illinois and USS Kearsage, in complete contrast to the post-1898 true oceanic vessels such as the Virginia and Connecticut, displaying the "highest practicable speed and greatest radius of action", according to the Congress. The trip was considerable: As the Panama Canal was not yet completed, the fleet has to veer south and go through the dreaded Cape Horn.

the great white fleet through Magellan strait

The trip comprised three separate cruises. The first leg started from Hampton Roads, Virginia on 16 December 1907. Next stop was Port of Spain, Trinidad, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in January 1908, Punta Arenas, Chile on 1 February 1908, Callao, Peru, Magdalena Bay, Mexico and final leg to San Francisco, California on 6 May 1908. On 23 May 1908 the 16-battleships Fleet started from Puget Sound, visiting six Washington state ports: Bellingham, Bremerton, Port Angeles, Port Townsend, Seattle and Tacoma. Arrival occurred at Seattle on 23 May, and the feet departed again on 27 May 1908.

The third leg was probably the most impressive, starting from San Francisco on 7 July 1908, crossing the Pacifi to Honolulu, Hawaii, Auckland, Sydney, Melbourne, Victoria, Albany in Australia, Manila in the Philippine Islands, Yokohama (Japan), Amoy (China). The fourth leg and return home passed through Colombo, Ceylon on 13 December 1908, Suez in Egypt (3 January 1909) Gibraltar and back to Hampton Roads in Virginia.

teddy roosevelt speech

It should be noted that the trip was not just an exercize in displomatic show of force, it also underlines many issues with the USN and battleships handling. The cruise provided practical experience in sea duty, conformed the viability of US warships for long-range operations but also covered potential flaws, in gunnery engagement and concrete battle fleet action. It perhaps even helped obscure these deficiencies until WW1 broke out. The ships indeed shown excessive draft, low armor belts, large turret openings with exposed ammunition hoists that could have been disastrous in any engagement. Also, it was underlined the fleet's dependence on foreign colliers, the need for coaling stations and auxiliary ships.

Fortunately due to the nature of naval warfare and tremendous disparities in 1917, the USN mighty battle fleet went mostly inactive and the 1922 Washington treaty will send the whole 'White Fleet' to the scrapyard, never having fired a short in anger, but for the few veterans of the Spanish-American war.

Development of the American dreadnoughts

WoWs rendition of USS South Carolina
WoW's rendition of USS South Carolina

When the great white fleet finally came home in 1909, the face of the USN was already changing: A new plan has been ordered already, placing the new dreadnought in the center of American naval shipbuilding. The "great white fleet" made entirely of pre-dreadnoughts literally came home to discover a brand new fleet in construction. In December 1909, the first two were in completion, the South Carolina class. Already the next were in construction, the Delaware and Florida.

This did not came out of the blue and without resistance. Indeed the concept was already "in the air" in 1903 shared by most admiralties of the time. It was hardly confirmed in 1905 after Tsushima, whereas the HMS Dreadnought was in construction. Indeed, many still thought battles were to be fought at relatively close range with many medium to small, fast-firing guns. However American naval theorists proposed to mount an homogeneous battery of large guns, as more effective.

But this evolution was not only about all-big guns. The last cruise showed that an increased freeboard forward and in general spray-reducing measures like the elimination of billboards for anchors and gun sponsons would be more effective. The hulls therefore needed to be higher, roomier. Increases in beam and overall size seemed logical, but only the Wyoming class was designed truly with the reports of the great white fleet in mind.

The years between 1903 and 1907 (when the South Carolina was ordered) indeed excluded the great white fleet cruise, but was dedicated to naval thinking, and the year 1905 bring too many additional data to the table, over firepower and distances.

The first publication to disrupt popular ideas about gunnery was the Naval Institute's Proceedings magazine in 1902. It devoted large article to expose theoretical improvements in battleship design. 1903 Jane's famous article by Cuniberti only confirmed the trend, into a more senstive package. Enthusiastic Lieutenant Matt H. Signor already called for a ship with a full battery of 13-inch (330 mm) cobined with 10-inch (254 mm)/40 caliber guns in four triple turrets, probably with the lighter caliber in superfiring positions. This very unusual solution was never adopted but superfiring combination of twin and triple turrets of the same caliber were found satisfactory eight years later (USS Nevada). The article was heavily commented by William M. Folger, Professor P. R. Alger and naval constructor David W. Taylor—an up-and-coming officer (future head of Construction and Repair (C&R)). The debate was launched.

The discussion ended with a proposal for a more realistic and feasible eight 12-inch guns in four twin turrets arrangement. Homer Poundstone later would be the one pushing towards a concrete monocaliber design. He wrote a letter in December 1902 to president T. Rooselevelt. He would also push his luck in the March and June 1903 editions of Proceedings, showing a battleship featuring no less than twelve 11-inch guns on a 19,330 long tons ship, eerily similar to Cunberti's own proposal. Perhaps what drove more attention was the great interest shown by the Europeans in the new trend. Not to be undone, partisans of the new battleship concept advanced more arguments for their cause. At last, through Washington Irving Chambers, Poundstone's ship was tested in war games by the Naval War College in the end of 1903, showing its clear superiority.

After this and that the battle of Tsushima shown naval battles at larger distances were possible, the General Board eventually sent a formal request in October 1903 to C&R for such a design. However in January the design asked for comprised four 12-inch guns and eight 10-inch guns as it was seen as doubtful large caliber turrets could be mounted on the broadsides. Therefore the design went intro traduction with the Connecticut class, later refined with the Mississippi class, both semi-dreadnought classes with a powerful secondary artillery. There was indeed much resistance and conservatism between the C&R and General Board, to the dismay of Poundstone, until late 1904.

To break the bureaucratic stalemate, the latter crafted a new design, the "USS Possible" fitted with twelve 11-inch guns and displacing 19,330 long tons. With support of war hero admiral William Sims, the project went to the attentive ears of Teddy Roosevelt at last, which forced things up. The Congress in March 1905 at last passed a bill authorizing the Navy to construct the two new battleships. It was expressed their single caliber nature without a doubt this time. However perhaps not well informed of the new nature of it, the Congress only authorized a maximum tonnage limit of 16,000 long tons the same as the Connecticut !

This proved a serious blow to naval engineers which crafted the first American dreadnoughts on a tight and compromised design. The South carolina class was born. From then on, and with the HMS Dreadnought and more classes delivered from UK and Germany, the race was on. In 1909 at last, the Congress recognised the need for a more suitable tonnage, and this the first "true" American dreadnoughts were born: The Delaware class.

but back to the South Carolina. The engineer in charge of the design, Rear Admiral Washington L. Capps, did retrospectively an amazing job for turning the best possible broadside for such a cramped and limited package. Instead of delivering long ships with turrets placed on the same level (such as the Gangut or Dante Alighieri), he devised the first dreadnoughts with superfiring turrets. After all, the HMS Dreadnought and the following St Vincent and Bellophoron had all also same-level turrets. Superfiring turrets were a risky and very innovative solution, untested at that time, more so with such large turrets. The nightmarish prospects for all captains was the lack of stability and excessive rolling. Could such a battleship firing a full broadside could roll to a no-return point and capsize ? Could the rolling not stop soon enough in a naval engagement before the guns could be stabilized on target again ? This was uncharted territory.

wow rendition uss wyoming
Rendition of USS Wyoming

Capps was able to cram this heavy broadside in a short hull (which recalls the future Viribus Unitis) but thick armor too. The only sacrifice was speed. There was no way of having the required space for the turbines and boilers required to produce more output than the Connecticuts. Indeed, space was further reduced by the turrets associated magazines which used a great amount of space. Boiler rooms were even moved inboard to make room for torpedo protection. It was difficult to curtail the numbers of boilers so the Bureau of Engineering came out with the idea of eliminating centerline bulkheads to free some space !
In retrospect, the South Carolina class sacrificed speed by squeezing some machinery in every inch available. Protection and armament were ok. But speed was inferior to British dreadnoughts and would have to wait for the next iteration.

The first battleship generation: Delaware to New York

Before the "standard types", USN Battleship design followed an incremental path with some pros and cons and a lot of trials and errors. The next Delaware benefited from the perception from US Navy and Congress that the South carolina were actually quite inferior to the HMS Dreadnought. But this was untrue.

Only trading speed, the ships can bring to bear the same artillery in a broadside (the opposite british wing turret could not be used), and protection was of the same level. The greater tonnage authorized (19,000 tons) at least to gain the space needed for a proper powerplant. The extra size also allowed another turret, but the Americans chosed an all-axial configuration.

turrets on USS Delaware
They would never ventured into wing turrets, whereas abaft a given position or in echelon. Therefore on the faster Delaware, the broadside counted one more pair of 12-in guns. The superfiring pair remained at the front, while the remaining three turrets aft were placed on the deck, on the same level. The only tradeoff of this was the proximity of the barrels to the roof of the next turret, preventing retreat fire without serious concussion from the last two turrets. In principle the innermost one was superfiring, the last two were back to back to prevent any attempt at a retreat fire. These battleships were first and foremost "battle line wagons".

USS texas

Wartime American dreadnoughts (1914-1920)

Before the Great War, the last American Dreadnought battleships were the New York class (1912), with a relatively conventional artillery, five axial twin turrets with 356 mm or 14 inches guns. USS New York and Texas were accepted for service in March and April 1914. On the other hand, rapid advances in armor design and optimization research led American engineers to venture into triple turrets rather than twins as well as the famous "all or nothing" armour scheme. The Nevada class (1914) was a sort of intermediary model, introducing a mix of twin and triple turrets like Italian battleships.

The idea was to preserve stability by placing the twins as superfiring turrets. But it was soon proved possible to mount heavier turrets, by making them lower, lighter and combine this with adding protection weight into the hull to lower the gravity point. The Nevada were also the first of tne new "standard battleships", shering many charactistics, in displacement, protection, speed, even armour scheme. In detail, these were specified to have the same all-or-nothing armor scheme, all main guns on the centerline in fore and aft turrets, designed range of 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km), top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h) and tactical turn radius of 700 yards. The next Pennsylvania class (1915), still a prewar design to US perspective, were the first to introduce a main artillery entirely all in triple turrets, for twelve 14-in guns (356 mm) total, all axial, and capable of a broadside or six guns in chase and retreat.

USS Pennsylvania

The following New Mexico class (1917) faithfully repeated this configuration, but with longer artillery pieces of 50 caliber instead of 45. The next Tennesse class (1919) were to be a repetition of the first, but changes were made in ASW protection. The next Colorado class in 1920 inaugurated a new "race" of battleships with this time 406 mm (16 in) guns, forcing to adopt larger turrets, back to twin configuration, and massive turbo-electrical power. The following battleships were put on hold in 1920 and quickly canceled. They were to return to the triple turret configurations, but with the new 16-in, therefore twelve guns. Turrets were massive, and their weight alone, along with added protection, made the The North Carolina design reaching 42,200 tons in displacement, versus 32,600 on previous ships. Also the Lexington class, first American battlecruisers has been planned in 1912 already to counter the Japanese Kongo class, but they were canceled and broken up except the first two more advanced, converted into aircraft carriers after a delay. More on this:

American battlecruisers

Artist impression of the Lexington-class, final configuration.

For a massive fleet in 1917, the USN still did not have any battlecruiser in service. The reasons were multiple, but first, the isolationism policy in peacetime dictated series of ships considered fit for defensive actions, not offensive ones. The battecruiser concept was more offensive, and on top of that, made for relatively short range swoops due to fuel consumption, fit for areas such as the European North Sea, and not for long range operations as thought by the USN. Therefore only the Royal Navy (which generated the concept) and Germany considered them seriously, as it was unthinkable that one navy could have some and not the other. The two rival lineages will culminate with the HMS Hood in UK and the Mackensen class in Germany. Design of the hood started in 1916, before the battle of Jutland, and was revised several time afterwards, delaying completion of the first ship. The influence of USN thinking about battlecruiser design was quite important. They were impressed with it. The British Admiralty long hesitated between a fast battleship and a pure battlecruiser design, ending with a sort of in-between.

USS Lexington original configuration
USS Lexington - original configuration 1916

One motivator was the arrival of the Kongo-class battlecruisers on the scene, in the Pacific. However it took opne more year to C&R to materialize a frst design, some sort of fast Pennsylvania class with 8x 14 in guns. However political weather was still not favourable to battlecruisers. The USN already estimated the Congress did not authorized enough battleships and prioritized them. This started to change in 1914, and at last in October, president W. Wilson authorized the famous ten "standard" battleships and also crucially, six battlecruisers. The race was on.

However at that stage, the initial design was planned to be ibe part of a 35-knot (40 mph) scouting force, support the battle fleet and also comprising the Omaha class cruisers and Wickes class DDs. However as the war progressed, like in UK, priority was given to building more merchant ships and anti-submarine warfare destroyers. Laying the keels was delayed but it left time to designers to refine the concept, to the light of the first battlecruisers in combat. Finally the CC1 to CC6, also called Lexington, Constellation, Saratoga, Ranger, Constitution, and United States were a development of 10,000 tons cruisers designs.

The initial, four-funneled 1916 configuration, called for ten 14"/50 caliber guns in four turrets, two lower twin and two upper triple. Indeed, strangely, the compromise not was to reduce the size of the innermost barbettes to allow more room for the massive powerplant to fit in, also a concern when designing the Hood, nor to reduce top-weight to gain stability, but to reduce the outermost barbettes, helping to reduce the hull's section fore and aft, taking in account the space needed to accomodate ASW protection and compartimentation. Armor however was reduced and despite tier great size, these ships only displaced 34,300 long tons (34,900 t) for a speed of 35 knots. They were impressive nevertheless and technically challenging, with a long, narrow hull causing concerns for longitudinal strenght, heavy weight of main turrets and guns, not enough room for the boilers under the armored deck and many funnel uptakes, no less than seven, including in pairs.

USS Lexington - final configuration 1919
USS Lexington - final configuration 1919

Naval Constructor R. H. Robinson made careful analyses of strength, buoyancy and stresses expected in service and made several recommendations. After the battle of jutland and British design work on the Hood, this started to change. The final design work was put on hold but restarted in 1918 with the help of Stanley Goodall from the Hood's design team, to C&R. The design started to change dramatically. Eventually, four above-water torpedo tubes were fitted, the width was extended to maximize ASW and belt protection, while it was increased to 7 inches (180 mm). Boiler technology allowed to reduced them to 16 and funnels to two, with massive truncations, and displacement rose to 43,500 tons, making them even heavier than the projected South Dakota class. They would have been the largest warships ever built for the USN before the Iowa class in 1944.

In the wake of the Washington treaty

The South Dakota and Lexington classes were no longer needed in 1919-1920 as the war came to an end. Aside the prevalent pacifism mood of the time and the Congress wary of further spending, Washington eventually endorsed the initiative of a global naval ban, a well-received initiative in some political circles due to the huge financial strain taken by this race in many nations impoverished by the war. Japan perhaps was the less happy with this decision, but eventually would conform to it. This American initiative was one of the very first armament reduction treaty. The Harding administration called the Washington Naval Conference during November 1921 and settled the matter between former allies, including a Nine-Power Treaty about China.

Washington Treaty

The measure taken would of course hit the previous Wilson'a administration grand plan of building 50 capital ships. It imposed a ten-year pause or "holiday" of the construction of capital ships, later prolonged by the London conference in 1930. It also imposed a simple ratio of tonnage, limits to capital ship tonnage and secondary vessels, known as 5:5:3. In addition it imposed a world ratio between fleets of 5/5/3/1.75/1.75. This barely satisfied both the leading fleets, the USN and RN, Italy, but angered both France and Japan. The first wanted a larger fleet to cope with a sizeable Colonial Empire (which Italy lacked), while the second had grand ambitions in Asia and wanted no less than parity with the USN and RN. The Royal Navy's admiralty also was concerned about her need simultaneously maintaining a fleet present in the Mediterranean, Asia, North sea and Atlantic. Germany of course was out of this, submitted by the Versailles treaty's much more drastic limitations.

The result had several consequences: The Mahanists and "falcons" saw the dream of a very large fleet fo the Pacific and another in the Atlantic, able to cope with any potential threat in both areas, faded away. Concrete result was the scrapping of the whole pre-dreadnought fleet (but the Mississipi class, sold to Greece) and the first three dreadnought battleships classes (But USS Utah of the Florida class). Indeed there were two areas of tolerances not to scrap a battleship: Disarmed, with the armour partially scrapped, and converted in any role, from depot ship to naval barracks, training vessel, or target ship. The second option, chosen by most navies, was the conversion as an aircraft carrier. The option was followed by the USN for the two most advanced ships of the Lexington battlecruiser class (see later).

El Fraile Island, aka fort Drum, the "concrete battleship" which defended Manila harbour.

Another self-inflicted limitation by Article XIX of the Treaty concerning Britain, Japan, and the United States forbade new fortifications or naval bases in the Pacific Ocean. It was seen essentially as a conciliation gesture for Japan, but did not stopped the USN to improve existing fortifications, in the case of the Philippines, former Spanish fortifications. One famous example was the "Concrete battleship" of El Fraile Island near Manila. The overall consequence of USN Battleship design was a pause, allowing to concentrate on other aspects instead, like cruiser, destroyer, submarine and aircraft carrier design and operation.

There were limited modernizations however, more so after the crash of wall street, but nothing on the scope of the New Mexico class until WW2. There were little examples to draw inspiration from for USN engineers, but the Hood, and the Nelson class which were exceptions to the treaty. The 1929 Deutschland class was so compromised it escaped all classifications and remained an object of curiosity.

German rearmament soon relaunched capital ship design in Europe though, France answering the Deutschland class, later German rearmament, and the Anglo-German naval treaty in 1935 by restarting construction with the Dunkirk class, followed by the German Scharnhorst class, Italy's Litorrio's class. Soon the Royal Navy not to be undone lanched the King Georges V class when the treaties expires. The USN next generation of battleships, the North Carolina class would appear at a later date, drawing from many recent developments.

Rendition of USS New York in 1930
Rendition of USS New York in 1930

Into the Storm: Modernized Dreadnoughts 1942-45

Although it is a bit off-topic it is important to note the fate of these classic dreadnought built before, during and after the great war until Washington. The Pearl Harbor attack in December 1941 erased in one swoop the Pacific fleet, or so it was thought at the time. The importance of aircraft carriers has not yet been well integrated. The attack on Taranto in 1940 and the Japanese one this fateful day shown already this potential, but the old guard of the USN considered the loss as a very serious one for further actions in the Pacific. But it was not such a catastrophe, partly due to unexpected luck: Conservative and prudent admiral Kurita's refusal of a third wave, targeting the fuel tanks of the fleet was one of these, added to the providential absence of the three aircraft carriers.

Later, only two of the vessels hit in the "battleship row" were terminal constructive losses. All the other battleships, sinking at a moderate depht, could be refloated and sent to a drydock for repairs, but also reconstruction, sometimes very radical. The latter, only applied to the New Mexico class because of budgetary constraints, was at last realized on these survivors, and many lessons of the air war prevalent in the Pacific made them reaching a new status, of AA platforms and artillery support vessels in amphibious operations. For the remainder of the war, they rarely met other Japanese battleships, while most were sunk by the new generations of threats, by air and submarines. This did not prevented the USN to order three more classes of fast battleships during the war, alongside many other constructions, still keeping faith in the capital ship. For more informations, wait for the upcoming WW2 USN Battleship post.

Sources- Read More

Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1860-1905 and 1906-1921 Conference on the Limitation of Armament
Popular Mechanics 1930 over the post-washington fleets
American Heavy Metal: "Dreadnought" Battleships, 1915
USNI - The South Carolina sisters
List of USN BBs on Hazegray
USN Battleships with the grand fleet

Nomenclature of USN pre-dreadnought Battleships

USS Texas (1891)

USS Texas
Texas in 1898, shortly before being repainted in dark gray. (1/350)

The USS Texas, not known as "BB" ("Broad Battleship"), like following ships was the US Navy's first battleship. Before there was the Demologos of 1814 (in wood), the Old Ironside of 1860 (mixed construction), the Monitor of 1862 (first all metal monitor). She was in any case the first "pre-dreadnought" of the US Navy. In addition to USS Maine, 25 more will follow until 1906.

Relatively small (6100 tons), considering Yard's still limited industrial capabilities and Congress limitations, she was built in Norfolk, in the brand new basin of this large naval base of the Atlantic. She inaugurated a turret arrangement in echelon, quite fashionable at that time, and different from that adopted on twin turret monitors, an areas the USN had great experience. Moreover, the genesis of the Texas was quite complex. For budgetary reasons, she was initially classified as a second-class line vessel, and no less than 13 projects competed. British shipyard John Barrow eventually obtained the contract and created the blueprints, but the ship (partly with British supervision) was built in Norfolk. Work started in June 1889 and the Texas was completed in August 1895.

Considered too small for her large guns, too heavy to be in a turret, she served as a test run for USS Maine. Their range and especially their angle of fire was quite small. Nevertheless, Texas fought at the battle of Santiago, as part of the blocking squadron in the port of the same name. In 1911 she was placed on reserve, modified and recommissioned as a target ship, USS San Marcos. She survived many firing sessions for the new dreadnoughts and it appears that her hull was still stationed at Norfolk, used as a floating depot until 1950.

USS Texas specification

Displacement: 94.13 x 19.53 x 6.86m
Dimensions: Standard 6,135t, 6,665 FL
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 4 VTE machines, 8600 hp. and 17 knots max.
Amour: belt, barbettes, 203 turrets, 305 mm blockhouse; Crew 508
Armament: 2 guns of 305, 6 of 152, 12 of 37 mm, 6 mit. 12.7 mm AT, 4 TLT 356 mm SM.
Crew: 305

USS Maine -ACR-1 (1896)

uss maine

Three times it was a ship that dragged the US into a war. The first example was the explosion of USS Maine in the port of Havana in 1898. The second example was the torpedoing of the Lusitania in 1917, which carried American citizens on the old continent, and the third example, closer to us, when the destroyer USS Maddox was "attacked" in 1965 by North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin.

Of these three episodes, the second was a well-exploited error, the two others had in common to have been business assembled from scratch (In 1965, the crews of the two destroyers ventured on order in North Vietnamese waters did not The CIA and the press have done the rest, but the CIA and the press have done the rest of it.With the budget that it lacked, voted by the Congress, President Johnson was fully engaged in the Viet-Nam war. The case of Maine for its part remains a half-enigma: Because if we ignore the real cause of its destruction (boilers, torpedo, ammunition?), The ground was prepared in advance to exploit this accident and make a sabotage , a deliberate attack of the Spaniards, at the origin of the "Splendid little war".

Technically speaking, Maine was the second battleship of the "New Navy". The monitors were in a particular category. It was quite different from Texas, though its two turrets were staggered. In addition, they were double turrets, and parts lighter than the standard caliber of 305 mm, the cruiser-battleships, 254 mm. This reduction of size allowed to group two pieces in a single turret and thus to increase the firepower. Moreover, after Maine, all American battleships adopted double turrets, while returning to the standard caliber. Maine was slimmer and heavier (800 tons more) than Texas, he was also very different in silhouette, less massive, and had better clearance for his pieces. He was also the last to keep this singular arrangement of turrets.

Started in 1886 and completed in 1895, she was originally designed as an armored cruiser, inspired by the Brazilian Riachuelo built in Britain. But the project was modified after launch, and nine years after being put on hold, she was completed as a battleship. Her 6-in secondary guns were distributed in barbettes at the bow and stern and the main deck under shields. The tertiary 57-mm and 47-mm rapid-firing anti-TB guns were partly on the main deck and armored tops.

USS Maine, accepted for service on September 17, 1895, was sent to Havana on January 24, 1898, as a means of pressure on Spanish authorities during the insurrection, which began on February 24, 1895, reaching its climax. The ship exploded on February 15, with 222 deads, for reasons still obscure (but not for the then "investigators" concluding of a mine), war was declared April 25, with a retroactive declaration for the 22.

USS Maine Specifications

Displacement: 6682t standard, 7200 tons FL
Dimensions: 97.23 x 17.37 x 6.55m
Propulsion: 2 shaft 4 VTE engines, 9000 hp, 17 knots max.
Armor: belt, barbettes 8 in (203 mm) turrets, 9 in (254 mm) CT;
Crew: 374
Armament: 4 x 254, 6 x 152, 7 x 37 mm, 8 x 12.7 mm AA, 4 x 356 mm TT.

Indiana class (1893)

USS Indiana, Massachusetts and Oregon, were started in 1891 and completed in 1895-96. These battleships were the successors of Maine and Texas, and the first class of three ships of the US navy. Not very successful because of their limited movement, they were veterans of the war against the Spaniards in 1898. Modernized in 1909, their funnels had been raised while they adopted a corbel mast fitted aft. Their low speed meant they saw little action during the Great War, ending as target ships in 1920 for dreadnought gunnery practice. USS Oregon, however was for a time preserved, and used as armored ammunition carrier, participating in the reconquest of Guam in 1944. She was eventually lost in a typhoon and sold in 1956 to shipbreakers.

Indian class Specifications

Displacement: 10,288t, 11,688t FL
Dimensions: 107 x 21,10 x 7,3m
Propulsion: 2 shaft TE, 6 boilers, 9000 hp. 15 knots.
Armour: 457mm belt, 431mm barbettes, turrets 38 mm, blockhouse 230 mm.
Armament: 4 x 330mm, 8 x 203 mm, 4 x 152 mm, 20 x 57mm, 6 x 37mm, 6 x 457mm TTs.
Crew: 580

USS Iowa class (1896)

USS Iowa
USS Iowa

The USS Iowa had two 12-in twin turrets and four 8-in twin turrets. She derived closely from the previous Indiana except that she returned to a smaller artillery caliber, but with faster international standards. Originally her armament also included six 4-in (110 mm) on the superstructure and the twenty 6-pdr (57 mm) fast firing barbette guns.

In 1898, USS Iowa fought in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, having an easy hand against the Spaniards. She was modernized in 1909, receiving a rear lattice mast, new 12-in mounts, while most of her 6-pdr guns were replaced by four 3-in AA. Her TTs were also removed. She took part in escorts missions from 1917 to 1918. After the war, she was reclassified as a Coastal Defense ship in 1919, and then was converted into a radio-guided target ship, the first of her kind in the world, sunk in 1923.

Iowa Specifications
Displacement: 11 410t, 12 647t FL
Dimensions: 110.47 x 22 x 7.3 m
Propulsion: 2 shaft VTE, 5 boilers, 11,000 hp, 16 knots
Armor: 457mm belt, 431mm barbettes, turrets 38 mm, blockhouse 230 mm.
Armament: 4 x 305 mm, 8 x 203 mm, 6 x 110 mm, 10 x 57mm, 4 x 37mm, 4 x 76 mm AA.
Crew: 650

Kearsage class (1898)


The two battleships of the Kearsage class had as main originality to possess their main and secondary parts in superimposed turrets. But the complexity of the integrated ammunition loading wells proved that this solution had no future. In addition they used a hull flush deck, redistributed and thicker armor. Many of the manoeuvring systems were electric, with total onboard power of 350 KW, a world record. Originally their armament included in addition to their 14-in guns (330 mm), four 8-in (203 mm), fourteen 5-in (127 mm) distributed in lateral barbettes on the first battery bridge and of QF 57 mm guns on the open upper battery bridge and on the flanks, reinforced by eight 37 mm on the superstructures.

She was completed by four lateral torpedo tubes above the waterline. Criticized as bad shooting platforms, they were modernized in 1909-10: Their turrets were replaced by more modern and lighter models, the military masts were removed, replaced by lattice masts, the torpedo tubes were removed, while most of the 57 mm mounts were also removed. Boilers were also replaced. After a smooth service, escorting convoys, USS Kentucky was scrapped in 1923 and Kearsage continued her career until 1955 as a floating crane.

Kearsage Specifications

Displacement: 11,540t, 12,850t FL
Dimensions: 114.40 x 22 x 7.16m
Propulsion: 2 shaft VTE, 5 boilers, 10,000 hp. 16 knot max.
Armor: 420mm belt, 431mm barbettes, turrets 38 mm, blockhouse 230 mm.
Armament: 4 x 330, 4 x 203, 14 x 127, 20 x 57, 8 x 37, 4 x 457mm TTs.
Crew: 680

Illinois class (1898)

USS Illinois

The 3 battleships of this class, USS Illinois, Alabama, Wisconsin, were launched in 1898 and entered service in 1901 and 1902. They received two lattice masts during their 1910 overhaul, as well as new turrets while four 3-in guns (76 mm AA) replaced their original fourteen old 6-pounder (37 mm). USS Illinois served until 1955 under the name of Prairie State from 1941, since 1922 as a utility ship, while Alabama served as a target.

Illinois Specifications

Displacement: 21,825t, 23,033t FL
Dimensions: 160 x 26,9 x 8,6m
Propulsion: 4 shaft VTE, 12 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 28,000 hp. and 20.75 knots max.
Armor: 280 mm belt, 250 casemates, 250 mm barrels, 305 mm turrets, blockhouse 292 mm.
Armament: 10 x 305 mm, 14 x 127 mm, 4 x 76 mm, 2 x 533 mm TTs.
Crew: 1001

Maine class (1901)

USS Maine

The Maine class counted USS Maine, Missouri, Ohio. The first took the name of the famous battleship of 1897 that hit a mine in the port of Havana in 1898 and rushed the US into a conflict with Spain. They innovated by their dimensions and their tonnage more important, their 12-in guns were faster, and they had a new type of armor allowing smaller thickness. The loading system and the poor tightness of the pedestals gave the gunners some trouble: The Missouri almost exploded as a result of a flashback that fired gargles spreading through the ammunition chamber.

The arrangement of the turrets was therefore profoundly modified. This new configuration was tested in combat: The British monitor HMS Raglan was equipped with one of them and fought the Turkish battle cruiser Yavuz Sultan Selim in January 1918 (The Raglan was sunk). Fast, but subject to the blades in case of heavy weather, these battleships were modernized by adopting poles. USS Maine was equipped with 12 new boilers. Their war service was uneventful and they were removed from service in the early 1920s.


Displacement: 11410t, 12647t FL
Dimensions: 110,47 x 22 x 7,3m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 5 boilers, 11,000 hp. 16 knots.
Armor: 457mm belt, 431mm barbettes, turrets 38 mm, blockhouse 230 mm.
Armament: 4 x 305mm, 8 x 203mm, 4 x 152mm, 20 x 57mm, 6 x 37mm, 6 x 457mm TTs.
Crew: 650

Viginia class (1904)

USS Virginia

Succeeding to the Maine, the Virginia class reintroduced the principle of superimposed turrets experimented with Kearsage. It allowed to add secondary guns of 8-in (203 mm) added to those of 6-in (152 mm). In addition their hull was flush-deck, and their greater dimensions allowed a better habitability. The class included the USS Virginia, Nebraska, Georgia and New Jersey, Rhode Island of the second group. Their displacement was 3,000 tons higher, and their speed increased from 18 to 19 knots. These five ships received corbel masts and a gray livery in 1910. They were all stricken in 1923 and used as targets or broken up.

Displacement: 14 950t, 16 090t FL
Dimensions: 134,5 x 25,42 x 7,24m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 12 boilers Babcock and Wilcox, 19,000 hp. 19 knots max.
Crew: 812
Armament: 4 x 305, 8 x 203, 12 x 152, 12 x 76, 12 x 47, 2 x 37, 4 x 533 mm sub TTs.

Connecticut class (1905)

Connecticut class

The pre-dreadnought battleships class comprised the USS Connecticut, Louisiana, Vermont, Kansas, Minnesota, and New Hampshire. They were built between 1903 and 1908 and armed with a mixed classic 12-inch (305 mm) twin turrets, but also two twin turrets of 8-inch (203 mm) guns and 7-inch (178 mm) guns in barbettes. This arrangement answered to the belief fast-firing guns were preferrable, and that main turrets could not be placed in the wings or superfiring positions. This "semi-dreadnought" configuration was soon made obsolete by the advent of all-big-gun battleships or "Dreadnought".

These ships had active careers, taking part in Great White Fleet world cruise in 1907–1909 and from 1909 they were the workhorses of the US Atlantic Fleet. Unrest broke out in several Central American countries and they were involved in police operations such as the intervention in the Mexican Revolution and landing at Veracruz in April 1914.

Before 1917, the Connecticut-class ships were used as training vessels, and patrolled the coast, making convoy escorts by late 1918. In September USS Minnesota hit a mine laid by the German U-boat SM U-117. After the war ended they carried the boys back home, and resumed their training career. But with the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, all six ships were discarded and sold for scrap.


Displacement: 16,000t, 17,600t FL
Dimensions: 139,10m x 23,42m x 7,47m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 12 boilers Babcock and Wilcox, 16,500 hp. 18 knots max.
Crew: 880
Armament: 4 x 305mm, 8 x 203, 12 x 178, 20 x 76, 12 x 47, 4 x 37mm, 4 x 533 mm TT.

Mississippi class (1906)

Mississippi class

The Mississippi class authorized in the 1903 naval budget comprised the USS Mississippi and Idaho. They were the last American pre-dreadnought, and somewhat "semi-dreadnoughts" with their powerful secondary artillery. Indeed their main, intermediate, secondary, and tertiary gun sizes configuration became obsolete before completion. In battle it would have been difficult to identify the splashes and correct fire indeed. In addition, this was a supply nightmare.

The Mississippi class were virtual repeats of the Connecticut class, based on lessons learned in the Spanish–American War. However soon the Russo-Japanese War, war games, and experimentation demonstrated better solutions. Large guns became more accurate and made rapid-fire intermediate artillery superfluous. The "all-big-gun" concept was on its way and already the South Dakota were laid down even before the Mississippi and Idaho where completed. They were were also smaller than preceding classes by order of the congress, ans a cost-effective measure. To the dismay of naval thinkers such as Dewey and Mahan, which militated for many small battleships as a strategically sound way to establish naval power. The reduction in length also impacted the engine size, and fuel capacity. So they ended slower and short-ranged, but also deficient in steering, stability and sea keeping. They served from 1908 to 1914, and were sold to Greece, renamed Kilkis and Lemnos (An article has been written about the Kilkis class battleships and this part of their secondary career.


Displacement: 16,000t, 17,600t FL
Dimensions: 139,10m x 23,42m x 7,47m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 12 boilers Babcock and Wilcox, 16,500 hp. 18 knots.
Crew: 880
Armament: 4 x 305mm, 8 x 203, 12 x 178, 20 x 76, 12 x 47, 4 x 37mm, 4 x 533 mm TTs.

Nomenclature of USN Dreadnoughts

South Carolina class (1908)

USS South Carolina

These first American dreadnoughts were considered hybrid ships, of dimensions and construction close to those of the classic battleships, while having a monocalibre armament. For budget reasons, the Senate demanded that its tonnage remain limited to 16,000 tons, with a speed of 16 knots sufficient compared to future battle cruisers planned. But these compromises caused the USS South Carolina and the USS Michigan to be relegated to the pre-dreadnoughts category, and not much fire.

Displacement: 16,000t, 17,617t FL
Dimensions: 138m x 24,5m x 7,5m
Propulsion: 2 shaft VTE, 12 boilers, 16500 hp. 18.5 knots.
Armor: 250mm belt, 250 mm barbettes, turrets 305 mm, blockhouse 305 mm.
Armament: 8 x 305mm, 22 x 76mm, 2 x 533mm TTs SM flanks.
Crew: 870

Delaware class (1909)

USS delaware

The dreadnought class battleships of the Delaware class, launched in 1909 and completed in 1910, can be consecrated as the first "real" of the US Navy, so much the South Carolina they succeed are, apart from their armament monocaliber, close to the old battleships . They are the first of a tonnage, of dimensions, and especially of a speed more in conformity with this type of building. They also received two additional 305 mm pieces, bringing the total to 10 as the British HMS Dreadnought.

However they were critical for their low barbettes, putting the effectiveness of these secondary guns at the mercy of sea spray. Drawn with the classic simple masts, the latter were converted to their completion in cranes for the lifeboats. Their corbel masts were a recurring feature of American warships until the 1940s. They served in the Atlantic during the war, and were reformed in 1924 and 1931. Specifications Displacement: 20 400t, 22 060t FL
Dimensions: 158,20m x 26m x 8,3m
Propulsion: 2 Curtiss turbines, 14 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 25,000 hp. 21 knots.
Crew: 933
Armament: 10 x 305mm (5x2), 14 x 127mm, 2 x 533 mm TTs.

Florida class (1909)

USS Florida

The class battleships Florida, USS Florida and Utah, very close to the Delaware, were distinguished by their last turrets vis-à-vis. They were slightly better shielded. during the crisis of Vera Cruz, in 1914 they landed 1000 marines. During the war, they were affected in the Atlantic, operating from Ireland. In 1930, as a result of the London Treaty, they were disarmed in 1930, the Florida being wiped out in 1931. The USS Utah becoming a target ship, then training. Based in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, he was torpedoed and bombed by the Japanese air force and exploded.

Displacement & Dimensions 21,825t, 23,033t PC_160x26,9x8,6m
Propulsion 12 boilers Babcock and Wilcox, 4 propellers, 28,000 hp. and 20.75 knots max.
Shield 280-230mm belt, 250-203-127, casemates, barbettes 250, turrets 305, blockhouse 292.
Armament 10 guns of 305mm, 14 of 127mm, 2 TLT of 533mm.
Crew 1001

Arkansas class (1911)

uss arkansas

The USS Wyoming and Arkansas were part of the president's personal plan to see the heavy units of the fleet in 1910 from 305 to 355 mm. Three projects were proposed to him, a building bearing 12 pieces of 305, another bearing 8 pieces of 355 mm and a last bearing 10 pieces of 355 mm. However, many infrastructures were not yet adapted to ships capable of operating a superior artiellerie. Provisionally, it was decided to opt for an arrangement of 305mm pieces.

As a result, both units had to carry one turret more than the previous Florida. We also tried a hull "flush deck", which did not prove particularly interesting. The USS Wyoming and the USS Arkansas, completed in 1912, served during both wars (see Arkansas 1941), and were stricken in 1946 and 1947.


Displacement: 26,000 t, 27,240 T FL
Dimensions: 171.3m x 28.4m x 8.7m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Parsons turbines, 2 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 28,000 hp. 20.5 knots max.
Armor: Belt 280, Battery 280, Barbets 280, turrets 305, blockhouse 292mm.
Armament: 12 x 305 mm, 21 x 127mm, 2 x 533mm (SM flanks) TTs.
Crew: 1063

New York class (1912)

USS New York

The USS New York and the USS texas were the last battleships completed before the war. They adopted a new 14-in (356 mm) artillery instead of the traditional 12-in in five twin turrets in the axis, like what was done elsewhere, although this central turret was not located between the two funnels, as on the French, Japanese, British or Italian Ships, but aft. The USS texas was not present at Pearl Harbor but was operating on the Neutrality Patrol, and in December she was resting in Maine, at Casco Bay. She multiplied convoy-escort missions, was covering Operation Torch, D-Day, Operation Dragoon, plus the Battles of Iwo Jima an Okinawa. For her part, USS New York was also assigned to the Atlantic, modernized in 1942. She served intensely during the war and was was disarmed and sold for scrap in 1947. USS Texas was purchased by the state of Texas and converted as a museum ship. She is the only example of a surviving dreadnought today.


Displacement: 26,000 t, 27,240 T FL
Dimensions: 171.3m x 28.4m x 8.7m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Parsons turbines, 2 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, 28,000 hp. 20.5 knots max.
Armor: Belt 280, Battery & casemates 280, turrets 305, CT 292mm.
Armament: 12 x 305 mm, 21 x 127mm, 2 x 533mm (SM flanks) TTs.
Crew: 1063

Nevada class (1914)

The two Nevada-class were the first Standard-type battleships of the U.S. Navy, and so the first to use triple main turrets and obey several specifications in term of speed, radius and other elements (see earlier). Nevada (BB-36) and Oklahoma (BB-37) ordered in March 1911 set a new stage for armament, armor, and propulsion, and were quite an advanced design on the world stage, specifically tailored for very long range gunnery engagements.

The standard type would later include the Pennsylvania, New Mexico, Tennessee and Colorado classes, all incrementally enhances. They shared the same four main turrets, the new radical "all or nothing" armor scheme (with improved deck armor) and an oil-fired propulsion. This protection was so advanced that it was never really revised after the Battle of Jutland. The Nevadas were quite active during the great war, protecting Allied supply lines until 1918. After Washington's tonnage cuts they became the veterans of the main Battle Fleet. They were therefore both well modernized in 1927-1929 and benefited from other refits until 1941. Oklahoma was one of the rare total losses, but Nevada was repaired and went on fighting in the Atlantic.


Displacement: 27,500 t, 27,900 T FL
Dimensions: 177 m x 26.1 m x 8.7 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 12 Yarrow/Bureau boilers, 24,800 hp. 20.5 knots max.
Speed: 20.5 knots (38.0 km/h; 23.6 mph), radius 8000 nm
Armor: Belt: 8–13.5 in, Barbettes: 13 in, Turrets: 5–18 in, CT: 11.5 in, Decks: 3 in, 1.5–2 in splinter
Armament: 10 x 356 mm, 21 x 127 mm, 2x 76 mm AA, 2 x 533 mm (sub) TTs.
Crew: 864

Pennsylvania class (1915)

Pennsylvania class

The Pennsylvania-class comprised ships dubbed "super-dreadnought" battleships, including the USS Pennsylvania and Arizona. They were the second of the standard BBs with four turrets and the "all or nothing" armor scheme, brand new when the US entered the First World War in 1917. They represented a step forward with two additional 14-inch (356 mm)/45 caliber guns in all triple turrets and better underwater protection. This class was followed by the New Mexico and Tennessee, very close, until the up-armed Colorado class.

Both battleships saw little service in the First World War, partly because of a shortage of oil fuel in the UK whereas most ships were still using coal. In fact only coal-burning USN ships were sent to the European theater. Despite of this, they joined France after the war, escorting the fleet carrying President Wilson for the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. They joined afterwards the Pacific Fleet and were modernized in 1929-1931 like the Nevada and along the same line. Both were in Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Arizona being sunk by a massive magazine explosion and now a memorial but Pennsylvania, which was in dry dock, only received only minor damage and was quickly operational again in early 1943, participating in the Pacific campaign.


Displacement: 29,200 t, 31,900 T FL
Dimensions: 185 m x 26.7 m x 8.9 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Curtis/Parsons turbines, 12 Yarrow/Bureau boilers, 31,500 hp.
Speed: 21.38 knots (39.60 km/h; 24.60 mph), radius 6,000 nm
Armor: Belt: 8–13.5 in, Barbettes: 13 in, Turrets: 5–18 in, CT: 11.5 in, Decks: 3 in, 1.5–2 in splinter
Armament: 10 x 356 mm, 21 x 127 mm, 4x 76 mm AA, 2 x 533 mm (sub) TTs.
Crew: 864

New Mexico class (1917)

New Mexico class profile

Another incremental step over the Pennsylvania, these three dreadnought, New Mexico, Mississippi, and Idaho were the third of the standard series, and basically repeats of the Pennsylvania-class with the same twelve 14-inch (356 mm)/50 battery. However improvements comprised a better secondary battery mostely in casemate and a distinctive clipper bow helping them improving seakeeping, making this secondary artillery less "wet" and more usable by all weather. They also tried an experimental turbo-electric propulsion system but kept the same top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph).

These three ships did little or no service during the great war, being operational too late, and instead served with the Pacific Fleet. By chance in 1941 they joined the east coast for Neutrality Patrols in the Atlantic. Following the Japanese attack they were sent to the Pacific, escorting convoys and later supporting amphibious operations during the Aleutian Islands, Gilbert, Marshall, Mariana, Palau, Philippines campaigns, and fought at the Battle of Surigao Strait on 24 October, the hayday of battleships duels at sea.


Displacement: 29,200 t, 31,900 T FL
Dimensions: 185 m x 26.7 m x 8.9 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Curtis/Parsons turbines, 12 Yarrow/Bureau boilers, 31,500 hp.
Speed: 21.38 knots (39.60 km/h; 24.60 mph), radius 6,000 nm
Armor: Belt: 8–13.5 in, Barbettes: 13 in, Turrets: 5–18 in, CT: 11.5 in, Decks: 3 in, 1.5–2 in splinter
Armament: 10 x 356 mm, 21 x 127 mm, 4x 76 mm AA, 2 x 533 mm (sub) TTs.
Crew: 864

Tennessee class (1919)

Tennessee class

The Tennessee class comprised two 'super-dreadnought' and standard battleships, the USS Tennessee and California. This was basically a repeat of the New Mexico class, with an improved ASW protection. They also had a better mountings elevation, carried the same main battery and same top speed and general armour scheme. Both were completed well after the end of the great war: Tennessee was launched on 30 April 1919 and California in november, completed in 1920 and 1921. They served in the interwar, receiving a refit and were part of an extensive training program.

Both were in Battleship Row, Pearl Harbo in December 1941. USS California was torpedoed and sunk, Tennessee was bomb-damaged but relatively unscaved. The first has to be was re-floated and repaired but eventually both were completely rebuilt in 1942-1944. It was one of the most thorough reconstruction of a WW1-era battleships perhaps with some QE class ships and Italian dreadnoughts. The two battleships saw very extensive service during the island hopping campaign until the end of the war. Battle records included the Aleutian Islands, Gilbert, Marshall, Mariana, Palau, Battle of Surigao Strait, Lingayen Gulf, Iwo Jima, Okinawa. They survived until 1959.


Displacement: 32,300 t, 33,900 T FL
Dimensions: 190 m x 29.7 m x 9.2 m
Propulsion: 4 shafts turbo electric, 8 B&W boilers, 26,800 hp.
Speed: 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph), radius 8,000 nm
Armor: Belt: 8–13.5 in, Barbettes: 13 in, Turrets: 5–18 in, CT: 16 in, Decks: 3.5 in
Armament: 10 x 356 mm, 14 x 127 mm, 4x 76 mm AA, 2 x 533 mm (sub) TTs.
Crew: 1083

Colorado class (1920)

Colorado class

The Colorado-class battleships as planned were four, buy ended as three: USS Colorado, Maryland, and West Virginia. The fourth, USS Washington, was 75% complete when canceled under Washington Naval Treaty limitations in 1922. They were the last and most powerful USN battleships before the 1940s North Carolina class and final of the Standards. The only real upgrade were the eight 16-inch guns in twin turrets instead of triple with the 'lighter' 14-in calibre. They were also the last twin-turrets battleships of the USN. The next standard of WW2 would adopt the preffered configuration of three triple turrets. The adoption of a larger calibre was the result of the launch of the Japanese Nagato-class battleships.

All three were completed well after WWI, in 1921 and 1923, after being launched in 1920-21. Apart USS Maryland, started in late 1917, the others were laid down after the end of the war, in May-June 1919 and 1920. They barely qualify as "WW1 USN Battleships" but for the design period. All three battleships saw extensive careers during the interwar. USS Maryland and West Virginia were at Pearl Harbor and while the first escaped with little damage, USS West Virginia was badly hit and sunk. She was raised and repaired but this delayed her re-commissioning compared to her sister-ships. All three were used actively during the 1943-45 USN amphibious operations of the Pacific. USS Maryland and West Virginia fought during the Battle of Surigao Strait, duelling with the IJN capital ships and cruisers.

Colorado class Specifications

Displacement: 32,600 t, 36,000 T FL
Dimensions: 190.27 m x 29.67 m x 9.30 m
Propulsion: 4 shafts turbo-electric transmission, 8 B&W boilers, 29,000 hp.
Speed: 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph), radius 6,000 nm
Armor: Belt: 8–13.5 in, Barbettes: 13 in, Turrets: 5–18 in, CT: 11.5 in, Decks: 3.5 in
Armament: 8 x 406 mm, 12/14 x 127 mm, 2 x 533 mm (sub) TTs.
Crew: 1080

South Dakota class (1920)

USS North Carolina

The South Dakota class battleships were to be the ultimate dreadnoughts built by the US Navy, but the Washington Treaty intervened before theey could be completed. The total was to include 6 ships, the USS South Dakota, Indiana, Montana, North Carolina, Iowa and Massachusetts. Overall, these were a Tennessee class carrying Colorado guns, ie triple turrets of 1-in or 406 mm, formidable armament if any. Moreover, with their displacement of 43,200 tons empty, they followed the ongoing race between Japan and UK. Apart from their large dimensions, these ships would have been recognizable by their four funnels raked into one. The Washington Treaty's tonnage restrictions and 10-year ban stalled their construction and the ships were canceled in February 1922.

South Dakota Specifications

Displacement: 43,200t, 45,000t FL
Dimensions: 208.50m x 32.3m x 10m
Propulsion: 4 shafts, 12 boilers, 4 turbo-electric turbines, 50,000 hp. 23 knots.
Armor: 420 mm belt, 431 mm barbettes, turrets 38 mm, blockhouse 230 mm.
Armament: 12 x 406, 16 x 152mm, 4 x 76 mm, 2 x 533mm SM TTs.
Crew: 1,190

Lexington class battlecruisers (1920)

Lexington early configuration
Author's HD illustration, early configuration in 1917.

Among the most extraordinary planned battleships ever planned, the Lexington class were designed after of the Battle of Jutland, and inspired by the early HMS Hood design, and as a result, better protected ships but widely disputed over design issues. In the end, this quadrature of the circle resulted in very large units, flirting with 60,000 tons. In addition their last design included eight 18-in or 457 mm guns, a new heavy artillery standard also considered by the Japanese and British. Like the South Dakota class battleships, the five Lexington-class battle cruisers (Lexington, Saratoga, Constitution, Constellation, United States) that were to be completed in 1922-23 but canceled due to the Washington Treaty in 1923. The most advanced, the Lexington ("Lady Lex") and Saratoga were converted into fleet aircraft carriers, an ideal choice because of their large size and speed.

More to come in a dedicated post.

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Conway's all the world 1860-1905, 1906-1921

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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