Rivadavia class Battleships (1912)

Rivadavia, Moreno (1915)

The "dreadnought race" as a spark

Argentina just ended in 1904 a naval arms race with Chile when the Brazilian Government revealed the acquisition in UK of two brand new dreadnought battleships, the Minas Gerais class. Not only they were the best armed for their time but also the fastest, and most importantly the third built worldwide after UK and USA.

Rivadavia
Rivadavia and Moreno at sea - 1926

Despite the huge financial pressure put on local economics, a wild campaign in the press led to decide the construction of two dreadnought, and the 1908 open tender was launched on the international market. Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company won and both ships were laid down in 1910 and completed in 1914 and 1915. They completely outclassed the Minas Geraes in artillery arrangement and range, secondary armament, and speed, served through WW1, the interwar and WW2 after a summary modernization, while Argentina stayed neutral, stricken and BU in the 1950s.

blueprint of the rivadavia class

Development history of the Rivadavia class

Rivalry with Chile

There were two reasons for the development and funding of the new battleships: The first was the Brazilian move towards dreadnoughts -and patriotic fervor- and the second was the old rivalry with Chile over decades of Argentine–Chilean territorial disputes, over Patagonia's border and the Beagle Channel. The rivalry reached a peak when Argentina ordered four Garibaldi class armoured cruisers, but the British arbitration of the cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case in 1902 stopped these disputes and the naval race, fortunately for local economies. The "three pacts" also led the British government to seize two battleships in construction for Chile, which became the Swiftsure class while another gesture of good will led Argentina to resold to Japan two of her armoured cruisers in construction.

ARA Moreno in drydock - New York

Debates over the Argentinian fleet

With a population twice as reduced as Brazil and economics not capable of generating the amazing Brazilian US$31.25 million available for the Navy, Argentina debate over the usefulness and wisdom of building two brand new Battleships, at a time Chile did not possessed one. The National Autonomist Party cabinet was in favor. But their 14,000 ton battleships and ten destroyers naval plan was not popular. Aware of this, the American ambassador to Brazil warned his Department of State of the effects of a naval race there. There were some pressures, but like in Brazil, they were brushed aside.

Rivadavia in speed trials, 1915

Eventually renewed border disputes notably over the River Plate area relaunched the initiative, well relayed by the press which, through inflammatory headlines, gradually inflexed the popular opinion. The initial plan called $35 million and $7 more on loans but it was later transformed into $55 in August 1908. Argentina in fact, hoping to stop the naval race proposed Brazil to buy one of her two brand new battleships, which was flatly refuse. The government then turned to Europe and placed a bid.

The 1908 bid

The bid offered to all major national naval industries of Europe, able to built dreadnoughts, sparked a lot of interest, as it was accompanied by twelve destroyers. Fifteen shipyards (United States, Great Britain, Germany, France, and Italy) answered the call, with diplomatic pressures given the sums advanced (nothing new under the sun!), especially from the first three. Requirements were intentionally vague to left room for domestic practices and innovations.

In the US, confidence from various shipyards over this bid was not great. They feared the traditional bonds with Europe will play again, if they did not have an active support from their government. The latter bowed to their demands, and proposed a thee-prone offensive, with the removal of import tariffs on hides from Argentina, promises for additional concessions and offer to include for free the latest developments in fire control systems and torpedoes on the market. But there was still opposition to this in the USA themselves, while naval commission was pro-British, President Roque Sáenz Peña favored Italy, and the war minister, Germany, to standardize land and sea equipments.

launch of the Rivadavia

However the US cause found an ardent support, the chief editor of newspaper La Prensa, which had a large audience at the time. Soon it revealed British wrongdoing in a naval contract. Under pressure, the commission which favoured Italy first and Britain second had to give some room to the US offer; Suddenly, the commission threw out the opening tenders and announced a much more precise set of specifications with three weeks for all bidders to comply. These specs were updated by combining all the best aspects seen on these various designs, levelling up the whole design.

In the end, it was found both the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Company and Fore River Shipbuilding Company were the lowest bidders on these new specs. And were chosen, which came as a surprise. At the end despite a lower bid at the last minute by Armstrong Withworth, American diplomacy, multiplying initiatives, stole the show in Argentina. The US design however was smaller, less protected and not as fast but a slight margin. To compensate, the rest of the order concerning destroyers was attributed to Britain, France, and Germany.

Moreno 1958 ARA Moreno in 1958

This went with some official complaints too: A naval architect coined the bidding process as "unethical" and British press unleashed its deception. Germany also complaints about allegation of the bids passed onto the Americans eyes to a commission member, and the diplomatic deals. On the other hand, American newpapers, after congratulating the win, boasted about the combined "battleship might" of the American continent -North and South- including the Minas Geraes class, talking of the five biggest capital ships in the world.

Construction

Rivadavia was laid down at Fore River Shipbuilding Company (Massachusetts) on 25 May 1910, launched 26 August 1911 and commissioned on 27 August 1914. ARA Moreno was built at New York Shipbuilding Corporation (Camden, New Jersey), laid down on 9 July 1910, launched on 23 September 1911 and commissioned on 26 February 1915. They started their sea trials on the east US coast. They were named respectively after the Bernardino Rivadavia, the first Argentinian president, and Mariano Moreno, a member of the first Argentine government.

Trials

Just as the Minas Geraes for the Royal Navy, the Rivadavia draw a lot of interest from the U.S. Navy's Board of Inspection and Survey. Its head remarked that the Rivadavia in trials "handle[d] remarkably well ... with comparatively minor modifications the vessel would practically meet the requirements of our own vessels." However the Board of Inspection remarked the position of the wing turrets could cause blast damage to the dish in the smokepipes and uptakes. However the trials also revealed engine trouble soon after completion, damaged turbine on Rivadavia and failure on the Moreno.

Soon after the battleships were received, a change of government and policy made the adoption of the Rivadavia less desirable. After Rio de Janeiro was resold to Turkey (and later requisitioned by the RN as HMS Agincourt), the new authorities thought to resold them. There was a contract provision allowing the US government to acquired them to prevent any sale, but the US Navy did not wanted them. Already some of their features were obsolete like the absence of the "all or nothing" armor arrangement.

At the same time bills directing the sales were defeated by the Argentine National Congress in the summer of 1914. Eventually, despite strong interest from Italy, the Ottomans, and Greece the British government pressured the US Government to not allow these ships to be purchased by Germany. US Pressure, which allowed warned about neutrality and technology transfers, put enough pressure on the Argentinians to maintain their purchase.

Design of the Rivadavia class

The design was singular as it combined elements from five nationalities and reflected shipyard practices of the time: The basic plan was inspired by a Fore River design for a fourteen-gun armed battleship with wing turrets, forward superfiring ones, and three on the same level at the rear. The wing turrets were British-inspired, the secondary battery of 6-in gun German in inspiration and the engines rooms arrangement was reminiscent of the Italian Dante Aligheri design. Their US origins were betrayed also by the typical corbel mast at the front (the rear one was a reduced pole) and solid gooseneck cranes to lift the boats between both wing turrets en echelon.

The hull was not flush-deck but had a long casemate and aft bridge, it was roomy, 594 feet 9 inches in length (181.28 m) overall by 98 feet 4.5 inches (29.985 m) i width, and a draft ranging from 27 feet 8.5 inches (8.446 m). Displacement was 27,500 long tons (27,900 t) and up to 30,100 long tons (30,600 t) fully load. The crew comprised 130 officers and about 1000 sailors.

rivadavia prow

Powerplant

Both ships received the same Brown–Curtis geared steam turbines mated on three propeller shafts. They were fed by 18 Babcock & Wilcox boilers. These were rated for 40,000 shaft horsepower (30,000 kW), enough for a top speed of 22.5 knots (41.7 km/h; 25.9 mph), possibly even more. Their radius of action was about 11,000 to 7,000 nautical miles (20,000 to 13,000 km; 12,700 to 8,100 mi) at 11 knots; The boilers were mixed-fired with coal and oil, and a provision of 3,900 long tons (4,000 t) of coal and 590 long tons (600 t) of oil.

Protection

The armor protection they received was proportional to their main artillery and standard for the time, although relatively thin as repartition was old school: The belt was 12-in at its thickest amidships, raised 5 feet (1.5 m) above the waterline, and 6 feet (1.8 m) below, with a decreasing thickness down to 5-in (130 mm) to the prow and finally 4-in (100 mm) at the stern. Main gun turrets had heavy armor 300 mm front, 9 inches (230 mm) sides, 9.5-in (240 mm) back, and with 4-in (100 mm) on top. Deck were protected by .5 in (13 mm) plates, up to 2 in (51 mm) on the upper level, in Harvey nickel steel.

Armament

The main armament comprised twelve guns in twin turrets, and a mixed secondary battery, mixing 6-in and 4-in calibers. There was no smaller gun. This was completed by two submerged broadside TTs. The Bethlehem steel 12"/50 guns were close to the ones used on the Wyoming class, mark 7. There were two superfiring pairs fore and aft and two wing turrets en echelon, about the same design as the Minas Geraes. There theoretical traverse was limited by potential blast damage. It was only 90° for the wing turrets; Six guns could fire fore and aft in theory. 1,440 rounds were stored in total. Thet were assisted by Barr & Stroud rangefinders.

The secondary battery comprised twelve 6 inch (152 mm)/50 guns in barbettes, each protected by 6-in armor too with 3,600 rounds in reserve. The second secondary (or tertiary) battery was composed of sixteen 4 inch (102 mm) unprotected guns mounted on the open, on turrets and superstructure to deal with marauding destroyers, with 5,600 rounds in reserve. They were Quick-firing US models also used later on standard destroyers, and certainly more hard-hitting than the British 3-in guns; In 1924 some were deposed to make room for four 3-inch AA guns and four 3-pounders. This was completed by the two 533 mm (21-in) torpedo tubes, with 16 Whitehead torpedoes in reserve.

Specifications of ARA Rivadavia (WW1)

Dimensions 181.3 x 29.30 x 8.4m (594 x 98 x 27 ft)
Displacement 27,900 t, 30,600 t FL
Crew 1900
Propulsion 3 shafts Brown-Curtis turbines, 18 B&W Boilers, 40,000 hp
Speed 22.5 knots (25.9 mph; 41.7 km/h)
Range 13,000 km at 15 knots (17 mph; 28 km/h)
Armament 12x305mm/50 (6x2), 12x152mm/50, 16x102mm, 2TTs 21-in.
Armor Belt: 12–10 in, 12 in (305 mm) turrets and CT, 91/3–61/5-in casemates

The ARA Rivadavia in service

Rivadavia arrived in Argentina by February 1915. In the early 1920s, she spent time in the reserve due to an economic depression. In 1924 both were modernized in the US as funds were available. This included fuel oil boilers only, a brand new fire-control system, new telemeters installed on a rear tripod mast, new superstructure bridge, and many other detail modifications. from 1927 to 1930 they participated in fleet exercises, and from the early 1930s started world training cruises intertwined with diplomatic trips.

Rivadavia's travelled in Europe in 1937, visited Brest, Wilhelmshaven, Bremen, and Hamburg. With he sister ship she made in 1939 a training cruise to Brazil with naval cadets.



When the war broke out, both were escorted back home by destroyers sent from Argentina. As Argentina stayed neutral, they remained inactive. Rivadavia however made a diplomatic cruise to Trinidad in Venezuela, and Colombia after the war in 1946. Back home she stayed in active reserve until 1948, and full reserve afterwards, stricken only on 1 February 1957. She was scrapped in Italy in 1959. By selling both battleships and the armored cruiser Pueyrredón, Argentina was able to purchased a ww2 aircraft carrier, renamed ARA Independencia.

Rivadavia 1948

The ARA Moreno in service



Moreno arrived in Argentina by May 1915 but after WW1 ended (she remained inactive due to the neutrality policy), she spent time in reserve, caught by the economic depression. In 1924-26 she was refitted in an US shipyard converted to fuel oil, receiving a modern a new fire-control system and AA artillery. Moreno visited to Brazil in 1933, with Argentine president Agustín Pedro Justo. She made a second diplomatic trip in 1934 to mark the centennial of Brazilian independence. In 1937 she travelled to Europe, France and Germany together with Rivadavia and was present at the British Spithead Naval Review. The New York Times described her as a "vestigial sea monster" in the battleline. She also made a training cruise to Brazil with cadets in 1939, but when the war broke out she had to be protected by destroyers back to Argentina.

Morena stayed inactive during WW2. She stayed and returned in reserve in 1948 and was ultimately stricken from the naval register on 1 October 1956. She was sold for BU to Japan in 1957. She was towed there in only 96-day, which was a world record at that time.

Moreno - credits yorkships

Rivadavia
Author's illustration of the Rivadavia class in the interwar

Read More/ Src

Conway's all the word fighting ships 1906-21 1922-46
Burzaco, Ricardo and Patricio Ortíz. Acorazados y Cruceros de la Armada Argentina, 1881–1982. Buenos Aires: Eugenio B. Ediciones, 1997.
Garrett, James L. "The Beagle Channel Dispute: Confrontation and Negotiation in the Southern Cone." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 27, no. 3 (1985)
Livermore, Seward W. "Battleship Diplomacy in South America: 1905–1925." The Journal of Modern History 16, no. 1 (1944)
Martins, João Roberto, Filho. "Colossos do mares" Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional 3, no. 27 (2007)
Scheina, Robert L. Latin America: A Naval History 1810–1987. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987.
Whitley, M.J. Battleships of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Annapolis
"Historia y Arqueología Marítima" (HistArMar)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivadavia-class_battleship
https://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/tags/ararivadavia/

Naval History

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WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

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HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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