Zuihō class aircraft carriers (1940)

Japanese Navy Japan, 1937-44. Zuihō (瑞鳳), Shōhō (祥鳳)

The double life of the Zuihō pair

Digitally colorized photo of IJN Shoho in December, 20, 1941 at Yokosuka by irootoko Jr.

Always keen on cheating on the Washington Naval Treaty, the IJN staff planned a way to circumvent the limitations imposed upon them, by crating "convertible" vessels, declared as auxiliaries left free as per treaty conditions, but planned at the start to be transformed as aircraft carrier in a few months in wartime, that would have made the treaty obsolete. Four ships were concerned: The first of these were the IJN Taigei, Tsurugisaki and Takasaki, all seaplane tenders, followed by the Chitose, Chiyoda, Mizuho and Nisshin, all seaplane carriers, not capped in any way. Potentially in 1941, the IJN could reinforce its fleet with seven light aircraft carriers in far less time than required to built entirely new ships on purpose. Even smaller than regular fleet carriers, this was an appealing prospect.

The Imperial Japanese Navy Zuihō and Shōhō were therefore two seaplane tenders converted in 1940 into light aircraft carriers. They saw a very active, but relatively short service in their second life. They mirrored another class of auxiliaries also converted at the same time, the Chitose class. Taigei became IJN Ryūhō, but IJN Nisshin and Mizuho were never converted.

After it was decided to convert them as carriers, both completed in early 1942, Shōhō took part in Operation MO (New Guinea) but sank by aviation at the Battle of the Coral Sea (7 May), the first IJN carrier sunk in WW2. Zuihō played the second-fiddle at the Battle of Midway in mid-1942, she however participated in the Guadalcanal campaign, lightly damaged at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, then to the battles of the Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf in 1944, part of the decoy force, she was caught by TF 58, used until then as a ferry carrier and training aircraft. But was this conversion justified after all ?

First life: The Tsurugizaki class submarine tenders

The shipbuilding programmed three large and fast submarine tenders in 1933, to be name later IJN TAIGEI, TSURUGISAKI and TAKASAKI in service of the submarine flotillas currently in formation for long range Operations, including more direct support. On 3 December 1934 at Yokosuka was laid down a new "flexible" design completed as oil tanker and submarine tender but which could be converted in a short notice or aircraft carrier as needed. On 1st June 1935 she was launched as IJN TSURUGISAKI.

In September 1935 the Combined Fleet's Great Maneuvers conducted in the NW Pacific between Japan and the Kuriles saw the sub tender IJN TAIGEI attached to the Fourth Fleet (“Red Fleet”) which encountered a major typhoon. RYUJO, several cruisers and destroyers were badly damaged, revealing grave strenght weakness. TAIGEI herself at some point listed to than 50°, enough for seawater to pour in, flooding her engine and almost capsize her. Temporally uncontrollable, IJN TAIGEI is eventually saved by her crew, but when back in drydock showed massive wrinkles on some of the deck plates, close to her bridge.

In September-October 1935 a comprehensive report was written after the storm, leading to structural recommendations for most Japanese ships of the time, between strenght stabilization effort, notably by reducing weight above the waterline whereas electric welding is cancelled for a return to river assembly until the technique is perfected. Therefore on 7 October 1935 while TSURUGISAKI is in construction, many design changes are made, delaying her completion. Captain Miki Otsuka was appointed Chief Equipping Officer (CEO) for this phase.

From 1 December 1936 he is relieved by Captain Ko Higuchi and the new ships is completed, carrying out her first sea trials in November 1938, off Tateyama. She reached 29 knots. On the 15th, Captain Tsunekichi Fukuzawa takes command for final pre-commission trials and testings, as well as crew training. On 15 January 1939 finally completed four years after being launched, the new fleet tender os commissioned in the IJN. Sje only carried three floatplanes and armament training soon starts, while Captain Fukuzawa stays as her CEO.


The lead ship IJN Tsurugizaki, was to be followed by Takasaki. However contruction was stopped soon after launch, never to be resumed. She was directly completed as an aircraft carrier, not showing any photo under this name. She was commissioned as Zuiho in December 1940 and followed by the decommission in early 1941 of Tsurugizaki for her own conversion, recommissioned as IJN Shōhō in early 1942, Takasaki being used as a model for the conversion.

Indeed, on 5 February 1939 she is attached to Rear Admiral Sanjiro Takasu with SubRon 2 (Submarine Squadron 2), 2nd Fleet. She spent the rest of the year training with the squadron's submarine, performing various deployments. On 15 November 1939 Captain Jotaro Ito takes command and the fleet tender is reassigned that same day to SubRon 1, 1st Fleet. One year later, after more training deployments, Captain Takatsugu Jojima takes command and she is detached from SubRon1, placed in reserve as decision was made to convert her to an aircraft carrier. For this, she sailed to the Yokosuka Naval Yard dock, still busy with fitting-out her sister-ship, IJN ZUIHO. Once she is completed, the drydock is freed for the future Hosho. The name signified either “lucky” or “auspicious phoenix”.

Tsurugizaki off China, 1937
Tsurugizaki off China, 1937. The first was in commission from 30 September 1937 to mid-1941 as submarine tender, but Takasaki was only commissioned as an aircraft carrier, rebuilt and renamed.

Tsurugizaki, colorized by irootoko Jr.
Tsurugizaki, colorized by irootoko Jr.

Tsurugizaki off China, 1937. The first was in commission from 30 September 1937 to mid-1941 as submarine tender, but Takasaki was only commissioned as an aircraft carrier, rebuilt and renamed.

⚙ Tsurugizaki Specs 1937

Dimensions205,5 m long, 18.2 m wide, 6,58 m draft
Displacement11,443 t. standard -11,262 t. Full Load
Propulsion2 steam turbines, 4 boilers, 52,000 hp.
Speed28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph)
Range7,800 nmi (14,400 km; 9,000 mi) at 18 knots (33 kph, 21 mph)
ArmorSee notes
ArmamentPresumably 2x2 127 mm (5 in) DP guns, 2x2 25 mm AA guns and/or 2x2 13.2 mm AA

Conversion as Aircraft carriers

Shoho under conversion, 1941
Shoho under conversion, 1941

Hull and caracteristics

After their conversion, they measured both 205.5 meters (674 ft 2 in) overall, for 18.2 m (59 ft 8 in) in beam, 6.58 m (21 ft 7 in) draught and displacing 11,443 tonnes (11,262 long tons) standard. They were served by a crew of 785 officers and men, not counting the air crew.

These were singular ships at many levels: The Kagero class destroyer powerplant gave them the required top speed, compounded by a very favourable hull ratio of 11:1, a long and narrow hull without island which recalled the arrangement and architecture of carriers seen on IJN Ryujo. They also had an additional funnel smoke tube aft intended for exhaust gases of diesels-generators. The captain and staff commanded her from the bridge constructed below the flying deck, left perpetually in the shadow and with a view hampered by the foward deck support pillars. Electric lighting was mandatory, especially in bad weather with limited visibility.

Powerplant and funnels

Their initial diesel engines (29 knots), were replaced by destroyer-type geared steam turbines (52,000 shaft horsepower, 39,000 kW), with the steam coming from four Kampon water-tube boilers. However due to the displacement increasing, top speed fell by 1 knot at 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph). Exhausts went through a single downturned starboard funnel. Both carried 2,642 tonnes of fuel oil for 7,800 nautical miles (14,400 km; 9,000 mi) at 18 knots.

Flying Deck and Facilities

They had a flight deck 180 m (590 ft 6 in) long by 23 m (75 ft 6 in), with a single hangar 124 m (406 ft 10 in) long, 18 m (59 ft) wide, pierced by two octagonal centerline aircraft elevators. The forward measured 13x12 meters (42 ft 8 in × 39 ft 4 in), the smaller aft 12x10.8 meters (39 ft 4 in × 35 ft 5 in). They had an arresting gear with six cables but no catapult. They also lacked an island superstructure to maximize space, the command bridge being located below the forward overhanging flight deck. Due to their small size, they only carried 30 aircraft, a third of the Zuikaku class.


Primary armament comprised eight (four twin) 12.7 cm/40 Type 89 anti-aircraft guns, on sponsons. Initially fitted with four twin 25 mm Type 96 light AA guns in sponsons, this was extended in 1943, up to 48 of them and in 1944 twenty more, plus six 28-round AA rocket launchers.


Armour was absent, but local protection of magazines and petrol tanks with double sides was used, as well as standard cruiser ASW protection, and spaces between fuel and avgas tanks double sides being filled with water.

Zuiho class air group

Mitsubishi A6M-1 Zero with folded wingtips
Mitsubishi A6M-1 Zero with folded wingtips

Dring their career, while they had a maximum, nominal air group of 30 planes, they carried often less. In March 1941 for example, Zuiho carried sixteen A5M4 and twelve B5N (28). In May 1942, IJN Shoho carried a mix of six A5M4, six A6M2 and nine B5N, so 21 planes in all. They traded their A5M later than other fleet carriers, but by the time of Midway, had transitioned to the "Zeke" for good. Their air group stayed the same until 1944. After the loss of Hosho, Zuiho was successively equipped with 15 A6M2, 6 A6M5 and 9 B6N in February and for the Battle of the Philippines Sea, and 15 A6M2, 4 B5N, 11 B6N (30 total) in October, for the Battle of Leyte.

A5M-4, IJN Zuiho, early 1942

Nakajima B5N-1, IJN Zuiho, early 1942

Nakajima B5N-2, IJN Zuiho, Battle of Santa Cruz October 1942


The famous camouflage of Zuiho's flight deck at the battle of Cape Engano, Leyte, October 1944. Colorization by Irootoko jr.

In 1943 Zuiho had her flight deck lengthened to 192.6 m (631 ft). She also received four additional twin 25mm/60 AA guns and sixteen triple 25mm/60 Type 96 (so 56 in all) and a type 1 2-go radar. In October 1944, she had twenty aditional single 25mm/60 (so now a grand total of 76 AA cannons) and six 28-barrelled 120mm AA Rocket Launchers. Her flight deck was painted in a very peculiar camouflage, mostly using green tones, as her hull, with a dark green camouflage amidship to make her "shorter" by illusion than she was. The green-based camouflage became mandatory for IJN aircraft carriers in 1944 but the design of her flight deck is quite unique.
Shōhō 1944
Author's illustration of IJN Shōhō in 1944, Leyte battle.

CC Profile of the Zuiho class

⚙ Zuiho Specs 1941

Dimensions205,5 m long, 18.2 m wide, 6,58 m draft
Displacement9,000 t. standard -10,100 t. Full Load
Propulsion2 diesels, 30,000 hp.
Speed29 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph)
Range7,800 nmi (14,400 km; 9,000 mi) at 18 knots (33 kph, 21 mph)
ArmorSee notes
Armament4x2 127mm AA, 4x2 25 mm AA, 30 aircraft

General assessement of the Zuiho class

Shoho in 1942

If having a fleet tender that can be converted into an aircraft carrier in wartime to circumvent peacetime tonnage limits seemed a good idea to the IJN staff in 1933, when it was actually time to convert them in 1939, aviation technology had made great leaps forwards, the new models being way heavier and larger. The initially optimistic air group of 50 was now reduced to just 30 planes. If it could be on paper split in three with an equal number of fighters, bombers and torpedo-bombers, it soon appeared that the most practical air group for them was to have more fighters and versatile torpedo-bombers. They went from the A5M/B5N models to the A6M/B5N in 1942 and A6M/B6N in 1944, just two types being easier to manage.

Shoho's USNI battle reported hits
Shoho's USNI battle reported hits.

The lack of an island for C&C was diversely appreciated, precluding their use as flagship, and making their deck management more complicated, although pilots appreciated the unrestricted deck for landings. A bit like the US Independence class, they played an almost auxiliary role in operations, poviding the bulk of the air group for CAP, in order to allow fleet carriers to manage more of their own planes ot lead the attacks.

Camouflage of Zuiho in 1944

IJN Zuiho career

Zuiho at the battle of cape engano

After commission IJN Zuihō remained in Japanese waters, until late 1941 and Captain Sueo Ōbayashi was her sole prewar, and wartime captain, assuming command on 20 September. Hs ship became flagship of the Third Carrier Division, and assigned to the 11th Air Fleet in Formosa, starting on 13 October to gather her air group, which trained with her. She arrived in Takao and was by early November with Third Carrier Division, followed by a brief refit. With her sister ship Hōshō in the same division she accompanied the cover force, comprising six battleships, waiting at sea the return of 1st Air Fleet (Kido Butai) from the attack on Pearl Harbor, arouind the 14-15 December.

In February 1942 she ferried Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" fighters to Davao City in the Philippines, on behalf of the 11th Air Fleet. She was transferred to the First Fleet, after the Third Carrier Division was disbanded, on 1 April. Remaining in Japanese waters until June, she participated in the Battle of Midway. Assigned to the invasion force cover, she had at the time six Mitsubishi A5M "Claude", six A6M2 "Zero", twelve Nakajima B5N2 "Kate" torpedo bombers.

US airstrikes sank three Japanese carriers and the main body she was part of was ordered to join the Kido Butai as fast as possible, an order soon cancelled in the evening. On this 5 June, her combat air patrol was still in the air while darkness fell. They spotted and drove off a single PBY Catalina in reconnaissance (VP-44), which had the time to report their position.

IJN Zuihō was therefore ordereded to prepare an airstrike with Nisshin's own air group, on the US carriers supposedly in hot pursuing. However this order was rescinded too on the morning of 7 June after reports there was no pursuit. She sailed back to Sasebo, and was refitted in July–August 1942, before beig reassigned to the First Carrier Division, with the Shōkaku-Zuikaku Division, on 12 August, complementing their depleted air groups.

Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

This division sailed to Truk on 1 October 1942, in support of the Guadalcanal Campaign. They departed on the 11t, based on IJA assuranced they would capture Henderson Field in between. Zuihō's air group was now modernized, with eighteen A6Ms, six B5Ns. She was mostly charged or providing the CAP, while the Zuikaku class were tasked of the main strike. Both Japanese and American carrier forces found each others in the early morning of 26 October. This trigerred the start of the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, all carriers launching airstrikes.

Her air group crossed the path of those of USS Enterprise, the nine Zeros shooting down three Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters and three Grumman TBF Avenger. They also damaged one more of each, traded for four losses. Two Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers, used as bomb-armed armed scouts spotted and attacked Zuihō, scoring two 500-pound (230 kg) bomb hits on her flight deck, putting it ablaze. Meanwhile the rest of the fleet launched its first and second waves on the American carriers. Fortunately the bombs detonation were on deck, they did not penetrated so Zuiho was still repairable and retreated with the also damaged Shōkaku, to Truk, which they reached on 3 October. After temporary repairs, they both sailed to Japan. Zuihō's repairs were completed on 16 December 1942 and Captain Bunjiro Yamaguchi took command during this period.

1943-44 Operations

Battle of the Philippines

Leaving Kure (17 January 1943) for Truk with additional aircraft parked on deck, she was assigned to the Second Carrier Division with Jun'yō and Zuikaku, providing cover for the evacuation of Guadalcanal. Zuihō's fighters taxiied for Wewak in New Guinea by mid-February, others to Kavieng in March while Zuiho returned to Truk. Her additional air group then went to Rabaul (mid-March) for Operation I-Go against the Solomon Islands and New Guinea. These fighters brough by Zuiho claimed 18 kills.

Zuihō soon sailed back to Sasebo, Japan, on 9 May for a brief refit and was back to Truk on 15 July, remaining there until 5 November before another refit in Yokosuka. She received ha late air group, 18 Zeros and 8 Aichi D3A "Val", proceeding to Kavieng by late August and the Truk in September, assigned to the First Carrier Division (also Shōkaku, Zuikaku). They proceeded to Eniwetok Atoll (18 September) for training and be ready to intercept American carriers attack near Wake or the Marshall Islands.

IJN report failed to catch the raid on the Gilbert Islands as the 1st Division was gone, off Eniwetok on 20 September when it happened. Reports pointed to another attack on the Wake-Marshall by mid-October, so Admiral Mineichi Koga scrambled the Combined Fleet on 17 October, reaching Eniwetok and waiting for further reports, until the 23th. They proceeded to Wake Island for a sweep, before folding back to Truk on 26 October. Zuihō's air group was transferred to Rabaul this month, and they defended Rabaul a few days later, fighters claiming 25 enemies, traded for eight planes. Survivors flew back to Truk.

On 30 November 1943 Zuihō, Chūyō, Unyō, departed Truk for home with four destroyers, but since IJN naval codes had been cracked, several USN subs were posted along the way to Yokosuka. USS Skate torpedoed, but missed Zuihō on 30 November, Sailfish however sank IJN Chūyō on 5 December. Until May 1944, Zuihō mostly ferried aircraft and supplies to Truk and Guam. She was reassigned to the Third Carrier Division from January 1944, with the two Chitose class. They carried the 653rd consolidated air group, spread over all three carriers (18 A6M5 Zero fighters, 45 Zero A6M2 fighter-bombers, 18 B5N-2s "Kate" TBs, 9 Nakajima B6N "Jill" TBs) by May 1944. Their pilots were rookies in majority. They left Tawi-Tawi on 11 May (Philippines) for Borneo, resupplying in these oild fields, proceeding next to the Palau and western Carolines. American submarines were well present there, roaming in the area.

Battle of the Philippine Sea

The 1st Mobile Fleet headed to Guimares Island on 13 June for carrier operations training, much needed, until Vice Admiral Jisaburō Ozawa learned about a Carrier strike on the Mariana Islands and he refueled to sail immediately to combat. Task Force 58 spotted them underway on 18 June, but lost contact as Ozawa skillfully turned south, eventually launching his airstrikes. His carried adopted a "T" shaped formation, with Third Carrier Division at the end (with Zuiho), 115 nautical miles ahead of the 1st and 2nd CarDivs (crossbar). Zuihō was supposed to act as bait and was as intended soon under attack.

Heavy cruisers deployed a spotting curtain of Sixteen Aichi E13A floatplanes at 04:30 while CarDiv 3 carriers launched 13 B5Ns at 05:20. At last, four carriers from Task Force 58 were reported at 07:34 and around 8h30 the second wave was launched, 43 A6M2 Zero fighter-bombers, 7 B6Ns, plus 14 A6M5 fighters, keeping a token air group of nine planes for self-defense. Later TF 58's battleships were also spotted and, fatefully, the airstrike was diverted to them. Ddetected by radar at 09:59, the carriers launched no less than 199 Hellcats when in range. This was the famous "turkey shoot", leaving just 21 IJN planes survive (for 3 Hellcats lost).

At dusk, the fleet turned to the northwest to regroup and refuel, while TF58 closed the distance. On 14 June, recce flotplanes were launched to try to spot the US TF, Zuihō also launching three aircraft at 12:00, east of the fleet. The Japanese were spotted first and Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher ordered an airstrike, which quickly sank IJN Hiyō, damaging two others. Zuihō escaped and disengaged in the evening, being home on 1 July, and staying there until October. She had notably to receive a new air group, again with young trainees.

Battle of Leyte Gulf

Zuiho sinking, 24 October 1944

The final chapter saw Zuiho, after months of inactivity, receiving her new air group and proceed under orders of Admiral Soemu Toyoda to be part of the Shō-Gō 1 naval operation to reclaim the Philippines, Shō-Gō 2 to defend Formosa (Taiwan) and create a defensive line from the Ryukyu Islands to southern Kyushu, from 10 October. The 653rd Naval Air Group was sent to Formosa and Luzon, very few remaining for carrier operations. The air group was destroyed in the Philippines, leaving the carriers with a feeble air protection.

On 17 October, Toyoda ordered Zuihō and Ozawa's carrier force to approach Leyte Gulf from the north, as a bait to draw out Halsey's TF38. Meanwhile a pincer with capital shops and cruisers was made south and west, converging on the gulf on 25 October to destroy the US landing forces. The carriers were not completely devoid of aviation: They shared 116 aircraft between them: 52 A6M5, 28 A6M2, 7 D4Y "Judy", 26 B6Ns, 4 B5Ns. On 24 October, morning, the northernmost TF 38 carriers were in range and ozawa launched an airstrike to catch their attention.

Like in previous engagements, this was hopeless, and between a hail of Hellcats and the iron wall of 5-in, 40 and 20 mm, the strike accomplished little. None ever passed the defending fighters and survivors landed on Luzon. The Japanese carrier force was spotted at 16:05, but Halsey decided that it was too late to mount an strike, but headed north nevertheless, to launch one the following day. What followed was the Battle off Cape Engaño.

A single Aircraft from USS Independence launched at dusk spotted Ozawa during the night, and keep contact with him all night long, until Halsey ordered an airstrike at dawn (60 Hellcats, 65 Curtiss SB2C Helldiver, 55 Avengers. They were spotted at 07:35. The remaining 13 CAP Zeros were soon shot down, leaving the carriers alone. Zuihō tried launch her remaining aircraft when she was hit by a single bomb on her aft flight deck, after many Avengers misses. This 500-pound ordnance did not penetrated but started fires on the rear elevator and bulged the flight deck. The steering was stuck and she started listing to port. 20 minutes later fires were mastered and the steering repair, list corrected. She remained operational after this first wave.

The second wave focused on Chiyoda, but the third wave, circa 13:00 this time targeted Zuiho. She took a torpedo hit and two small bombs, plus 67 near misses. Shrapnels from the latter did most of the damage: They cut steam pipes, flooding both engine rooms, speed falling to 12 knots, while all available hands were manned the pumps from 14:10. She listed to 13° starboard until being dead in the water (14:45), a perfect exercize target when the fourth wave arrived at 14:55. Yet again, she was only near-misses ten times, while her list took 23°. Captain www ordered to abandon ship at 15:10. Zuihō capsized and sank a mere 15 minutes afterwards, at 15:26, carrying with her 7 officers and 208 men. Survivors (58 officers and 701 men) ere picked up and evacuated by the destroyer IJN Kuwa and battleship Ise.

IJN Shoho career

IJN Shoho on trials
IJN Shoho on trials

While fitting-out, Shōhō was aqssigned to the Fourth Carrier Division, 1st Air Fleet on 22 December 1941. After commission, she departed with Zuiho and eight battleships in cover for the return of the 1st Air Fleet from Pearl Harbor and remained in Japanese waters until June 1942. On 4 February 1942, she ferried aircraft to Truk and stayed there until 11 April 1942, returning to Yokosuka afterwards. By late April she was assigned to Operation MO (the attack on port Moresby) and is sent to Truk on 29 April. She departed with four heavy cruisers as the Main Force of the operation, Yamamoto staying as cover with the force of battleship. Aircraft shortages meant her complement comprised four old A5M "Claude" and eight A6M2 "Zero", six B5N2 "Kate", so 18 out of a normal complement of 30. She was to cover notably Shōkaku and Zuikaku.

She covered the landings on Tulagi (3 May) and sailed northwards to cover the invasion convoy, hearing en route about USS Yorktown air group attack on Japanese shipping at Tulagi, confirming their relative position, but not precise location. Reconnaissance aircraft took off without result, but meanshile USAAF planes spotted Shōhō southwest of Bougainville (5 May). She was out of range as US carriers were refueling. Rear Admiral Fletcher received intel about the relative location of three Japanese carriers known for Operation MO, near Bougainville. It prediced main operations to start on 10 May and after a complete refueling hos force departed on 6 May, sailing for the eastern tip of New Guinea, ready for an ambush on 7 May.

US recce aircraft reported two Japanese heavy cruisers, northeast of Misima Island (Louisiade Archipelago), eastern tip of New Guinea on the moprning as well as two carriers on hour later and a further later, Fletcher ordered an airstrike, beleaving these were Shōkaku and Zuikaku. Lexington and Yorktown launched in common 53 SBD dive bombers, 22 TBD torpedo bombers, escorted by 18 F4F Wildcats. However the last report proved to have been miscoded, whereas i the meantile a new report from an USAAF aircraft identified Shōhō with her escorts and the invasion convoy en route, 30 nautical miles (56 km; 35 mi) away from the previously reported position, communicated to the USN air strike en route. Thus, Fletcher' fury was now redirected on Shōhō.

Their position was further confirmed by an aircraft from USS Lexington at 10:40 and Shōhō's combat air patrol was in the air (two A5Ms, one A6M Zero). The still rookie USN pilots arrived, and the SBD took their diving pattern approach, then followed in échelon, but all missed as Shōhō's captain manoeuvered hard rudder. This was the first dive bomber attack through, and the CAP shot down one Dauntless. The second SBD attack followed, this time, managing to hit Shōhō twice with 1,000-pound ordnance that penetrated her flight deck, bursting inside. There, between fueled and armed aircraft on fire and ruptured fuel lines, the hangar became an inferno.

A minute later VT-2 torpedo bombers arrived. Thie was the Devastator's finest hour in the whole of WW2 (At midway they were first, drawing the CAP on them, and decimated in the process). They dropped their torpedoes in pincer as planned, to avoid evading manoeuvers to succeed and made five hits in quick succession. Their blast was sufficient to knock out the aicraft carrier's steering and power, flooded the engine and boiler rooms, so rapidly bleeding out her speed.

The coup de grace was given by Yorktown's air group's SBD, which made their dive in turn: This time, the more experienced pilots had no CAP to oppose them, as they were shot down by the Wildcats in between. They managed to make perfectly coordinated dives "by the book" on a slowed down Shōhō to a crawl, making eleven hits, all with 1000-pound bombs. Remaining TBDs from Yorktown also managed to make two more torpedo hits. Lieutenant Commander Robert E. Dixon (VS-2) famously radioed "Scratch one flat top!".

Shōhō was abandoned at 11:31, sinking four minutes later, leaving 300 survivors stranded into the sea without help for many hours as the Main Force escaped north at high speed. Only at around 14:00, IJN Sazanami, a destroyer, returned to rescue 203 survivors, with around 1/3 died by exhaustion, wounds, or sharks. IJN Shōhō was the first Japanese aircraft carrier lost in WW2, a considerable morale boost for the US. As customary for the Japanese, the announcement was made much later, kept hidden for a long time, survivors being spread into other crews and not sent home.

IJN Carrier division 3 under attack

Battle of the Coral sea, May 1942

Shoho under attack

Sources/ Read more


Conway's all the worlds fighting ships 1922-1947
Brown, David (1977). WWII Fact Files: Aircraft Carriers. New York: Arco Publishing.
Brown, J. D. (2009). Carrier Operations in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.
Hata, Ikuhiko; Yasuho, Izawa & Shores, Christopher (2011). Japanese Naval Air Force Fighter Units and Their Aces 1932–1945.
Jentschura, Hansgeorg; Jung, Dieter & Mickel, Peter (1977). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945. Annapolis, Maryland
Parshall, Jonathan & Tully, Anthony (2005). Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books.
Peattie, Mark (2001). Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909–1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press.
Polmar, Norman & Genda, Minoru (2006). Aircraft Carriers: A History of Carrier Aviation and Its Influence on World Events. Potomac Books.
Tully, Anthony P. (2007). "IJN Zuiho: Tabular Record of Movement". Kido Butai. Combinedfleet.com. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
Stille, Mark (2005). Imperial Japanese Navy Aircraft Carriers 1921–1945. New Vanguard. Vol. 109. Osprey Publishing
Stille, Mark (2007). USN Carriers vs IJN Carriers: The Pacific 1942. Duel. Vol. 6. Osprey


On globalsecurity.org
On militaryfactory.com
On ww2db.com
On combinedfleet.com
aviation-history.com: Coral Sea
j-ships.com - Zuiho study
IJA operations in the South Pacific Area Translated by Steven Bullard
IJN Aces and fighter units in WW2
shattered sword, Midway
Japan Center for Asian Historical Records
combinedfleet.com tabular record of movement; zuiho
combinedfleet.com tabular record of movement: shoho

3D & Model kits

wow's Zuiho

wow's Zuiho


3d renditions

The model's corner


Zuiho class on scalemates
Hasegawa, Fujimi, Aoshima 1:700 and a 1:3000 for a Coral Sea diorama by Fujimi.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
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Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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