Swedish Navy in WW2

Neutral, but sure to remain so: The Swedish Navy in WW2

Already the heavyweight of the Scandinavian fleets during the first world war, and despite interwar financianl crisis, budget reduction and general opinion pacifism, Sweden kept a sizeable Navy operational in 1939 that was a credible and serious enouh to enter in German calculation when invading Norway, both in scale and quality. The kriegsmarine was not in tonnage that far away from it. Swedish Neutrality, athough seriously tested and its armies and territory courted by both sides, never took sides until the end of the war.

Gota Lejon
Göta Lejon of the Tre Krono class. This ambitious design was started during the war but completed after. This shows Sweden was perfectly capable to create first-rate cruisers comparable to those of neighbouring Germany and Russia.

A long-standing Naval tradition

The Swedish Navy (Sverige Marinen), since the eighteenth century, was on par with another power of the Baltic: The Russian Navy, operating from St. Petersburg. Great battles took place in these icy and shallow seas, and the Swedes showed technical excellence in the naval field. The refloating of the Vasa (1628) in the 1970s was, in this respect, a rich lesson in the naval techniques of the time, fate late galleons. Sweden remained, until the 1890s, the great naval power of the Baltic, without many rivals but Russia. Germany was long divided into kingdoms and its small naval force was created from scratch from the 1880s. Russia for long had no harbor not military base before Peter the Great made one, whereas Finland was negligible, and Denmark seemed the only potential rival to the West. In fact she was more of a long-time ally.

The coastal battleship (Pansarkepp) Drottning Victoria before the war - colorized by Hirootoko Jr.

This Scandinavian naval power was still first in 1914, and maintained its status facing the Kriegsmarine. Although the latter was of a much higher level, the German Baltic fleet was less impressive than the North sea fleet. Sweden's economic and industrial situation, however, did not allow sufficient resources nor manpower to feed a larger fleet and had no particular naval ambitions at that point but its self defence. This was fleet of coast guards.

This vocation, like all fleets of lesser importance, was above all defensive. By range and nature, the Swedish Navy was in between a true 'blue water' bt rather leaning towards a green water navy. In September 1939, Sweden was neutral and its navy was numerically large, well trained and able to use typical defensive tactics to its advantages with mines, submarines and torpedo boats to inflict serious damage. Her coastal battleships were also capable to sink any German cruiser, her aviation and coastal fortifications completed this array.

Articles about the Swedish Navy in WW2

An almost guaranteed neutrality

Sweden, in short, was not afraid of an invasion attempt on the part of the Reich, atlhough its land armies could have been dealt with by several Panzerdivisions, Sweden had more tanks than any other Scandinavian country combined (68), and a standing army which was very diverse and only professional for its smallest core, but which could be bolstered several fold, between the draft instituted in 1938, the Swedish Home Guard in 1940 and even a corp of voluntary fighting women called the Lottorna since 1924. All in all, this was a virtual pool of millions under arms, on a terrain that favoured defense, dotted with thick forests, marshes and lakes.

The Swedish Fleet anchored in Stockholm.

The Swedish air force in 1939 was not a joke either, with 158 fighters, 116 bombers, and about 100 reconnaissance planes of diverse origins, British and German. In 1940 serious efforts were made to bolster this force, by purchasing 300 combat aircraft from the United States, Seversky P-35s and P-66 Vanguards, halted after 60 planes by the Government, fearing Sweden's neutrality would end soon. Sweden turned to Italy for the remainder, 200 aircraft, mostly Fiat CR.42s, Reggiane Re.2000s, and Caproni Ca.313s.

There was no standing naval aviation. Sweden for the Reich was a far less strategically interesting than Norway. Not only the latter was a much easier prey, offering large quantities of metals and an unbeatable operational facade on the North Atlantic. USSR however had views on Sweden. There has been a internal dynamic communist movement in the 1920s, but the Red Army in 1939 first had to defeat Finland before even thinking of attacking Sweden, and the disastrous winter campaign show how foolhardy this enterprise could have been. Sweden was therefore in much better position to defend itself thanks to its armies, the best in Scandinavia by far, and geographical surroundings.

Swedish unsinkable fleet: Coastal Fortifications

Boden Fortess
The Boden Fortress: Degerberget Fort Turrets as of 1998, when it was officially discarded.

The Kustartilleriet, or KA emerged in the Archipelago Artillery that raised in 1866. It was reformed in 1902 and spread into three units, including the army and marine regiment, but became an independent branch within the Swedish Navy until July 1, 2000 when it was disbanded and now a part of the amphibious corps. Before WW1, these assets were concretised around the Vaxholm Coastal Artillery Regiment (KA 1) and Karlskrona Coastal Artillery Regiment (KA 2) while regiments were detached to the Fårösund Fortress, the northern tip of Gotland and Älvsborg coastal fortresses, near the main shipping channel into Gothenburg. Later in 1937, the detachment at Fårösund became a separate unit, renamed "Gotland Coastal Artillery Regiment".

However after WW1 there was a reduction after the 1925 defence proposition. While all the branches of the Swedish Armed Forces were expanded. The Coastal Artillery was modernised either with Swedish guns and imported ones, like from Czechoslovakia. The coastal defensive line of Skåne became Per Albin Line during WW2. The Gothenburg detachement became the Älvsborg Coastal Artillery Regiment in 1942. In all during the war, 60 coastal artillery batteries were built along coast. An additional deterrent for any invasion force.

In 1942 there were new units created (operational also durng the cold war): The Blekinge, Gothenburg, Gotland, Norrland and Stockholm Coastal Artillery Defence units. On the other hand there were still a number of forts, fortesses and fortified lines built or still in activity during WW2: -The Boden Fortress (1901-1916). A fortiified line with in total 102 pieces served by 1,868 men spread into in 6 forts and 8 batteries. -Degerberget Fort (1908) - Part of the Boden line, it was the strongest battery. -Järflotta Fort (1942): An island in Stockholm archipelago, 5 km south of Nynäshamn. A coastal artillery battery with three 9.4in (24cm 43calibre) Bofors M06 naval guns setup in 1942, completed by a cordon of a total of 291 concrete bunkers with barbed wire and mines.

-Skåne Line (1941): Created by Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson it was long of 500 km, it was made of light fortifications around the coast of southern Sweden, from Halland across Skåne to Blekinge. It consisted of two defensive lines, the first with concrete bunkers, light gunnery emplacements along the shore, and a second line of entrenched troops 300 meters inland, behind mines and barbed wire and a few concrete bunkers. It was to deal against amphibious assaults, not ships. In 1945 it consisted of 1,063 fortifications total and gained 3-in guns during the early cold war. -Fort Oscar II (Gothenburg) (1907): Included the main fortification of Elfsborg Fortress to protect the sea entrance to Gothenburg. Several heavy gun turrets (8-in). -Fårösund Fortress (1886): Built to fortify the inlet at Fårö, which possessed three batteries. However it was juged obsolete in the start of the century, became a penitentiary, and the entire fortress was declared a listed building in 1935. Also obsolete in WW2 were the Karlsborg Fortress (until 1925), the Enholmen Fortress (1858), still in use for garrison purposes during WW2. Also the Vaberget Fortress (1902), used until 1927,

Batteri Järflotta in 1942 - The 9.4in was the heavier fortess gun in service.

A citizen's funded Navy

Drottning Victoria
Drottning Victoria after the war -HD photo) - The camouflage seemed ti have been washed out (especially the hull) and neutrality bands has been removed.

One of the peculiarities of Sweden was to have substantial funds to build the ships requested, but little industrial resources to do so. However, after the great war, the pacifist current that passed through the country put an end to new expenses in this matter. Even the nominal operating budget was cut in half. Against all threats, Sweden placed its hopes in the League of Nations. But in 1930, many of these hopes had been shattered. Three years later, the rise of the Third Reich was enough to worry the government, which passed several massive budget increases. Various ships were modernized, single cruiser was built. The naval rearmament law did materialized in 1936.

Therefore, before it came into full force, the Second World War broke out. A large number of these new planned units had to wait, not least modern destroyers, submersibles and the Tre Kronor class cruisers. Also the Swedish naval potential was seriously hampered in 1939. Nevertheless, the plan was realized during the war and until 1947, ready to take on the cold war Soviet challenge.

The Götland, colorized by Hirootoko Jr.

Sweden in WW2

Work in Progress: The Swedish Navy in WW2
Work in Progress: The Swedish Navy in WW2

Sweden remained neutral, even before the invasion of Finland in the east and Norway in the west. With the Germano-Soviet pact, the country found itself locked in a political island. Poland fell, then the Baltic states fell to USSR and Germany, while Finland eventually allied with the Third Reich after the pact ended, and Norway was occupied. The entire population was ready for the fight and was even enthusiastic about this idea, so the parliament voted on an additional drastic plan, ordering abroad new ships, including Italian MAS torpedo boats. In 1943, Sweden was perfectly able to resist an assault from the axis or USSR, but not both.

HSwMS Fylgia underway during ww2, showing her neutrality bands.

Nevertheless, pressure was greatly relieved when Germany attacked USSR, the traditional enemy. Despite internal and extrernal pressure to join the axis, Sweden resisted any policy of collaboration, and was never part of the "great crusade against Bolshevism". From 1943 until 1947, its rearmament plan went on uninterrupted, making the fleet still relevant during the cold war, a serious threat for the Soviet Navy.

However the three-crowns Kingdom's neutrality orientation remains controversial, and its ambiguous attitudes have long led the British to believe that the latter leaned to the Axis side. Opposed to USSR, de facto allied to the British and Americans, Sweden indeed had more sympathy for the Finns fighting the Russians from 1939, while opposing at the same time the Franco-British attempt to cross its territory to help the Finns. The fleet during the conflict had clear objectives, to ensure the safe passage of its trade fleet through the Baltic and the North Sea. Up to the very last days of the war, Sweden never took a side.

HSwMS Sverige
The HSwMS Sverige in WW2, showing an extensive camouflage and a heavy cruiser battery (8 in guns). It looks menacing, intimidating and towering, and on paper can resist the fire of heavy cruisers. They would have dealt with any Kreisgmarine of Soviet Navy ships except for Russian dreadnoughts, German Pocket Battleships or the Scharnhorst class. But in any case aviation would have been likely their main adversary.

The state of the Swedish Fleet in 1939

In 1939, Sweden was counting on a handful of armored coastal "pocket battleships" dating back for the most recent, of the 1920s, and WW1 to prior the war for the others, and a large fleet of torpedo boats, and destroyers. Some of these destroyers were of Italian origin, as well as the few modern torpedo boats. There was however only a single light cruiser of low tonnage for reconnaissance. More than half of the fleet was dating back from the Great War or early 1920s.

Sweden however was known for its expertise in medium automated cannons, like the famous Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft gun, produced massively under licence by UK in 1938 and he US in 1940, and deployed on all allied ships. In 1945, the Swedish fleet tonnage tonnage had doubled, the rejuvenation was carried out. Throughout the war, the Swedish ships presented a camouflaged livery, well adapted to the many islands of its southern facade, and white neutrality bands painted in the front and the back of the hull for extra identification. Swedish ships names were prefixed HMS, like British ones, standing for but the longer form is often used to avoid confusion, HSwMS.

Swedish "Battleships"

Sverige colorized ww2 HSwMS Sverige - colorized photo in ww2

Having no intention of ordering a dreadnought before WW1 nor a faster battleship afterwards, Sweden relied only on its armored coastal "battleships", which main artillery and protection was a far cry from Western or Russian battleships. Nevertheless, there was neither the will or budget to underwent the contruction of any "sea going battleship" as a defensive policy made it unnecessary. The only blueprints we have concerns only coastal battleships (see below).

Drottning Victoria camo
A rare photo of WW2 showing the green camouflage of Drottning Victoria

-9 Armored Coastal Batleships:
Although this workforce included old vessels, slow, their military value was intact, and they had been modernized. These were the Three Sverige class (commissioned in 1919-20), HSwMS Oscar II (1905), the four Äran class (1901-03), and the HSwMS Dristigheten (1900). The Niord of 1898 was certainly the oldest of all, but she was relegated to secondary roles and not really fit for service in WW2. These coastal battleships were all armed with heavy guns, protected by full armor, belts, citadels, conning towers, protective deck, and equipped with a substantial AA, including the Bofors. Although without radars and using old sights and ballistic computers with non-existent ASW defense these ships were certainly ot invulnerable. They were classified in three types according to their importance (1Kl, 2Kl and 3Kl Pansarbataar). Although impressive to look at they were a far cry from the read deal: Monsters such as the Bismarck dwarfed them (8,500 tons against 50,000).

HSwMS Manligethen

HSwMS Oscar II

Coastal Battleship projects:
Several designs of a more modern coastal battleship were studied, such as one some sources refer to as:

> "Viking class" (1934/36): Dimensions: 133m x 19,5m x 6,85m, Displacement: 7.150tons standard, Populsion: 20.000shp, 4 shafts, 22 knots, protected by a belt 254mm thick and 50 mm decks, four 254mm Guns (2x2) and 2x3 120m DP-AA Guns, 4x2 40m AA Guns.
> Ansaldo Project 1 (1941): 173 m x 20m x 7m and 17.000 tons standard, propelled by 90.000shp on 4 shafts, and a top speed of 23 knots, protected by a belt of 200 mm, Decks of 120 mm and armed with six (3x2) 280 mm, 4x2 120 DP, 5x2 57 AA, 2x2 40 AA, 6x 20 mm AA Guns. The latter could have been in effect too large and costly for Sweden's needs.
> Ansaldo Project 2 (1945): Displacement of 13.900 tons (unknown dimensions), propelled by 56.000 shp on 2 shafts, top speed of 37 km/h or 20 knots, protected by a 300 mm belt and 120 mm deck. Armed with 2x3 210 mm, 2x2 120mm DP, 6x2 57mm and 16x1 25mm AA Guns.

Swedish Ansaldo design The link between Italian designers and the Swedish Navy made the yard delivering two designs intended for Sweden but non was acted, probably seen as too ambitious for the avilable budget.

Two Swedish Cruisers (1939)
Cruiser Gotland
The floatplane-carrier/Cruiser HSwMS Gotland, one of th e interesting cruiser designs of the 1930s, here in WW2 with the rest of the fleet (Credits kbismarck.dk)

In this respect, there was only one true modern ship, Gotland (1933). At her side, the armored cruiser Fylgia (1905) was the smallest cruiser of this kind in WW2. The latter was in dry dock to be radically modernized in 1939-40. On the other hand, she asked for blueprints to Ansaldo, to built on her specifications two modern cruisers, the Tre Kronor class, started in 1943. They were launched in 1944-45 and completed in 1947, therefore they are studied here.

Colorized photo of the HMS Fylgia circa 1941. Src

-20 Destroyers:
There were two categories of destoryers according to their age: Those of the WW1 generation: Magne, Sigurd, Hugin and Wrangel classes. They had been modernized during the interwar but were of limited military value, rather comparable to torpedo boats. In all 9 ships.
The interwar destroyers, Ehrensköld and Psilander (Italian-built, Sella type), Klas Horn and Romulus (Italian-built), and Gothenburg class. This represented 8 units in all, while 3 others were in completion when WW2 broke out. Three new classes would be started during the war: Mode class (4 units, launched 1942), Visby class (4 units, 1942-43), and Öland class (2 units, launched 1945). Balance was 20 destroyers in 1939, 10 more during the war, 30 in total, which made Sweden by far the strongest of the "gree water navies" in existence during the 1940s.

HMS Ehrensköld
HSwMS Ehrensköld, the last prewar class of Swedish destroyers

-34 Torpedo boats:
In 1918 the Swedish Navy had 29 so-called "first class" coastal torpedo boats, dating from 1896 to 1910. In 1928, they were reclassified as patrol boats and re-registered V27 to 50. Some were dropped from the lists and 24 were all of which formed this line of defense in 1939. They were gradually erased from the lists during the war, and all after 1947. It also lined up with them 10 so-called "second class" torpedo boats, weighing 60 tons as standard.

-16 Submersibles:
The numbers included the Hajen (1917), Bävern (1921), Draken (1926-30), the Valen (1925), the Delfinen (1934), Sjölejonet (1936-41) being partly under construction, the Neptun ( 1942), and U1 (1941-44) being put into service during the conflict. Balance: 16 in 1939, 15 others during the war.

-16 Patrol ships:
In 1939, sweden aligned a small number of multirole patrolmen, apart from its torpedo boats. It will also build during the conflict. The oldest were of the Styrbjörn class (1923-25), bought from Norway in 1935-36 on the model of whalers, but also the Asköfjärd (1931-32) and Edöfjärd (1933), light, the Jägaren (1932- 34), more important, altogether 16, and during the war the SKV1 (1944), and V51 (1944-45), or 11 units.

-9 Minelayers:
There were two units, one built in 1912 and modernized, the cruiser Clas Fleming, and another specially designed in 1942-44, the Ävsnabben. In 1939, the Swedish Navy also accepted the Mul10, a 166 ton coastal mine smelter. Others much older were still in use, the Mul3,5,6,7,8 and 9, the first dating back to the late nineteenth century. Some torpedo boats could also perform this role, as well as the destroyers. Minefields were an effective and inexpensive defense for a modest fleet.

-14 Minesweepers:
The fleet consisted of six old buildings (1917-18) of the Spängaren class, and eight of the Arholma class out of 14 (1937-40), the latter entering service in the course of 1941; but also smaller units, the M1 (1937) and M3-M26 during the conflict (1940-41). For the latter, it was 23 units

-26 Miscellaneous:
The Swedish Navy also had two training ships, former 1896-98 cruisers, the Jacob Bägge and the örnen, an aviso, the Svensksund (1891), which was modernized and became a surveillance vessel in 1942. She opened her way to the far north thanks to icebreakers Atle (1925) and Ymer (1932). In addition, she began to take an interest in torpedo launches. In 1939, she had two, the MTB3 and 4, design dating back to the Great War although built at Thornycroft in 1925. In August 1940, they were removed from service. Two others replaced them in 1940, ordered from Vosper, while she received 4 from Italy, T11-14 ex-MAS 506, 508, 511 and 524 from Baglietto. In 1941, she built the T15 to 18 on a very close design, and in 1942-43 ten others a little larger (T21-31).

Total 1939: 2 cruisers, 20 destroyers, 34 TBs, 16 Subs., and 26 misc. ships.
Total construction WW2: 2 cruisers, 10 destroyers, 10 subs., 38 misc. ships.

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Conway's all the worlds fighting ships 1906-1921
Conway's all the worlds fighting ships 1922-1947

Nomenclature of the Swedish Fleet

Coastal Battleships

Gustav V class (1915)

Gustav V, Sverige, Drottning Victoria, launched in 1915-18 completed in 1919-21, modernized in 1930-38. Their appearance varied according to their chimneys: those of Drottning Victoria remained in place (2), those of Gustav V were truncated in one, as well as those of Sverige. They will be withdrawn from service in 1953-57.

Gustav V class ww2
Author's rendition of the Gustav V class in WW2. As shown by the prow, the ration lenght/width was low and the ships were relatively fast and agile

Length/Width: 110x20 meters, Displacement 7900 tons standard, 8500 TFL
2 shaft turbines, 8 boilers, 50,000 hp, 26 knots
Maximum shielding: 225-250 mm
Weaponry: 4x305, 6x152 mm, 8x40 mm AA, 8x20 mm AA.
Crew: 750

Oscar II (1905)

Oscar II
Launched in 1905, completed in 1907, modernized in 1939. She was used in 1940 as a training ship, but actively operational for coastal defense. She will be discarded in 1950.

Dims: Length/Width: 95x16 meters, Displacement 3800 tons standard, 4300 sq.ft.
Prop: 2 shafts turbines, 8 boilers, 30,000 hp for 23 knots in operation
Maximum shielding: 225-250 mm
Weaponry: 4x203, 8x152, 4x40, 4x20 mm AA
. Crew: 600

Äran class (1901)

Äran, Wasa, Manligheten, Tapperheten, launched in 1901-03 completed in 1904-06, modernized in 1939, 40 and 41. The Wasa was removed from the lists in 1940 but was rebuilt in fake Gustav V in order to deceive the intelligence services of axis.

Dims: Length/Width: 85x16 meters, Displacement 3800 tons standard, 4200 sq.ft.
Peop: 2 shafts turbines, 8 boilers, 25,000 hp for 22 knots in operation
Maximum shielding: 225-250 mm,
Weaponry: 4x203, 6x152, 4x40, 4x20 mm AA.
Crew: 350.

Dristigheten (1900, converted 1927)

Launched in 1900 and completed in 1902, modernized in 1927, she was rebuilt as a seaplane support ship. She was removed for the lists in 1947.
Length/Width: 85x16 meters, Displacement 3700 tons standard, 4000 tons FL
2 shaft turbines, 4 boilers, 15,000 hp for 16 knots in operation
Maximum shielding 225-250 mm
Weaponry (as converted) 4x75 mm, 2x25 mm AA.
Crew 300.


Fylgia class (1905)

Launched in 1905 and completed in 1907, she was modernized in 1939-40. popularly known as the "White Swan of Sweden", she was for a long time the smallest and last armoured cruisers ever built, and the best protected cruiser in the Baltic Sea. Her armament was however totally unsuited for duelling with German or Soviet cruisers, but she could count on an exceptional strenght. She served as a school ship until discarded in 1953.

Length/Width: 85 x 14 meters, Displacement 4310 standard tons, 4500 sq.ft.
2 shafts turbines, 6 boilers, 25,000 hp for 26 knots in operation
Maximum shielding 140-80 mm
Armament 2x152, 6x120, 8x40, 8x20 mm AA.
Crew 400.

Götland (1933)

Götland Launched in 1933 and completed in 1935. HSwMS Gotland was the first of her kind and was visited by naval experts worldwide as testing this concept of hybrid aircraft carrier/cruiser. Her 6 usual aircraft (10 stowable on deck and 2 in the hangar) were Hawker Ospreys.

In May 1941, Götland spotted the Bismark, Prinz Eugen and destroyers en route to the North Sea via the Kattegat. She signalled at 12:00, 20 miles West of Vinga five escort vessels, followed 10 miles behind by 3, one cruiser and one larger ship (unidentified at that point), covered by 10-12 aircraft circling around thos force, that was heading North. HSwMS Götland when it happened was caught in a routine exercise, and started to shadow the German flotilla for hours, until it left the Skagerrak, a comon practice in peacetime, at least between Sweden and Germany, fully aware of her presence and actions.

This message went first to the Swedish Navy HQ and was forwards to British naval officials in Sweden, which prompted it to the Royal Navy HQ in turn. This marke d the start of the legendary "hunt for the Bismarck". As a cruiser, she was Obsolete by 1943, her planes removed and she was converted into a stationary anti-aircraft cruiser: Eight 40 mm Bofors, sixteen 25 mm AA were fitted. Her main artillery in turrets and barbettes remained. She was modernized in 1954 and retired from service in 1960.

Length/Width: 134,8x15,40 meters, Displacement 4,700 standard tons, 5550 FL
2 shaft Laval turbines, 4 Penhoët boilers, 33,000 hp for 28 knots in operation
Maximum shielding 51 mm
Weaponry: 6x152, 4x75, 4x25, 4x8 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 80-100 mines, 6 aircraft.
Crew: 467.

Tre Kronor class (1943)

Tre Kronor 1947
("Three Crowns"), launched in 1945, completed in 1947, with the Göta Lejon. Undoubtedly the best Swedish cruisers ever produced, and the last, they did not have time to be operational before the end of the conflict. Their 152 pieces were divided into two double turrets (on the back) and one triple (on the front). The DCA was exclusively composed of these excellent 40 mm Bofors. In 1950 the Göta lejon was modernized and rebuilt, then sold in Chile in 1971, which still used it until the 90s. The second was withdrawn from service in 1964.

Dims: Length/Width: 182x16.70 meters, Displacement 8200 tons standard, 9200 tons FL.
Prop: 4 shaft Laval turbines, 4 boilers, 90,000 hp for 33 knots max
Maximum shielding: 130-100 mm
Weaponry: 7x152, 27x40 mm Bofors AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 160 mines
Crew: 610


Ehrenskjöld class (1926):


Two ships Launched in 1926 and completed in 1927. With her sister ship HSwMS Nordenskjöld, she made the Ehrensköld class, first interwar Swedish-built class of destroyers, and both in size and speed, was quite an upgrade in the Swedish inventory. Ehrensköld's pennant changed from 11 to 1. Nordenskjöld had the pennant 12. This class brings on the table two major improvements: Three 12 cm guns and new stadard 53 cm torpedo. As a reminder, the last destroyer class built wy Sweden prior was the Wrangel class (launched 1917). These were 498 tonnes boats, 70 m long, armed with four 75 mm (3 in)/49 cal. M/12 guns and two twin banks of 457 mm torpedo tubes (18 in).
So with almost twice the displacement and heavy guns, the Swedish destroyers placed themselves in the the standards of the time, whereas previous classes were little more than glorified torpedo boats tailored for the coastal fleet. By that time indeed, in 1924, the Swedish Navy operated 10 destroyers and 29 first-class torpedo boats. The destroyers were absolutely not comparable to those of two potential adversaries, the Royal Navy and the Soviet Navy. Therefore the admiralty requested a new design which was inspired by many contemporary ships and ended with the Ehrenskjöld class, which blueprints were approved in 1924 and construction started at Kockums, Malmö and Götaverken, Gothenburg. Both ships were launched in June and December 1926 and completed in 1927. Armament Their strong points were three 120 mm (4.7 in) guns built by Bofors, on single mounts. They were all in the axis for best broadside, one forward, one aft and one between the two funnels. Crucially, the hull had no forecastle as it was flush-dsck, which recalled USN destroyers both in general appearance and armament. The was also from the start a consequent Anti-aircraft armament with two Vickers 40 mm automatic AA guns. The two triple torpedo mounts fired 53 cm (21 in) torpedoes. They were placed in the axis behind the aft funnel. Also the ships were fitted with rails for minelaying, long enough for 20 mines.

HMS Nordenskjöld

Propulsion-side, they were fitted with three Penhoët boilers, which fed two de Laval geared steam turbines. Total output was 34,000 shaft horsepower (25,000 kW) which allowed a top speed of 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph), to compare with the 34 knots of the previous class (in calm weather). Their range was 1,600 nmi (1,800 mi; 3,000 km) at 16 kn (18 mph; 30 km/h).
Active service
The lead destroyer was named after the admiral Nils Ehrenschiöld and had the full name but the first was removed one year after her launch. In the summer of 1929 she escorted HSwMS Sverige to Estonia and Latvia with King Gustaf V on board for a state visit. He visited Tallinn and then Riga. In 1930, they escorted the ship for another international state visit, with HSwMS Gustav V and HSwMS Drottning Victoria. They stopped at Swinemünde to collect the dust from Queen Victoria which died in Rome. In 1934 Ehrensköld ran aground on her way to Stockholm, and the hull was flooded. However thanks to a powerful reverse manoeuver she landed on a shoal and after smmary repairs, made it to Stockholm's naval shipyards.

Nordenskjöld in ww2, notice the neutrality white bands.

In September 1938 (Invasion of Czechoslovakia) Ehrensköld and HSwMS Klas Horn were mobilized to patrol Swedish waters. In April 1940, she was demobilized in Karlskrona, but the crew was assembled and after exercises she returned into service on 2 September 1940. She was part of the Karlskrona Squadron, South Coast Naval District. In 1942 she joined the Coastal Fleet for a time and returned to the Karlskrona Squadron. Her AAA changed, with the addition of two twin 25 mm guns.

In 1951-1952 both ships were converted to frigates. Their torpedo armament was removed, as the aft gun and four 40 mm automatic guns m/36 were installed. At last a modern hydrophone was installed and depth charges thrower for ASW warfare. There was also a modern command center with radar. As such, both ships served until decommissioned on 1 April 1963, and were used as target ship until 1973, when they were sold and scrapped. That was quite a career.

Ehrenskjöld class Specifications

Dimensions89 x8.88 x3.80 m (292 x 29 x 12 ft)
Displacement974 tonnes standard, 990 short tons
Propulsion2 shaft De Laval GS turbines, 3 Penhoët boilers, 34,400 shp
Speed36 kn (41 mph; 67 km/h)
Range1,600 nmi (1,800 mi; 3,000 km) at 16 kn
Armament3x 120 mm, 2 Vickers 2-pdr AA, 2x3 53cm TTs

Psilander Class (1926):

2 Launched in 1926 and completed in 1927. Ex-Italian Nicotera and Ricasoli. Built in Naples, of the Sella class, sold and transferred in March 1940. Detained for a month in the UK (also in order to study them), then transferred to Sweden. Not fit for the Baltic.
Length/width: 84 x 8.6 meters, Displacement 1250 standard tons.
2 shaft Parsons turbines, 3 Thornycroft boilers, 36,000 hp for 35 knots in operation.
Armament 4 x 120, 2 x 40 mm AA, 2 x 13.2 mm AA, 4 TLT 533 mm, 10 mines.
Crew 106.

Klas Horn Class (1932):

Klas Uggla

Two Launched in 1931 and completed in 1932. Close to the Ehrenskjöld but larger. On September 17, 1941 they were sunk by a huge accidental explosion of unexplained origin, which also sank the destroyer Gothenburg. In fact, the most damaged (Klas Ugla) was cannibalized to repair the Klas Horn, which was equipped with six 25mm AA guns.
Length/width: 91x8.9 meters, displacement 1020 standard tons.
2 shaft Laval turbines, 3 Penhoët boilers, 34,000 hp for 36 knots in operation.
Armament 3x120, 2x40mm AA, 6 TLT 533mm, 2 ASM mortars and 20 mines.
Crew 130.

Göteborg Class (1935):

Göteborg class

6 Launched in 1935-40 and completed in 1936-41. Close to the Ehrenskjöld but much bigger. Powerful and very fast (41 knots at the trials). The Gothenburg was sunk during an accidental but repaired explosion. Length/width: 94.6 x 9 meters, displacement 1040 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 Laval turbines, 3 Penhoët boilers, 32,000 hp for 39 knots in operation.
Weapon 3 x 120, 6 x 25 mm AA, 2 mitt. 13.2 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 2 ASM mortars and 20 mines.
Crew 135.

Visby Class (1942):

Visby class

Four Swedish fleet destroyers Launched in 1942-43 and completed in 1942-44. Of the Göteborg type, but larger and with a better AA and ASW armament.
Length/width: 98 x 9 meters, Displacement 1135 standard tons.
2 shaft Laval turbines, 3 boilers at Triple Exp., 36,000 hp for 39 knots in operation.
Armament 3 x 120, 4 x 40 mm AA, 3 x 20 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 4 ASM mortars and 20 mines.
Crew 140.

Öland class (1944):

HMS Uppland

Two Swedish fleet destroyers Launched in 1945-46 and completed in 1947-48. Much larger, inspired by the USN Gearing class.
Length/Width: 112 x 11.2 meters, Displacement 1880 standard tons.
2 shaft Laval turbines, 2 Penhoet boilers, 44,000 hp for 35 knots in operation.
Armament 4 x 120, 6 of 40 mm AA, 8 x 25 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 1 LR Bofors 375 mm ASM and 60 mines.
Crew 210.

Coastal destroyers

Romulus class (1934):

HMS Romulus

Two Italian-built TBs Launched in 1934 and completed in 1935. Torpedo boats of the Spica class, transferred in March 1940, and detained in the Faroe Islands for a month by the Royal Navy. Modified for the winter conditions of the Baltic.
Length/width: 81.40 x 7.9 meters, Displacement 870 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 Tosi turbines, 2 boilers, 19,000 hp for 34 knots in operation.
Armament 3 x 100, 3 x 20 mm AA, 4 TLT 450 mm, 2 ASM mortars and 18 mines.
Crew 100.

Mode Class (1942):

HSwMS Mode
4 Launched in 1942 and completed in 1942-43. Classified as coastal destroyers, with reduced range and speed and a single TLT bench.
Length/Width: 78 x 8 meters, Displacement 750 tons standard.
2 shaft Laval turbines, 2 boilers triple exp., 16,000 hp for 30 knots in operation.
Armament 3 x 105, 6 x 40 mm AA, 2 of 20 mm AA, 3 TLT 533 mm, 2 ASM mortars and 16 mines.
Crew 100.

2nd class Destroyers

Magne Class (1905):

2 Launched in 1905-07 and completed in 1906-08
Length/width: 65 x 8 meters, Displacement 460 standard tons
2 shaft Laval turbines, 3 Triple Exp. Boilers, 5,000 hp for 22 knots in operation
Armament: 3 x 100, 4 x 40 mm AA, 3 x 20 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 4 ASM mortars and 20 mines
Crew: 80

Sigurd class (1908):

3 Launched in 1908-09 and completed in 1909-10.
Length/width: 67 x 8 meters, Displacement 462 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 Laval turbines, 3 Triple Exp. Boilers, 5,000 hp for 22 knots in operation.
Armament 3 x 100, 4 x 40 mm AA, 3 x 20 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 4 ASM mortars and 20 mines.
Crew 80.

Hugin Class (1910):

HMS Hugin
2 Launched in 1910-11 and completed in 1911-12.
Length/width: 67 x 8 meters, Displacement 460 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 Laval turbines, 3 Triple Exp. Boilers, 5,000 hp for 22 knots in operation.
Armament 3 x 100, 4 x 40 mm AA, 3 x 20 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 4 ASM mortars and 20 mines.
Crew 80.

Wrangel Class (1917):

Wrangel class
2 Launched in 1917 and completed in 1918.
Length/width: 72 x 8 meters, Displacement 498 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 Laval turbines, 3 Triple Exp. Boilers, 5,000 hp for 22 knots in operation.
Armament 3 x 100, 4 x 40 mm AA, 3 x 20 mm AA, 6 TLT 533 mm, 4 ASM mortars and 20 mines.
Crew 80.

Swedish Torpedo Boats

Plejad Class (1905):

17 Launched in 1905-10 and completed in 1906-11. Built by the French Normand shipyard. In 1928 the TT will be removed. Four will be struck off lists in 1940, two in 1941, two in 1944.
Length / width: 38 x 4.5 meters, displacement 106-120 tons standard.
2 propellers, 2 Normand turbines, 3 Normand boilers, 2600 hp for 21 knots in operation.
Weaponry 2 x 100mm, 1 x 20 mm AA
Crew 31.

Komet class (1896):

12 Launched in 1896-1903 and completed in 1897-1904. Built by the German shipyard Schichau. In 1921 TTs will be removed when they are reclassified as patrollers. 7 were in service in 1939, Three will be deleted from the lists in 1941, 42 and 1943. The others in 1947.
Length / width: 36 x 4.2 meters, displacement 96-104 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 Schichau turbines, 3 standard boilers, 1800 hp for 21 knots in operation.
Weapon 2 x 100mm, 1 x 20 mm AA
Crew 31.

Class N°5 (1906):

10 Launched in 1906-08 and completed in 1907-09. In 1928 the TT will be removed (patrollers). One, the No. 6, will be cast in 1944 (error). They served in the body of the coastal artillery. Length/Width: 27 x 3.10 meters, Displacement 60 tons standard.
2 propellers, 2 Laval turbines, 2 Normand boilers, 160 hp for 16 knots in operation.
Weapon 2 x 100mm, 1 x 20 mm AA
Crew 16.

Swedish Submersibles

HSwMS Sjölejonet in 1936

Hajen Class (1917):

3 Launched in 1917-18. Striped lists in 1942-43.
Length / width: 38 x 5.5 meters, Displacement 422 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 diesels, 2 mot. elect. 1600/800 hp for 12/6 knots in operations.
Weapon 1 x 75 mm, 4 TTs 533 mm
Crew 26.

ävern class (1921):

Uttern of the Bävern class.

3 Launched in 1921: Bävern, gggg, Uttern. Uttern suffered an accident in 1942 but was repaired. Discarded in 1944. The Valen for some sources was very close to the Bävern class.
Length/width: 39 x 5.8 meters, Displacement 472 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 diesels, 2 mot. elect. 1600/800 hp for 13/7 knots in operations.
Weapon 1 x 75 mm, 4 TLT 533 mm
Crew 31.

Draken class (1926):

3 Launched in 1926, 28 and 30. The Ulven hit a German mine in 1943.
Length/width: 66.10 x 6.4 meters, displacement 667/850 standard tons.
2 shafts Götaverken diesels, 2 electric motors 1920/1000 hp, 13.8/8.3 knots.
Armament: 1 x 105 mm, 1 x 25 mm AA, 4 x 533 mm TTs
Crew: 35

Valen (1925)

Launched in 1925. Minelayer submarine using the French Normand-Fenaux system. Stripped from the lists in 1943.
Length/width: 57.10 x 7.10 meters, displacement 548/730 standard tons.
2 shafts Götaverken diesels, 2 electric motors, 1340/700 hp for 14.8/7.4 knots in operations.
Armament: 1 x 75 mm, 1 x 25 mm AA gun, 4 TLT 450 mm, 20 mines.
Crew: 31

Delfinen Class (1934):

3 Launched in 1934-35. Submersible minelayers.
Length/width: 63.10 x 6.4 meters, displacement 540/720 standard tons.
2 propellers, 2 MAN diesels, 2 mot. elect. 1200/800 hp for 15/9 knots.
Armament: 1 x 57 mm, 1 25 mm AA gun, 4 x 533 mm TTs, 20 mines.
Crew: 34

Sjölejonet class (1936):

9 Launched in 1936-41. 3 in service in september 1939. The fastest Swedish submersibles when they enter service.
Length/width: 64.20 x 6.4 meters, Displacement 580/760 standard tons.
2 shaft MAN diesels, 2 electruc motors 2100/1000 hp, 16.2/10 knotss.
Armament: 2 x 40 mm Bofors AA cannons, 6 x 533 mm TTs
Crew: 38

Neptun class (1942):

3 Launched in 1942. Minelayer submersibles class: HSwMS
Length/Width: 62.60 x 6.4 meters, displacement 550/730 standard tons.
2 shaft 2 MAN diesels, 2 electri motors, 1800/1000 hp for 15/10 knots.
Armament: 1 x 40 mm AA Bofors, 1 x 20 mm AA, 5 x 533 mm TTs, 20 mines.
Crew: 35

U1 class (1944):

9 Launched in 1941-44. All in service before the end of the war. Coastal models called
Length/Width: 49.60 x 4.7 meters, Displacement 367/450 tons.
2 shafts, 1 MAN diesel, 2 electric motors, 1350/1000 hp for 13.8/7.5 knots.
Armament: 1 x 20 mm AA, 4 x 533 mm TTs
Crew: 23

Patrol Gunboats

Styrbjörn Class (1923):

6 Launched in 1923-1925 and purchased in 1935-36. Armed whalers built by Norway. Length/width: 37 x 7 meters, displacement 440 tons standard. 1 shaft TE steam engine, 800 hp, 10 knots. Armament: 1 x 57, 1 x 37, mitt. 7.7 mm AA Crew: 12

Asköfjärd/Edöfjärd class (1931-33):

6 Launched in two classes in 1931-1933. Auxiliary gunboats used as mobile coastal artillery.
Length/Width: 21.20 x 3.8 meters, Displacement 28 tons standard.
1 shaft diesel, 92 hp, 11.5 knots in operation.
Armament 1 x 37 mm
Crew: 7

Jägaren class (1932):

Jägaren 4 Launched in 1932-1934, fast and equipped for ASW warfare. The Guatemalan navy still uses one of them, purchased in 1960.
Length/Width: 52 x 6 meters, Displacement 310 tons standard.
2 propellers, 1 Laval turbine, 2 Vanson boilers, 3600 hp, 23 knots.
Armament: 2 x 75, 2 x 25 mm AA, 2 ASM mortars.
Crew: 41

SKV1 class (1944):

5 vessels Launched in 1944. Built by Larsson for Navy Volunteers.
Length/Width: 16.5 x 5.3 meters, Displacement 19 tons standard.
1 propeller, 1 diesel, 100 hp for 10.5 knots in operation.
Armament: 1 x 20 mm AA
Crew: 7

Class V51:

6 Launched in 1944-45. Built as auxiliaries of coastal artillery.
Length/Width: 32 x 5.3 meters, Displacement 145 tons standard.
1 shaft TE steam engine, 400 hp, 11 knots in operation.
Armament: 1 x 20 mm AA, 1 machine gun.
Crew: 12

Mine warfare vessels

Clas Fleming (1912):

Cruiser Launched in 1912. Modernized in 1939-40 and completely rebuilt. Equipped for the first time with a revolutionary diesel system designed by Götaverken.
Length/width: 85 x 10.8 meters, Displacement 1750 standard tons.
2 shaft diesels, 5000 hp, 15 knots.
Armament: 4 of 152 mm, 2 of 75 mm and 21 of 40 mm, 2 x 25 mm AA, 200 mines.
Crew: 120

Ävsnabben (1943):

Launched in 1943. Armed and maintained in service until 1981. Also used as a training ship.
Length/width: 102 x 13.60 meters, Displacement 4250 standard tons.
1 propeller, 1 diesel, 3000 hp for 14 knots in operation.
Armament 4 of 152 mm, 8 of 40 mm and 6 of 20 mm, 200 mines.
Crew 255.

Type Mul1 (1878):

Launched from 1878 to 1939. Modernized, very different from each others these were Coastal minelaying launches. It would took to much space to fill all the classes and single units of this type.
Length/Width: 27.4 x 5.6 meters, Displacement 166 tons standard.
1 shaft diesel, 200 hp, 9.5 knots.
Armament: 2 x 7.7 mm MG AA, 20 mines.
Crew: 8

Spängaren class (1917):

6 Launched in 1917-18. Modernized in 1936-38 and also used as supply vessels.
Length/Width: 42 x 6 meters, Displacement 185 tons standard.
1 shaft TE steam engine, 800 hp, 10 knots in operation.
Armament: 1 of 47 mm and 1 mitt. 7.7 mm AA.
Crew: 35

Arholma (1937):

14 Launched in 1937-40. Fast and well armed. Also used as patrollers.
Length/Width: 56.7 x 7.60 meters, Displacement 365 tons standard.
2 shaft Laval tubines, 2 boilers, 3200 hp, 17 knots.
Armament: 2 x 102 mm, 2 x 13.2 mm HMG AA, 2 ASW mortars, 20 mines.
Crew: 37

Type M1 (1937):

2 Launched in 1937, Coastal patrol launches.
Length/width: 30 x 4.3 meters, displacement 61 tons standard.
3 shaft gasoline motors, 630 hp, 17 knots.
Armament: 1 x 20 mm AA.
Crew: 11

Type M3/M15 (1940):

11 Launched in 1940-1941, plus 11 others in 1941. Coastal vessels. The M3 are 50 tons, the M15 70 tons. Composite hull for the first, all-wooden for the second.
Length/Width: 25 x 5.10 meters, Displacement 60 tons standard
2 shaft diesels, 400 hp, 13 knots
Armament: 1 x 20 mm AA
Crew: 11


Miscellaneous ships


Örnen class Tordedo Gunboats (1896):

Originally four Torpedo cruiser of 1896-99, ranging from 814 to 844 tons, used later as TB division leaders. Jacob Bagge became a seaplane tender 1225-35, and the next year as a cadet training ship. She survived until 1949, discarded, then BU in 1957. Örnen was a cadet training ship from 1920, discarded in 1950, sunk as target. Psilander was a cadet TS from 1928, sunk as target in August 1939 and Clas Horn was discarded and BU in 1924.

Svensksund: A 415 tons sloop of 1891, survey vessel in 1942, sticken in 1957.

Atle: Armed Icebeaker launched in 1925, 1725-2630 tons, 62.20 x 17 x 6.3m, 6000 hp, 14 knots, 5x 57 mm AA and 4 MGs, buolt at Lindholmen, Gothenburg, stricken 1966.

Ymer (1932):

Launched in 1932. Built by Cockums, the world's first diesel-electric icebreaker. She will serve until 1976.
Length/width: 78.60 x 19.30 meters, displacement 3465 standard tons
2 shafts, six diesel-electric units, 9000 hp, 15.9 knots
Armament: 4 x 75 mm, 2 x 40 mm AA, 4 x 25 mm AA
Crew: 44

Type T11/15/21 (1943):

10 launched in 1942-43. The fastest motor torpedo boats in the world at that time.
Length/Width: 20 x 5 meters, Displacement 27 tons standard.
2 shaft Isotta-Fraschini, 3000 hp, 49 knots.
Armament: 2 x 533 mm TTs, 1 of 20 mm AA.
Crew: 11

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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