WW1 American Destroyers

USA - 347 ships (1899-1921)

Overview of American destroyers in ww1

Mothballed Flushdeckers at San Diego in 1928 - USN Archives

The United States built more destroyers than any other nation on earth during the first world war. But when they started in 1914, they only had 50 ships, whereas the Royal Navy had 300 already. This is of course the reflection of the formidable industrial capability of the new world, woke up to its full wartime potential in 1917 and again 24 years after.

Most of this production was attributed to the famous four piper, flush-deckers destroyers of 1918-1921. These were designed with simplifications at any level (like the flush deck hull) but in armament were to the level of the Russian Novik.

What's more, many survived the interwar (The others were mothballed and then scrapped in the 1930s) to fight another war, some under British colors and lend-lease, chasing U-Boats in the atlantic, taking part of the "most daring raid of all" (St Nazaire), or Japanese submarines in the Pacific, being converted in many roles like assault ships.

But it all started with a famous name, USS Farragut (not called DD1 by the way). And like any other nations, the ships was a 1899 prototype of "torpedo-boat killer". Spain in fact already had destroyers when at war with the USA previously.

It went on with a serie of small classes of two-three ships (up to five) ordered by yard in 1900-1906. The real change appeared with the USS Smith (1909) a prototype that was like a replacement for the light scout cruisers the fleet lacked sorely at the time.

She was followed by homogeneous series of "four-stackers", the Paulding, Monaghan, Cassin, O'Brien classes before the war, which all were classic in design, with a forecastle. And then came the wartime design, the Caldwell class in 1917, a prototype class, like a preserie for the flush-deckers, and of course the mass-produced Wickes and Clemson that followed.

Flush-Deckers in the interwar

American destroyers saw active service in the Atlantic, their only likely theater of operation, against U-boats. They were not really efficient in this role. Although fast enough to catch these, their Y-gun (installed on the Caldwell first) was their only efficient weapon in 1917 the Hydrophones was just being tested, and ASW grenades were not the norm yet.

In fact when studying U-boat losses during the great war (178), in appaeared that 58, so the majority of cases, hit mines, while 30 were destroyed by depth charges, 20 by gunfire and 20 by other submarines's torpedoes, 19 by ramming, and 19 for unknown causes and 7 by accident.

Since naval aviation was just beginning, and despite the great number of planes involved see the Felixtowe saga for example, only two were lost because of air attacks, more possibly by blimps, albeit with small bombs causing little or no damage. Minefields, barrages, Q-ships and cryptanalysis were also quite efficient.

USS Chaucey
USS Chaucey, DD-3

Statistics wise, for ships before the "flush deckers", all were broken up in the 1930s (1934-36) but the Smith class (1919), and only the USS Jacobs Jones DD-61 was sunk on 6 December 1917 by U 53 off the Scillies islands. The Caldwell were given to the Royal Navy in 1940 (Lend Lease) and survived. Of the 111 Wickes class in service, 9 were sunk in battle, 5 were sunk as targets, 7 others sunk or destroyed in other ways and 90 scrapped; For the Clemson, on 156 completed, 20 were lost in action or for other reasons.

As a general note, like other global posts like this one, this is also a preview for future posts, one on each of these destroyers the next years. But it's a good overview of the matter already. There is also an unbalance between numerous small classes of a few ships each compared to very large classes like the ones of the late Clemson/Wickes that are more susceptible of a dedicated post right away.

Prewar American destroyers

Prewar to 1917 US destroyers were not very heavily modified during the conflict but nevertheless their role changed radically, from fleet surface escort to ASW patrols. The pre-1917 US destroyer designs were tailored with one duty only in mind:

Protect the battleline against torpedo attack by opposing destroyers or TBs while attacking opposing battleships was a secondary role, US destroyers carried a very heavy torpedo batteries by world's fleets standards. The great controversy of pre-1917 destroyer design was centered around greater size, for seakeeping or constraint it at the contrary to offer less target area to the enemy.

USS barry
USS barry (DD-2), second American destroyer

The General Board ruled in favour of the former view, adding that in the context of a shortage of cruisers, destroyers would have to function also also as scouts. Seeing the confluct developed from home, the admiratly realized soon enough, as early as 1916 that destroyers could play a great role against submarines, the General Board requiring that bows be strengthened for ramming (which was one of the most common and effective tactic during WW1, see the statistics).

But the admiralty also realized its lack of preparedness, he having no depth charge and no submarine detector. But it did not altered plans to built more destroyers to perform ASW duties anyway. They were not quite adaptated to the role, but as a production measure no alternative design was planned as the Royal Navy had to introduced improvized sloops and P-boats. The typical prewar destroyer characteristics like their high speed, went far beyond that was what required for U-boat warfare.

USS Cummings, DD-44 in 1916 in her peacetime livery, dark blue grey and large identification number

In 1917, a special ASW board proposed the construction of special mass-production destroyers restricted to 26kts that woould have been genuine WW1 ASW escort ships. But they were never authorized in the end, because major changes in design planned would have caused delays by too long.

Instead about 300 fleet destroyers of the Wickes and Clemson classes were used for this role. When spotting the torpedo trails when firing, fast ships could run back down the torpedo tracks while dropping patterns of depth charges around the spot.

The development of Y-guns that could fire depth charges to each side of a ship and supplement the usual stern racks was also a great addition; the Caldwell being the first to inaugurate the system.

ASW requirements traduced into wartime modifications, with depth-charge track aft despite top weight and Y-guns aft, sometimes in place of one AA gun. Hydrophones were aso adopted, fitted in 'blisters' on either side of the bow, and their receiving beam turned by a system of electrical compensators similar in principle to that to be found in a modern scanning sonar system...

In all cases, the US Navy quickly learned ASW warfare during these two years of naval fight in the Atlantic, with relatively few losses (Most occurred during WW2, among survivor flush-deckers).

USS Farragut: The one that started it all

The first American destroyer. This modest-sized ship was developed as a topedo-boat hunter with a powerful artillery. She was a fast ship, which served as a prototype for the following units, was reclassified as a coastal torpedo boat in 1918, and later broken up.

The ships was named after David Farragut, flag officer of the US Navy during the American Civil War, first rear admiral, vice admiral, and admiral in the US Navy.

USS Farragut
Author's illustration of the USS Farragut
Displacement: 280t
Dimensions: 65,22 x 6,30 x 1,83m ()
Propulsion: 3 Thornycroft boilers, 2 propellers, 5870 hp, top speed 30 knots.
Crew: 66
Armament: 4 x 76 mm guns (3 in), 2 TLT of 457 mm (18 in).

Bainbridge class DD1-DD5 (1900)

The Bainbridge class was the first major series of US Navy destroyers. She succeeded to four "prototypes", USS Farragut (1898), Stringham (1899), Goldsborough (1899) and Bailey (1899). The latter had more to do with high-sea destroyers, having in particular a complete bridge and a front part in "totue back" characteristic closely derived from torpedo boats. They experienced various problems and were logically reclassified as torpedo boats. The USS bainbridge, on the other hand, was a very clear step forward, with its much larger dimensions, its forecastle with a flat deck, and its more stability and autonomy. On the other hand, his armament changed little, with only two torpedo tubes. their role rested essentially on their light artillery destroyers. The initial bainbridge class included USS Bainbridge, Barry, Chauncey, Dale and Decatur. The two Hopkins who followed however returned to a hull with a low turtle back forward deck. Similar to the Bainbridge were the three Paul Jones Paul Jones, Perry, Preble) and the USS Stewart, launched in 1901-02. All participated in the great war.

The Hopkin DD6-DD7 (1902) was a sub-class, authorized under the act of 4. 5. 1898, which differred from the Bainbridge in having a forward turtleback and 3 in/50 guns in twin mounts, like two twin 18 in TTs mountings, after a first period with single mountings. Both (Hopkins and Hull) were built at Halan & Hollingsworth, served in WW1 and were broken up in 1920 and 1921. The Lawrence class DD8-DD9 (1900) was another sub-class, also with a turtle back deck forward, and four funnels in one group with two single TTs aft and far aft, two 3in/25 and five 6-pdr, but they were apparently the less succesful of the serie. The Lawrence and Macdonough were comissionned in 1903 were sold in 1920. The Paul Jones class DD10-DD12 (1901) was another sub-class from Union iron Works, three ships, Paul Jones, Perry and Preble, which were also fast with four Thornycroft boilers mated to two shafts VTE and 8000 ihp, reaching 29 knots on trials. Later their two single TTs were replaced by a single twin mount. All three were sold in 1920. The single USS Stewart DD13 (1902) built in Gas Engine & Power and CL seabury was the fastest of the "400 tonners", reaching 29.7 knots for a design speed of 29 on trials.

Bainbridge class Author's digital HD illustration of the Bainbridge, with hull

Bainbridge Illustration Author's illustration of the USS bainbridge

Displacement: 420t
Dimensions: 76 x 7,2m x 2m
Propulsion: 4 Thornycroft boilers, 8000 hp. and 29 knots max.
Crew: 73
Armament: 2 x 3in (76 mm) guns, 5 x 6-pdr (75 mm) guns, 2 TTs 18in (457 mm).

USS decatur, DD-5

USS Hopkins
USS Hopkins, DD-6

Truxton class DD14-DD16 (1902)

These destroyers derived from the Bainbridge class by in their low front deck in "turtle back". Larger at 433 tons, their funnels were also lower, and Tructon and Worden had their two TTs in two twin banks, whereas the USS Worden (DD-16) had one twin mount. They also had two 3in/50 guns surelevated on platforms like the other 400 tonners, and two 5 pdr in the centerline aft and far aft, while the two others were on each side of the first and second funnels. Their ttwo shaft VTE produced 8300 ihp, but none reached their planned speed of 30 knots, instead the Tructone alone reached 29.58 knots on trials. These three ships participated actively in the Great War and were withdrawn from service and sold in 1920.

Truxton Illustration
Author's illustration of the USS Truxton
Displacement: 408t
Dimensions: 75,8 x 7,47 x 1,83m
Propulsion: 4 Thornycroft boilers, 2 propellers, 7200 hp. and 29 knots.
Crew: 73
Armament: 2 guns of 76mm, 5 of 57mm, 2 TLT of 457mm.

A change in doctrine: The "four-stacker"

While the Bainbridge class and their followers built on the same basic 400 tons design by various shipyards, were all capable of 29 knots, their armament was relatively weak, only two torpedo tubes and two 3 in guns, and although twin mountings were later adopted, they were not capable of a sufficient range for far away naval operations. Moreover, operating with battleships on long voyages were more likely after the seizure of the Philippines in the Spanish–American War and the acquisition of Hawaii in 1898. The need for long-range ships was now obvious and the admiraly wanted to develop its first truly ocean-going destroyers. Therefore to match the requirements, doubling the displacement at 900 tons was the only possible way forward. The Smith embodied this new design, and strangely were also the first turbine-powered destroyers in US service, and last burning coal. Amazingly turbines were dictated by cost savings, compared the reciprocating proposals. The William Cramp & Sons design was replicated by New York Shipbuilding, Camden, New Jersey and Bath Iron Works. All these five ships were followed by the Paulding, a large class essentally better armed with torpedo tubes increased from three to six by using three twin mounts. The last wartime evolution of the design, the next "second-generation" 1000-ton Cassin class were the first to be in service after 1920, they served up to the mid-1930s. The prewar Aylwin, O'Brien (introducing 21in /533mm torpedo tubes), Tucker, and eventually the Sampson class Commissioned in 1916 and 1917 all made this "thousand tonners", later declined into a new wartime generation called the "flush deckers".

Smith class DD17-DD21 (1909)

USS Flusser, Smith Class
USS Flusser, Smith Class

These large first American ocean-going destroyers were part of a plan to dispense with light cruisers within the fleet. Therefore these units had to play the role of scout, had to be well armed and fast to flank and screen the fleet from far away stations. They were nicknamed the "thousand tonners" and opposed to the skinny Bainbridge of the years 1902. However, their armament was limited, especially in the matter of torpedoes still launched by single tubes. It was remedied in 1916 by replacing these with twin mounts without refills. The class included the USS Smith, Lamson, Preston, Flusser and Reid. They served in the Atlantic, based in Brest, and were stricken in 1919, because of the limitations of the Washington Treaty.

USS Smith

Smith Illustration
Author's illustration of the USS Smith
Displacement: 700t-900t FL
Dimensions: 90 x 8 x 2.4m
Propulsion: 4 Mosher boilers, 3 Parsons turbines, 10,000 hp. and 28 knots.
Crew: 73
Armament: 5 x 3in (76 mm) guns, 3 TTs 457 mm.

Paulding class DD22-DD43 (1909-1911)

USS Paulding 1918
USS Paulding camouflaged in Ireland, off Queensland, circa 1918

These destroyers later nicknamed the "flivvers" derived from the Bainbridge class differed only in their low front deck in "turtle backs". With the Truxton class of 1901, larger, these five units participated actively in the Great War and will be withdrawn from service and sold in 1920. The Pauldings were considered as a 21-ship class, comprising also the Monaghan class (DD32-DD42, 1911), and sometimes the Roe class, and Drayton class.

The Paulding were improved Smith, with the torpedo tubes increased from three to six by using twin mounts, although still of the 18 in model (457 mm) and yet the twin mounts still weighed less than the older single mounts. They were armed the same with five 3-inch (76 mm)/50 caliber guns, a more homogeneous artillery than the 400 tonners. They were larger than the Smith at 742 long tons normal displacement up to 887 long tons fully loaded. To power them, they adopted the same arrangement of three Parsons direct-drive steam turbines mated to four oil-fired Normand boilers (other boilers were also used depending of the yards).

The model were notable for their particularly large heating area (tube surface area) in relation to the grate area but were also more complex to manufacture due to the fact the tubes were bent into many different and complex shapes, all unique. This gave them 12,000 shp (8,900 kW) as designed, 2,000 ihp more than the Smith. This gave them a top speed of 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h; 33.9 mph) as designed, while thery carried 245 tons of oil, for a 3,000 nmi (5,600 km; 3,500 mi) range at 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph). Not yet "thousand tonners" they were transitional ships. During the war they received one or two depth charge racks for the convoy escort. They all served in the interwar and were sold and broken up in 1934.

Paulding class illustration
Author's illustration of the Paulding class
Displacement: 408t
Dimensions: 75.8 x 7.47 x 1.83m
Propulsion: 4 Thornycroft boilers, 2 propellers, 7200 hp. and 29 knots
Crew: 73
Armament: 2 x 3in (76mm), 5 x 2in (57mm), 2 TTs of 457mm.

USS Monaghan DD-32 on trials
USS Monaghan DD-32 on trials

Cassin class DD43-DD50 (1912)

USS cassin 1918
USS Cassin circa 1918, camouflaged, off Queensland, Ireland.

The Cassin were the first true "1000 tonners" as they saw an increase in normal displacement to over 1,000 tons. This was a request to combine a heavy armament more cruising range. They effectively were a reinforcement for the only three modern scout cruisers of the Chester class in service back then. Therefore destroyers had to be used as scouts. There arrangement of two-shaft direct drive turbines was similar to the earlier serie, but the poor performance of the cruising turbines led to a return to reciprocating engines for cruising. two of the ships even had triple expansion engines that could be clutched to one shaft for cruising.

Also armament-wise, these ships had 4-inch (102 mm)/50 caliber Mark 9 guns, which remained standard US destroyer main guns up to the Clemson-class destroyers, the mast of which were commissioned by 1921. These could raise and depress between -15° to +20° and traverse up to -150° to 150° and their rate of fire was 8-9 rounds per minute. Also the choice of four twin mounts, eight 18-inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes was an increase of two tubes over the Pauldings, the result of the General Board's decision to have broadside mounts rather than axial ones, partly due to weight concerns and rarely torpedoes from axal mounts striking the gunwales. This overall reflected serious concerns about foreign equivalents. During the war, depth charge racks were also added.

In fact this class can be considered like the starter of the whole "thousand tonners" that also comprised four Cassins, four Aylwins, six O'Briens, six Tuckers, and six Sampsons, all roughly based on the same blueprints and seen below separately for they integrated some changes over time.

Illustration of the cassin
Author's illustration of the Cassinc class
Displacement: 1,020 tons (normal), 1,139 tons (full load)
Dimensions: 93.04 x 9.25 x 2.82 m (305 x 30 x 9 ft )
Propulsion: 4 Normand boilers, 2 direct-drive Parsons steam turbines, 16,000 shp
Speed: 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph), 312 tons oil (fuel)
Crew: 5 officers, 93 enlisted
Armament: 4 x 4 in (102 mm)/50, 4 x twin 18 inch (450 mm) TTs

Wartime American destroyers

The Naval Appropriation Act of 1916 was the founder act of a navy "second to none", able to protect American coast and interests globally in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

There is a clear distinction to make here, linked to events: Before the United States were at war, we see the last Thousand Tonners entering service, of the O'Brien and Tucker classes, simple evolutions of the Paulding, but with this time 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes banks in two twin banks for each broadside, a significant improvement as the new torpedoes were much more capable both in range and explosive power: The Mk.8 Mod 4 for example carried a 466 lb (211 kg) TNT payload over 16,000 yd (15,000 m) at 36 kn (67 km/h).

The larger Tucker were the result of compromises between the General Board of the US Navy and the Bureau of Construction and Repair. The Sampson eventually were still pushed forward by the General Board that wanted their scout, and the larger of the five classes with 1,225 tons (fully loaded). But the next serie, the Caldwell, were a brand new start, the result of the 1916 act calling for a true wartime scale-up production, and came at the same time with simplifications in design but also better performances and armament.

Mothballed DDs - Hazegray archives

O'Brien class DD51-DD56 (1914)
Their design resulted from dscuission of the general board with the bureau of ships and were as a result an incremental development of the Aylwin class, and displaced about a third more than the Paulding class, considered as the standard Thousand Tonners.

The O'Brien class were caracterisze overall by the choice of 21 inches (533 mm) torpedo tubes, a clea advantage compared to ter destroyers of the time. They displaced 1,050 long tons (1,070 t) for 305 feet (93 m) long by 31 feet (9.4 m) so a 1/10 ratio.

Their speed was helped by two direct-drive steam turbines and geared ones for 15 knots cruising. Their four 4-inch (102 mm) guns took place on the decks fore and aft, the two others being placed right at the end of the forward structure on each side, firing through recesses in the hull like all the other ships of the class. The four twin 21 inch (533 mm) TTs were on the sides. In wartime, they obtained depth charges.

Launched between between April 1914 and February 1915 they operated in the Atlantic or Caribbean April 1917. from then on, all six joined the Irish station at Queenstown for convoy escort. They rescued passengers and crew from sunken ships and had encounters with U-boats: USS Nicholson helped sink U-58 (November 1917), the first german submarine sunk by the U.S. Navy.

All were decommissioned by June 1922 but two joined the United States Coast Guard to enforce Prohibition ("Rum Patrol") and returned to naval service in 1932 and 1933, but by june 1936 all had been broken up.

USS OBrien DD-51
USS O'Brien, DD-51 in 1914

Tucker class DD57-DD62 (1915)
The six ships of the sub-class Tuckers were incrementally a bit heavier, at 1150 long tons of displacement standard and up to 1125 fully loaded, for about 29.5 knots, again with a combination for some of a single geared turbine and two direct drive ones for a 20 knots cruising speed.

Their thornycroft boilers developed a total of 17,000 shp (13,000 kW) to 17.500 on some ships for 2500 nautical miles in range. The armament was identical to the previous O'brien.

However before they were drawn, the Bureau of Construction and Repair (C&R) own plans had to take in account a General Board asked request for six twin 21-inch (533 mm) TTs and twenty floating mines in addition to 35 knots (65 km/h) with 2,500 nautical miles raduis at the cruising speed of 20 knots.

C&R design was a 385-foot (117 m) long, 2,160-long-ton (2,190 t) three screw super-destroyer with 40,000 shaft horsepower (30,000 kW). It was in effect larger than the British design that inspired it, the HMS Swift of 1907. In the end only the cruising speed and range were met by the more reasonable design.

USS Conyngham DD-58 in 1918
USS Conyngham, DD-58 in 1918

Sampson class DD63-DD68 (1916)
wow USS Sampson

The last of the "thousand tonners" came with a larger displacement than any previous ship, and were powered by four Yarrow boilers mated to Curtis steam turbines and two shafts for 17,696 hp (13,196 kW) total and a top speed of 29.5 kn (54.6 km/h; 33.9 mph).

The armament was all new, outside the usual four 4 in (102 mm)/50 caliber guns, by the addition of two 1-pounder (37 mm) AA guns revealing the new aviation threat and four triple banks of 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes, also a considerably better armament for fleet escort, each ship being able to deliver a broadside of six torpedoes at once, in addition using the excellent Mark 8 torpedoes.

Also these ships were armed quite rapidly with depth charges in a single stern rack, and a Y-gun, or depth charge projector. The propulsion reflected the previous arrangement by using turbines in direct drive, and geared cruising turbines as in the preceding Tucker class. All these ships participated actively in the war, either on the eastern or western sectors of the Atlantic and were retired in the 1930s.

Caldwell class DD69-DD74 (1917)

USS caldwell, DD-69
USS caldwell, DD-69

The General Board arguments for a 35 knots-capable destroyers with the C&R eventually led to some support in higher spheres as the six Caldwell-class were authorized by Congress under the Act of 3 March 1915, "to have a speed of not less than thirty knots per hour and to cost, exclusive of armor and armament, not to exceed $925,000.00 each...

Provided, that three of said torpedo-boats herein authorized shall be built on the Pacific Coast." That was a bold move as traditional yards chosen produced ships for the Atlantic and therefore were Eastern yards. In fact the plans were so altered to met the specifications that the class was a radical departure over the "thousand tonners" and in fact were the blueprint of the Flush-deckers, some 280 wartime ships.

Their trademark flush-decked design was to remove the forecastle break weakness as well as a simplification in design. They were transitional ships, slower (30–32 knots (56–59 km/h) than the 35 knots (65 km/h)) following Wickes/Clemson class and differered by some details like their funnels (three for the Gwin, Conner and Stockton, the middle one being thicker as truncating two).

The hull design was improved to keep "A" mount from being constantly washed out and their cutaway stern allowed a tighter turning radius than the following classes. The Sampson armament was kept but the two side 4-inch (102 mm) guns were elevated on "bandstands" aft of the bridge.

They all served actively in WW1 for escort duties, and were partly mothballed during the interwar. But as part of these fast new generation destroyers they were still operable in 1939. In fact the USS Manley was converted to a high-speed destroyer transport (APD) that year, tested to carry 200 Marines and four 11 m (36 ft) Higgins assault boats (LCP(L) or later on alternative crafts like the LCP(R) and LCVP) and saw heavy action in the Pacific while other ships were sent as lend-Sease to the Royal Navy in 1940.
Displacement: 1,020 tons (standard), 1,125 tons (normal)
Dimensions: 315 x 31 x 8 ft (96.16 x9.53 x2.4/3.51 m)
Propulsion: 4 Thornycroft boilers, 2 Parsons geared steam turbines (20,000 shp (15 MW) or White-Forster boilers with three Parsons direct drive turbines (18,500 hp (13.8 MW))
Speed: 32 kn (59 km/h) to 30 kn (56 km/h) (DD 72-73)
Complement: 146
Armament: 4 × 4 in (102 mm)/50, single 3 in (76 mm)/23 AA, 12 (4x3) × 21 in (533 mm)TTs

Wickes class DD75-DD185 (1918)

Wickes class USS fairfax
Wickes class, USS fairfax, author's HD illustration

This class directly derived from the previous Caldwell to save time were entrusted to a wide variety of yards, and were built with proven systems (a bit like the Liberty Ships of WW2) and design simplifications all over the place.

111 were built in all, at Bath Iron Works, Fore River, Union Iron Works, Cramp, Newport News, SB New York, Cheapeake Naval Yard, Mare Island Arsenal, launched in November 1917 (USS Little) or June 1918 for the first completed (USS Wickes) and July 1919 for the last ones.

As a result, few were ready before the end of hostilities. They were more powerful than the Caldwell, capable of 35 knots (Just what the General Board wanted for years) and kept a formidable armament, with four 102 mm and four triple torpedo banks.

The previous Caldwell class experimented in 1917 with the principle of "flush-deck" hulls, but the Wickes were the best and most spectacular demonstration of industrial ingenuity when the aim was mass production, the flush deck hull allowed to simplify construction and reduce delays but also to solve some rigidity problems. In fact apart the additional raw power, no innovation was present on these ships which design was entirely dictated to facilitate mass production and allow fast training for the crews.

They will be especially the heart of the navy during the interwar period. If the majority was scrapped in 1936, a good part was still active in 1939. 50 be delivered to the British Navy (through Lease-lease), and three to the Royal Canadian Navy. The first 50 ships had been approved by the 1916 plan, and the others followed the fiscal years 1917 and 1918, with no less than fifteen being launched and completed in 1919.

Their tonnage increased from 90-100 tons to house the machinery capable of giving them the planned top speed of 35 knots, to act with the future scout cruisers of the class Omaha and the battle cruisers of the Lexington class. They differed in terms of fuel consumption and range, from about 2400 nautical miles to 20 knots, and had a port cruise turbine (Parsons, Bethlehem, Curtis or Westinghouse)and White-Forster, Normand or Yarrow boilers. Although easy to maintain and roomy they were strongly criticized for their limited seakeeping in heavy weather, waves hitting the bow and wetting the deck enough to render the front gun inoperative.

The many Wickes were followed by the Clemson class, which solved the problem of low autonomy, but not their seakeeping in heavy weather. The Wickes were used extensively in convoy escort, hunting German submarines until the end of the war. They formed the spearhead of the American Light Fleet. In 1929, all the ships equipped with Yarrow boilers were scrapped, but there were still a large number of them in 1941, so even after the 50 transferred to Great Britain, many were transformed into tankers, minelayers, transports, long-range escorts, actively participating in the Second World War on all fronts.

USS Wickes
Displacement: 1090t, 1247t FL
Dimensions: 94.5 x 9.4 x 2.8m (314 x30 x9 ft)
Propulsion: 4 boilers, 300 psi (2,100 kPa) saturated steam, 2 propellers, Parsons turbines, 24,200 hp. 35 knots max.
Crew: 114
Armament: 4 x 4in/50 (102mm) guns, 1 × 3 in/23 (76 mm) AA, 12 TTs (4x3) 21 in (533m)

Clemson class DD186-DD347 (1918)

Blueprint of the Clemson class

Heavier by 100 tons with a higher draft to accommodate more coal, Westinghouse turbines, engineering focused on this new serie on improving the autonomy and radius, with a gain of 35% (2500 nautical miles). The single dual purpose 3in (76 mm) artillery piece was moved away from the front deck, too sensitive to spray in heavy weather, to a rear superstructure with a better shooting range.

For the rest, these ships were almost identical. 162 were started before the capitulation, for 156 completed and the others canceled. The two classes together totaled in 1921 (last completed) a total of 268 destroyers of the same type, a never seen production for any industrial ship so far. Launched in 1919-21, none of these Clemson series of destroyers will be ready on time to take part in the Great War, but they will have a long career in the US Navy.

Many were also scrapped in the 1930s, which for some represented a service life of barely ten years. In addition to the construction yards mentioned above, Squantum and Norfolk NyD also joined the effort to produce these destroyers. The lessons they bring were precious from 1942 when it was again question of mass-producing such classes of ships, but on a much larger scale and more models altogether about a quarter of century after. An entire post will be dedicated to the WW2 service and transformations of these ships in the future.

USS Clemson
Displacement: 1190t, 1308t FL
Dimensions: 94.5 x 9.4 x 3m
Propulsion: 4 boilers, 2 propellers and Westinghouse turbines, 27,000 hp. and 35 knots max.
Crew: 114
Armament: 4 x 102mm guns, 12 TLT (4x3) 533mm, 2x 1pdr AA (40mm), 1x 76mm.
USS fairfax Wickes poster
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Destroyers at Camden Shipyard, 1919
Destroyers at Camden Shipyard, 1919


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Wickes class DDs (Wikipedia)
Flush deckers ion Hazegray
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On destroyerhistory.org
destroyers.org - Clemson class - The Tin clad sailors
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Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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