Type IX U-Boats (1936)

Germany (1936-45) 194 produced (290 ordered)

Type IX, the long-range U-Boat

During world war two, two main types of u-boats roamed the sea: The Type VII, a mid-range oceanic type, able to move to the middle of the Atlantic without refueling, and the Type IX, a long-range cruiser type, able to reach the American coast and cruise well beyond. Thirty percent larger than the Type VII and with twice the range, Type IXs were seen as the type that took submarine warfare on trade across the globe. The only limit was an existing supporting network of neutral ports, supply ships, and "milk cows" or supply U-Boats. Throughout most of the war, Type IXs roamed the Indian Ocean and the wide expanses of the Pacific and the South Atlantic, many times with better successes as U-Boats were not expected in those areas, and thus the convoy system was rarely used.

Type IX

Genesis of the Type IX

The Type IX proceeded directly from the Type I, the first operational long-range type in service with the Kriegsmarine. The latter was the product of an evolution from the Interwar design, built on export models from The Hague, especially the Spanish E-1 and Finnish Vetehinen. The u-25 and 26, the only built in 1936, were the blueprints from which the Type IX was extrapolated the same year.

U-Boat Nomenclature
The Type IIs' were early coastal types, while the Type III, IV, V, VI, and VIII only existed on paper. The Type XIV was a supply model, and the Type XVII was a semi-experimental, late war coastal boat, with the Type XXI being the true replacement for the Type VII. It was developed in 1944 and used twice the electric power of previous boats along with a new revolutionary hull. One of Germany's final U-boat designs, the Type XXIII was a coastal declination of the previous Type XXI.

Cutaway - New Vanguard #55 Kriegsmarine U-boats 1939-45, by Gordon Williamson
Cutaway - New Vanguard #55 Kriegsmarine U-boats 1939-45, by Gordon Williamson

Genesis of the Type IX
While the concept of a large oceanic "cruiser" submarine type was already a specialty of Germany since the SMS Deutschland (The submarine) in 1915, the total interdiction to build any coupled with the lack of orders for such types by any nation led engineers to wait until the U25 and U26 of the Type Ia were built, in 1936 at Deschimag, Bremen. They proceeded from clandestine designs of the Hague (the famous Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag), being the Finnish Vetehinen, the Spanish E1, and Turkish Gür which were all above the standard size. The London treaty had watered down interdiction and left some air to breathe for the Kriegsmarine, which now virtually had a free hand on the design. However, the IAs were an in-between, and no where near a true cruiser submarine, weighing in at under 1,000 tons in displacement submerged (982 tons). Thus as soon as the ink dried on the Type Ia blueprints, the Kriegsmarine staff decided on a larger derived design.

Therefore the development of the Type IX (next in line in the nomenclature). On paper, the new boats designed and built at AG Weser, Bremen, were to have a standard diving depth of 100 m and a crush theoretical limit of 200 m. But in reality, this went well beyond that in operations. Design-wise, they proceeded with existing designs, with the conning tower, the hydrophone, and the rudder arrangement coming from the Type VII. There was one periscope in the control room and two in the conning tower.

General Design

Type IX drawing cutaway
Type IX drawing cutaway - credits: uboataces.com

Production and variants of the Type IX

The ubiquitous German Type VII was successful in the Battle of the Atlantic. However, it was cramped, making it hard for its crew on longer missions (as depicted in Wolfgang Petersen’s 1981 "Das Boot"). The Kriegsmarine needed a model that could roam the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, and in response, the first batch of eight Type IXA entered service in 1937-39. This class led to the longer-range Type IXB, with 22 manufactured, followed by the Type IXC and IXC/40, with even greater fuel capacity and range, with 141 entering service during the war. The Type IXD was 36 feet longer (7,30 m), faster (20 knots surfaced), and with a better range than its predecessors (up to 31,500 nautical miles).


U-37, Type IXA (The blueprints)


Type IXC (The blueprints) in Mediterranean/Tropical livery, red hull, light grey above the waterline

All in all, about 290 of these German submarines were been planned, with 195 being laid down. However, 95 of those ships were shortly canceled and one was never compleated. To this day, two have been preserved. This mass was impressive for such a large vessel and was relatable to American industry which produced Gato-class. Of course, the design evolved, with the late war Type IXD being ten meters longer and displacing 550 tons more, with most of the new weight devoted to range. Indeed, it rose from 10,500 nmi (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots surfaced on the first 1936 model to 23,700 nmi (43,900 km; 27,300 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced on the Type IXD, more than doubling its previous figure.

Type IX class submarines
Various Types - Type IX.

Type IXA

The first type was designed in 1935-36 and built in a small series in DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen, with eight units being completed in all: U-37 to U-44. U-37's keel was laid down on15 March 1937. The other seven were launched until 1939. In fact, the last of the series, U-44, was laid down on 15 September 1937 but completion and fitting out took the whole year between 1938-39. By November 1939, the first long-range German Submarine squadron was ready for operations: The war had been ongoing for two months.


U-858 surrendering to the USN, en route for the Portsmouth in May 1945 with an American crew onboard. (cc) - Same as the background

Propulsion

Propulsion-wise, varients would remain essentially the same throughout the war, with the exception of the Type IXD/42. The powerplant consisted of two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, rated for 4,400 PS (4,300 shp; 3,200 kW). These were solid, usual-type marine diesel-run motors that were the result of a long line of proven units. They were mounted side by side at the rear of the engine section, approx. 5 meters from the conning tower. Their position allowed the mechanics to relatively easily have access to every part of the engine when maintenance called for it. The crankshafts were situated below the cylinders, one for each shaft. Batteries were situated below that.

Two SSW (Siemens-Schukert) 1 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors were installed side by side, rated for 1,000 PS (990 shp; 740 kW). They were installed in front of the diesels, by approx. 2.5 meters, and below the aft "wintergarten" behind the conning tower. The power provided was enough to propel them at 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h; 20.9 mph) on the surface, but 7.7 knots (14.3 km/h; 8.9 mph) when submerged. The useful range was 10,500 nautical miles (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph), in standard surface mode, down to just 65–78 nmi (120–144 km; 75–90 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) in attack or retreat mode underwater.


U-505 engine room (msichicago.org)

Construction

The Type IXA measured 76.50 m (251 ft) (overall), with a beam of 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in) and a height 9.40 m (30 ft 10 in) to the conning tower top. As a double-hull type, the pressure hull measured 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in) by 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in). The Type IXA had a 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) draft.
The hull was strong enough to be capable of reaching 230 m in test depth (750-770 ft), but in reality, like the smaller Type VII, many in operations had to dive below 250 m and survived to tell the story. They were extremely rugged and resilient.


Detail of the rear of a IXD/42 - Model (Pinterest)

Armament

Torpedoes
The Type IXA submarines were given six torpedo tubes, four in the bow as a standard, and two in the stern. This was the same as any Type VII U-Boat. However the total of torpedoes carried was larger, twenty-two 53.3 cm (21 in) warheads in all, with external storage aboard the boats. Their warhead could vary between 617 pounds (280 kg) and 948 pounds (430 kg) depending on the models. These models could be set up to reach 6,000 m (6,600 yd), or set to a shorter range with a speed of 44 knots (81 km/h). Twelve of the torpedoes were stowed internally with ten being located in topside deck containers in 3 external containers at the stern and 2 at the bow, with two torpedoes inside each.




U-505 colorized by E. Tambunan (Pinterest)

To load torpedoes into the bow torpedo room forced the use of a crane to lift them over the deck with a cradle being needed to bring them inside the submarine and into the torpedo room. In the case of the torpedoes stored in the cases on the outside of the sub, winches were used to lower them into the bow and stern torpedo rooms. The entire process took several hours for just one torpedo, making the submarines easy targets for Allied aviation patrols during the process.

Deck Gun
Type IXA submarines were given a 10.5 cm (4.13 in) L/45 deck gun placed on a tailored mounting, forward of the conning tower. 180 rounds were carried. These rounds weighed 33.3-pound (15.1 kg), for the HE type of shell. The gun had a muzzle velocity of 780 m/s (2,600 ft/s). The range at optimal elevation was 15,175 m (16,596 yd). It was able to fire on aircraft at a 10,000 m ceiling. (11,000 yd). Its rate of fire was 15 rounds per minute.

U-103 firing its main gun

AA armament
The Type IX were given two guns, a 2 cm FlaK 30 and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) gun. The 2 cm FlaK 30 guns installed on the "wintergarten" ( platform aft of the conning tower) had a maximum range of 4,900 metres (5,400 yd), reduced in practice to 3,700 m against fast-moving aerial targets. Their rate of fire was 280 rounds a minute at a muzzle velocity of 835 m/s (2,740 ft/s). The 2cm rounds weighed 0.71 pounds (0.32 kg). The 3.7 cm SK C/30U had a practical range of 8,500 metres (9,300 yd) at up to 30 rounds per minute. Their muzzle velocity was 1,000 m/s (3,300 ft/s), and the shell weighed 1.64 lb (0.74 kg). It was located on the aft deck, after the conning tower.



Naval Mines
As mine-layers, the Type IX could carry forty-four TMA or sixty-six TMB mines. However, not all IXs boats were fitted for mine operations. In theory, the first subclass of the Type IX given this capability was the Type IXC. The German TMA was a moored mine, which floated above the surface and could be carried and launched from each torpedo tube, twelve at a time, with 32 reloads. They were small enough to be fitted in the tubes, with a diameter of 11.1ft (3.38m)/21in (533mm), and could be moored down to a maximum depth of 270m, and carrying a warhead of 215kg. The TMB model was a ground mine (settled at the bottom of the seabed), detonated by the magnetic/acoustic signature of a passing ship. It needed to be laid only in shallow waters, down to 20 meters. Slightly smaller, three could be carried in each torpedo tube with 18 in all, being able to be launched at once. They measured 7.6ft (2.3m) in length and had a diameter 53 cm. They also carried a warhead of 580kg.

U-107 preparing to be supplied in the south Atlantic
U-107 preparing to be supplied in the south Atlantic

Detection systems

Rendition of the FuMB-26 Tunis. The two systems were used concurrently or together on the Type IX (and Type VII): The FuMB-7 Naxos tuned to 9 cm wavelengths which was the British ASV Mk.III/H2S radars frequency. The FuMB-26 Tunis was tuned to the 3 cm wavelengths and was able to detect US radar emissions. The Naxos system consisted of two leaf-like antennas in the middle of a parabolic mesh reflector.

The Tunis model used a horn-shaped antenna from which the entire mast rotated via a mechanical linkage connected to the radio room. These antennas were not waterproof however and needed to be removed by the crew when diving. Often also a large loop antenna was found aft of these, used for direction finding in the VHF band. The "Bali" antenna was used to detect 1.5-meter signals used by earlier Royal Navy radars and had a cylindrical mesh grid.



FuMo 61 Hohentwiel This antenna was 1,400 mm wide, 1,000 mm high, with an overall width of 1, 540 mm and an overall height of 1,022 mm with its extensions. The mesh size was 15 mm. The FuMo 61 Hohentwiel was a classic detection radar Transmitter. U-530 was one of the few to receive it, installed on the starboard side of the conning tower.

Characteristics Type IXA
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,032 t surfaced, 1,152 t (1,134 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: 76.50 m x 6.51 m x 9.40 m, draft 4.70 m
Powerplant: MAN M 9 V40/46 supercharged 9-cyl. diesel, 2 × SSW 1 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 PS (990 shp; 740 kW)
Performances: 4,400 PS (4,300 shp; 3,200 kW)
Armament: 6 TTs (4 bow, 2 stern), 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun, 3.7 and 20 mm AA guns, mines, see notes

U-111 surrendering to an armed trawler
U-111 surrendering to an armed trawler

The Type IXA in operations

By far, the best of the first eight boats was U-37 (Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schuch). It was by far the most successful of all Type IXA and the sixth most successful U-boat. In total, she sank 53 merchant vessels, about 200,124 gross register tons (GRT). She also sank two warships, over the course of 11 war patrols starting in August 1939 and ending in March 1941. U-37 survived and was withdrawn (which was rare in 1941) from combat service, to be used for training U-boat crews until the end of the war. However, in May 1945 she was scuttled in Sonderburg Bay off Flensburg. U-Oberleutnant Zur See Heinrich Liebe's U-38 made eleven patrols, sinking or badly damaging 30 vessels, becoming the 10th most successful U-Boat of the war. U-39 (Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Glattes) was unlucky as she was sank at her first sortie by the British destroyers HMS Faulknor, HMS Firedrake, and HMS Foxhound.

U-37 entering at Cuxhaven
U-37 entering at Cuxhaven

Disabled by deep charges, she was forced to the surface and her crew were captured after attempting to sink the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. U-40 sank no ships but hit mines on 13 October 1939 in the English Channel. U-41 sank five vessels (22,815 GRT), captured two, and damaged one. She was sunk by the British destroyer HMS Antelope off the coast of Ireland in February 1940. U-42 (Kapitänleutnant Rolf Dau), she made only two patrols, damaging a ship, and was sank herself by HMS Imogen and HMS Ilex in 1939. U-43 (Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Ambrosius) sank 21 merchant ships (117,036 GRT), damaging two more, however in July 1943 she was spotted and sank by a torpedo plane from the escort carrier USS Santee. U-44 (Kapitänleutnant Ludwig Mathes) sank eight ships (30,885 GRT) but struck a mine off the north coast of the Netherlands in March 1940.

U-37 in drydock at Lorient
U-37 in drydock at Lorient

Type IXB: Better range

U-123 and U-201
U-123 and U-201 arriving at Lorient

The IXB represented a gradual improvement, as an improved model with increased range. The dimensions were the same, with a slightly higher tonnage and more fuel carried. However, their new rage was 12,000 nmi (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced, rather than 10,000. However, their new submerged depth of 64 nautical miles (119 km; 74 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) was slightly less. Their armament was the same, but equipping mines was never mentioned.

Characteristics Type IXB (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,051 t surfaced, 1,178 t (1,159 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: Same as Type IX but height 9.60 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IX
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 12,500 tons
Armament: Same as Type IX


U-107 at Lorient in November 1941

The Type IXB in action

Their early service made them the most successful version of the whole series, with an average kill ratio of over 100,000 GRT. The series would include notable U-boats such as the U-123 commanded by Reinhard Hardegen. He opened up the attack in US waters, in early 1942 (Operation Drumbeat). Another standout boat was U-107 operating off Freetown, Sierra Leone under Günther Hessler. He made the most successful single mission of the war, reaching in one go 100,000 GRT sunk. After commissioned, the entire Type IXB group built prior to the fall of France were stationed at Wilhelmshaven and after, in the numerous French ports captured on the coast, but mostly Lorient.

The career of U-123:

U-123 at Lorient in February 1941
U-123 at Lorient in February 1941

U-123 conducted 12 war patrols in all, sinking 45 ships, for a total of 227,174 gross register tons (GRT). She managed to damage six others, for a grand total of 53,568 GRT. Four neutral Swedish merchantmen also fell under her torpedoes. Her first sortie started from Kiel on 21 September 1940. She ventured through a gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands and fell on convoys off of Northern Ireland. One of them was the freighter Shekatika which needed no less than five torpedoes to sink. Her final destination was her new home port, Lorient, in occupied France on 23 October 1940. Her next two voyages were to the same area, with particular note for an action during her third voyage when she ran for nine hours, chasing the Grootekerk over 330 nmi (610 km; 380 mi) west of Rockall before being able to torpedo her.

On the fourth trip of U-123, she went further west of Ireland. Yet again she had to spend five torpedoes to sink a single ship. Like in many cases with u-boat attacks, there were no survivors. Her fifth sortie was further south in the Atlantic, in the vicinity of the Azores and the Canary Islands. On 27 June 1941 however she was tracked down and depth charged for 11 hours before escaping. Her sixth sortie was around the same area but with poorer results. The seventh was part of the early 1942 "second happy time" for U-Boats, along the coast of the US, called Unternehmen Paukenschlag ("Operation Drumbeat"). During this time she was strafed by a plane and near-rammed by the Kosmos II but escaped with the help of a recalcitrant power plant.

Her eighth trip was in the same area again, but under her new captain Reinhard Hardegen, the 24th best U-Boat ace. For her 10th patrol, U-123 had a new, ruthless commander, Horst Von Schroeter. During this patrol, she achieved the feat of sinking a British submarine, HMS P-615, 100 nmi (190 km; 120 mi) southwest of Freetown in Sierra Leone on 18 April 1943. On her 11th patrol however she was less fortunate and was depth-charged off Cape Finisterre in August 1943. She also became the first U-Boat to be fired upon and hit by a Canadian Mosquito armed with a 6-pounder (57mm) Molins gun on 7 November 1943; She was badly damaged but managed to get home for repairs. She would make a final sortie of 107 days, completing on 24 April 1944, after which she would be discarded in June 1944 and scuttled one month later, before being refloated after the war by the French. She became the Blaison (Q165), and was decommissioned only in August 1959.

Type IXC: Better range (still)


U-124 arriving in Lorient - She was one of the most successful U-Boat of the IX series. She was instantly recognizable due to the frog painted on the front of the conning tower and Edelweiss on the sides, a classic German symbol of bravery. She was very successful, sinking 46 merchant ships for a total of 219,862 GRT, two warships (5,775 tons), and damaging two more.

Type IXC was another step in refinement with increased storage, for a total of an extra 43 tonnes of fuel which gave the boat a much better range. For production simplification and in light of real use in combat, the control room periscope was dropped, leaving two tower scopes. The Type IX were fitted as mine-layers and could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, bar the U-162-U-170 series and U-505-U-550, leaving the mine-laying boats at 35 out of a total of 54, or 64% of the total. Dimensions were the same, but the tonnage was slightly higher. The Type IXB had a longer hull, at 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in) rather than 76.50 m. Yet, with an increased fuel capacity, the Type IXC range was increased to 13,450 nmi (24,910 km; 15,480 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced, but less, 63 nmi (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 knots submerged.

U-66 and U-177 attacked by allied aviation
U-66 and U-177 attacked by allied aviation

The IXC in action

54 Type IXCs were seen active during the war. They enjoyed comparatively less success than their predecessors, but still more than the next series. One of the few U-boats sunk in the Gulf of Mexico was U-166, was a Type IXC. U-505 survives at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. She was completely renovated after her relocation in 2004 to a purpose-built indoor berth. She can be visited today.

Characteristics Type IXB (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced, 1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: Same as Type IX but length 76.76 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IX
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 13,450 tons
Armament: Same as Type IX

Type IXC/40: The 1942-44 serie

The C/40 (Model 1940) which was in reality a serie of 87 boats completed in 1942-44, and proceeded from the Type IXC, as an improved version.
The series ran from U-167 to U-1235 (comm. 17 May 1944). This was the largest series of the whole class, although the D class was to be more impactful to the war effort.
The IXC/40s featured an increased range and surfaced speed. Production being massive, it was spread among DeSchiMAG AG Weser, Seebeckwerft of Bremen, and Deutsche Werft of Hamburg. The external hull was wider at 6.86 m (22 ft 6 in) but apparently, the draft was slightly lower at 4.67 m (15 ft 4 in) to the Type C's 4.70m. These slightly larger dimensions allowed the boats to carry more fuel, enough for a range of 13,850 nmi (25,650 km; 15,940 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced. Underwater range and speed were unchanged.

The IXC/40 in action

U-190
U-190 in June 1945.

Being completed at a time when heightened numbers of U-boats were being sunk in the North Atlantic, the area of operations was diversified, though this resulted in a lower number of kills, especially for the late boats. The life expectancy of the crews went down, especially after the entry of the US Navy's bulk into the fray. U-170 (1942) managed to do four patrols, her first being to move her to a more suitable port, from Kiel to Lorient, France. Her second trip led her to Brazil, where she managed to sink the Campos (4,663 tons). Her third trip was on the US east coast. Yet, during this, she failed to sink any ship.

Her last trip happened off west Africa. She failed to score any hits, but on her return trip, as she passed southern Ireland on 30 October 1944, she was badly damaged by destroyers in which she lost her snorkel. She would surrender in Horten Naval Base, Norway on 9 May 1945. U-183 fared better, sinking five ships including in the Penang area and Java sea. U-185 fared still greater, sinking ten ships, with Kapitänleutnant August Maus being awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. U-188 also scored 10 kills, most of which came in January 1944. Yet she would not survive the war and was scuttled in Bordeaux. U-527 had three kills, like many other boats.

U-530 at the Mar del Plata
U-530 at the Mar del Plata

The remains of U-534 are on display at Woodside Ferry Terminal, Birkenhead. The last boat, U-1235 reflected the fate of most U-boats commissioned at that time. She only had time to make two combat patrols in early 1945, during which she did not sink any ships, but she was sunk on 15 April 1945 in the North Atlantic, hammered by hedgehogs from the destroyer escorts USS Stanton and Frost (Operation Teardrop).

Characteristics Type IXC/40 (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,144 t (1,126 long tons)/1,257 t (1,237 long tons)
Dimensions: Same as Type IXC but width 6.86 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IXC
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 13,850 tons
Armament: Same as Type IXC


Type IX A/B

Type IXA

Type IXC

Type IXD/42 FLAK

Type IXD: The ultimate "U-Kreuzer"

The term "U-Kreuzer" was coined in 1916 after the Deutschland made her first trips and the model was adopted into the Imperial German Navy with success, so much so that the type was largely copied after the war. Yet, the Type IX evolution would ultimately be the end for the "ultimate long-range U-boat."

HD plan of the Type IX
Blueprint of a Type IX


U-Boat Type IXD - The blueprints

The Type IXD proceeded from the same design but was significantly longer and heavier. Since underwater speed fell in previous versions, efforts were made to regain some in the IXD, but at the cost of a slightly reduced range. In order to do this, their powerplant was completely different: They were fitted with three pairs of Daimler Benz diesel engines, two pairs for cruise and one for high speed and battery reload. Eventually, three variants would be built from this type: -IXD1: With unreliable engines, so they were later converted to surface transport vessels.
-IXD2: The main production run, which had revised machinery and a range of 23,700 nautical miles (43,900 km; 27,300 mi).
-IXD/42: Almost identical but with an again revised machinery to produce more power, 5,400 ehp instead of 4,400.

The very long range and speed made them suitable also for transport, especially to Japan. Therefore, from 1943 to 1944 many boats were picked-up and stripped of their torpedo tubes to be converted as storage boats. They could carry 252 tonnes of freight, which consisted of mainly precious materials and blueprints, which Japan exploited, and returned with equally precious goods Germany lacked at the time. Their range also benefited from this newly found internal space and rose to 31,500 nautical miles (58,300 km; 36,200 mi).

In all, DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen manufactured thirty Type IXD U-boats, with the first boat U-178 entering service on the 14th of March 1942 (she had been laid down on 25 November 1940 and launched 1 October 1941, which reflected how much these boats were cared about (but also production disruptions and changes). The last boat produced was U-884 of the D2 type, launched on the 17th of May 1944 but never active. She was destroyed while fitting out in her dockyard on 30 March 1945 by US heavy bombers. Series: U-177-182, U-195-200, U-847-876. The last IXD/42 series was a rarity: Indeed the yard was only able to barely deliver two by 1945, U-883 was launched on 28 April 1944, and commissioned 27 March 1945, but U-884 was still fitting out at the time she was bombed and thus technically she has not been commissioned. U-885 and U-888 were laid down but never launched. Construction was halted on 30 September 1943 and the whole series was canceled.

Characteristics Type IXD (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,610 t/1,799 t
Dimensions: 87.58 m x 7.50 m x 10.20 m (height) x 5.35 m (draft)
Pressure hull: 68.50 m (224 ft 9 in) x 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in)
Powerplant: 6 × Daimler-Benz MB501 20 cyl. Diesel, 9,000hp (IX-D/42)
Performances:
Range: 23,700 nmi (43,900 km; 27,300 mi) /10 knots surface
115 nmi (213 km; 132 mi) /4 knots submerged
Armament: Same as Type IXC or none (IX/42 transport)


U-boat U-462 (center) commanded by Lt. Bruno Vove supplies U-755- Colorized photo by ED. Tambunan (Src. Reddit)

U-Boat Aces using the Type IX

A quick look at the "hall of fame" of U-Boat aces in WW2 shows the immense domination of U-Boat commanders in the Type IX, not the Type VIIC. Apart from superstars beloved by the propaganda like Gunther Prien who sank the HMS Royal Oak, the majority of successful U-Boats sorties were first and foremost made on the larger Type IX, and especially the IXC. While having comparatively lower kill numbers, the following series and variants of boats were still in service soon enough to accumulate victories, at least until late 1943.

This success could be explained by the long range of these boats, able to rampage in less-defended areas and shipping lanes around the globe. Even with their combined might, the British, Americans, and their allies were never able to cover all possible trade networks. The efforts concentrated mainly on the North Atlantic and the Royal lane between the US and UK, This area was already a battleground where the Type VIIC operated in a majority, meeting shorter operations with greater losses. Due to the superior cost and capabilities of the Type IX, it was common for U-Boat commanders successful on the VIIC to be 'promoted' to the Type IX, which had a more elite status.

Wolfgang_Lüth
Wolfgang Lüth: The second highest-scoring U-Boat ace of the war after Otto Kretschmer (which did all his career on the Type VII) was also on the VII, but also commanded a Type IXA, the U-43 and ended the war with a IXD2, the U-181. Amazingly he survived the war and was shot by a German sentry by accident on 13 May 1945.
-Wolfgang Lüth: He made 15 sorties and sank 46 ships (225,204 tons) on U-43 (IXA) and U-181 (IXD2). He also made a 205 days multi-missions trip, the second longest of the war.
-Heinrich Liebe: He made 9 sorties, sinking 34 ships (187,267 tons) on U-38.
-Viktor Schütze: 7 sorties, 35 ships for 180,073 tons on U-103.
-Karl-Friedrich Merten: 5 sorties, 27 ships sunk (170,151 tons) on U-68 (IXC).
-Georg Lassen: 4 sorties, 26 ships (156,082 tons) on U-160 (IXC).
-Werner Henke: 7 sorties, 24 ships (155,714 tons) on U-515 (IXC).
-Carl Emmermann: 5 sorties, 26 ships (152,080 tons) on U-172 (IXC).
-Heinrich Bleichrodt: 8 sorties, 24 ships (151,260 tons) part on the U-107 (IXB), 13 ships.
-Robert Gysae: 8 sorties, 25 ships for 146,815 tons, part on U-177 (IXD2).
-Ernst Kals: 5 sorties, 20 ships for 145,656 tons on U-130 (IXC)
-Johann Mohr: 6 sorties, 27 ships for 129,292 tons on U-124 (IXB)
-Klaus Scholtz: 8 sorties, 25 ships for 128,190 tons on U-108 (IXB)
-Adolf Cornelius Piening: 8 sorties, 25 ships for 126,664 tons on U-155 (IXC)
-Helmut Witte: 4 sorties, 23 ships for 119,554 tons on U-159 (IXC).
-Günther Hessler: 3 sorties for 21 ships and 118,822 tons on U-017 (IXB)
-Ernst Bauer: 5 sorties and 25 (118,560 tons) on U-126 (IXC)
-Reinhard Hardegen: 5 sorties, 22 ships (115,656 tons) on U-123 (partly) (IXC)
-Werner Hartmann: 4 sorties, 26 ships (115,337 ton) partly on U-198 (IXD2)
-Robert-Richard Zapp: 5 sorties, 16 ships (106,200 tons) partly on U-66 (IXC).
-Jürgen Oesten: 13 sorties, 19 ships (101,744 tons) partly on U-106 (IXB)
-Wilhelm Rollmann: 8 sorties, 22 ships (101,519 tons) mostly on U-848 (IXD2)
-Erwin Rostin: 2 sorties, 17 ships (101,321 tons) on U-158 (IXC)
-Hans-Ludwig Witt: 3 sorties, 19 ships (100,773 tons) on U-129 and U-166 (IXC)
-Harald Gelhaus: 11 sorties, 19 ships on 100,373 tons on U-107 (IXB)
-Werner Hartenstein: 5 sorties, 20 ships for 97,504 tons on U-156 (IXC)
-Fritz-Julius Lemp: 10 sorties, 20 ships for 96,639 tons on U-110 (IXB)
-Karl-Heinz Moehle: 10 sorties, 21 ships 93,197 tons partly on U-123 (IXC)
-Georg-Wilhelm Schulz: 8 sorties, 19 ships 89,886 tons partly on U-124 (IXB)
-Georg Schewe: 10 sorties and 16 ships for 85,779 tons partly on U-105 (IXB)
-Hans-Georg Friedrich Poske: 4 ships for 16 ships and 85,299 tons on U-504 (IXC)
-Ulrich Heyse: 5 sorties and 12 ships for 83,639 tons on U-37 and U-128 (IXC)
-Ulrich Folkers: 5 sorties and 17 ships for 82,873 tons on U-37 and U-125 (IXC)
-Herbert Kuppisch: 14 sorties and 16 ships 82,108 tons partly on U-847 (IXD)
-Jürgen Wattenberg: 3 sorties and 14 ships for 82,027 tons on U-162 (IXC)
-Werner Winter: 5 sorties and 15 ships for 79,302 tons partly on U-103 (IXB)
-Jürgen von Rosenstiel: 4 sorties and 14 ships for 78,843 tons on U-502 (IXC).

Liveries and camouflage of the Type IX
Liveries and camouflage of the Type IX

Sources/Read More
//www.uboataces.com/uboat-type-ix.shtml
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_IX_submarine
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_successful_U-boat_commanders
//uboat.net/types/ix.htm
//www.historynet.com/type-ix-u-boat.htm https://coollib.com/b/297951/read - Excellent source !


U-858 surrendering to the USN, escorted by a patrol boat to Portsmouth in May 1945. A very famous color photo and movie (cc)

3D renderings
Type IXA on tubosquid

Model Kits

U107 HD rendering, profile and deck
Bronco 1/350 NB5009 German Long Range Submarine U-IXB Model Kit
//www.1999.co.jp/eng/10216772
//www.hobbyboss.com/index.php?g=home&m=product&a=show&id=998&l=en
//www.scalemates.com/kits/hobbyboss-83508-dkm-navy-type-ix-c-u-boat--101457
//store.spruebrothers.com/product_p/rvg05114-os.htm (Revell 1/72 IXC late U-505)
HobbyBoss DKM U-Boat Type IXC 1/700

Colors and markings of Kriegsmarine boats (Scribd)

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
Seaplanes
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)



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