Type IX U-Boats (1936) Germany (1936-45) 194 produced (290 ordered)
Type IX, the long-range U-Boat
During world war two, two main types of u-boats roamed the sea: The Type VII
, a mid-range oceanic type, able to move to the middle of the Atlantic without refueling, and the Type IX, a long-range cruiser type, able to reach the American coast and cruise well beyond. Thirty percent larger than the Type VII and with twice the range, Type IXs were seen as the type that took submarine warfare on trade across the globe. The only limit was an existing supporting network of neutral ports, supply ships, and "milk cows" or supply U-Boats. Throughout most of the war, Type IXs roamed the Indian Ocean and the wide expanses of the Pacific and the South Atlantic, many times with better successes as U-Boats were not expected in those areas, and thus the convoy system was rarely used.
Genesis of the Type IX
The Type IX proceeded directly from the Type I, the first operational long-range type in service with the Kriegsmarine. The latter was the product of an evolution from the Interwar design, built on export models from The Hague, especially the Spanish E-1 and Finnish Vetehinen. The u-25 and 26, the only built in 1936, were the blueprints from which the Type IX was extrapolated the same year. U-Boat Nomenclature
The Type IIs' were early coastal types, while the Type III, IV, V, VI, and VIII only existed on paper. The Type XIV was a supply model, and the Type XVII was a semi-experimental, late war coastal boat, with the Type XXI being the true replacement for the Type VII. It was developed in 1944 and used twice the electric power of previous boats along with a new revolutionary hull. One of Germany's final U-boat designs, the Type XXIII was a coastal declination of the previous Type XXI.
Cutaway - New Vanguard #55 Kriegsmarine U-boats 1939-45, by Gordon Williamson
Genesis of the Type IX
While the concept of a large oceanic "cruiser" submarine type was already a specialty of Germany since the SMS Deutschland (The submarine) in 1915, the total interdiction to build any coupled with the lack of orders for such types by any nation led engineers to wait until the U25 and U26 of the Type Ia were built, in 1936 at Deschimag, Bremen. They proceeded from clandestine designs of the Hague (the famous Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag), being the Finnish Vetehinen, the Spanish E1, and Turkish Gür which were all above the standard size. The London treaty had watered down interdiction and left some air to breathe for the Kriegsmarine, which now virtually had a free hand on the design. However, the IAs were an in-between, and no where near a true cruiser submarine, weighing in at under 1,000 tons in displacement submerged (982 tons). Thus as soon as the ink dried on the Type Ia blueprints, the Kriegsmarine staff decided on a larger derived design.
Therefore the development of the Type IX (next in line in the nomenclature
). On paper, the new boats designed and built at AG Weser, Bremen, were to have a standard diving depth of 100 m and a crush theoretical limit of 200 m. But in reality, this went well beyond that in operations. Design-wise, they proceeded with existing designs, with the conning tower, the hydrophone, and the rudder arrangement coming from the Type VII. There was one periscope in the control room and two in the conning tower.
Type IX drawing cutaway - credits: uboataces.com
Production and variants of the Type IX
The ubiquitous German Type VII was successful in the Battle of the Atlantic. However, it was cramped, making it hard for its crew on longer missions (as depicted in Wolfgang Petersen’s 1981 "Das Boot"). The Kriegsmarine needed a model that could roam the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, and in response, the first batch of eight Type IXA entered service in 1937-39. This class led to the longer-range Type IXB, with 22 manufactured, followed by the Type IXC and IXC/40, with even greater fuel capacity and range, with 141 entering service during the war. The Type IXD was 36 feet longer (7,30 m), faster (20 knots surfaced), and with a better range than its predecessors (up to 31,500 nautical miles).
U-37, Type IXA (The blueprints)
Type IXC (The blueprints) in Mediterranean/Tropical livery, red hull, light grey above the waterline
All in all, about 290 of these German submarines were been planned, with 195 being laid down. However, 95 of those ships were shortly canceled and one was never compleated. To this day, two have been preserved. This mass was impressive for such a large vessel and was relatable to American industry which produced Gato-class
. Of course, the design evolved, with the late war Type IXD being ten meters longer and displacing 550 tons more, with most of the new weight devoted to range. Indeed, it rose from 10,500 nmi (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots surfaced on the first 1936 model to 23,700 nmi (43,900 km; 27,300 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced on the Type IXD, more than doubling its previous figure.
Various Types - Type IX.
The first type was designed in 1935-36 and built in a small series in DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen, with eight units being completed in all: U-37 to U-44. U-37's keel was laid down on15 March 1937. The other seven were launched until 1939. In fact, the last of the series, U-44, was laid down on 15 September 1937 but completion and fitting out took the whole year between 1938-39. By November 1939, the first long-range German Submarine squadron was ready for operations: The war had been ongoing for two months.
U-858 surrendering to the USN, en route for the Portsmouth in May 1945 with an American crew onboard. (cc) - Same as the background
Propulsion-wise, varients would remain essentially the same throughout the war, with the exception of the Type IXD/42. The powerplant consisted of two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged 9-cylinder diesel engines, rated for 4,400 PS (4,300 shp; 3,200 kW). These were solid, usual-type marine diesel-run motors that were the result of a long line of proven units. They were mounted side by side at the rear of the engine section, approx. 5 meters from the conning tower. Their position allowed the mechanics to relatively easily have access to every part of the engine when maintenance called for it. The crankshafts were situated below the cylinders, one for each shaft. Batteries were situated below that.
Two SSW (Siemens-Schukert) 1 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors were installed side by side, rated for 1,000 PS (990 shp; 740 kW). They were installed in front of the diesels, by approx. 2.5 meters, and below the aft "wintergarten" behind the conning tower. The power provided was enough to propel them at 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h; 20.9 mph) on the surface, but 7.7 knots (14.3 km/h; 8.9 mph) when submerged. The useful range was 10,500 nautical miles (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph), in standard surface mode, down to just 65–78 nmi (120–144 km; 75–90 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) in attack or retreat mode underwater.
U-505 engine room (msichicago.org)
The Type IXA measured 76.50 m (251 ft) (overall), with a beam of 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in) and a height 9.40 m (30 ft 10 in) to the conning tower top. As a double-hull type, the pressure hull measured 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in) by 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in).
The Type IXA had a 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) draft.
The hull was strong enough to be capable of reaching 230 m in test depth (750-770 ft), but in reality, like the smaller Type VII, many in operations had to dive below 250 m and survived to tell the story. They were extremely rugged and resilient.
Detail of the rear of a IXD/42 - Model (Pinterest)
The Type IXA submarines were given six torpedo tubes, four in the bow as a standard, and two in the stern. This was the same as any Type VII U-Boat. However the total of torpedoes carried was larger, twenty-two 53.3 cm (21 in) warheads in all, with external storage aboard the boats. Their warhead could vary between 617 pounds (280 kg) and 948 pounds (430 kg) depending on the models. These models could be set up to reach 6,000 m (6,600 yd), or set to a shorter range with a speed of 44 knots (81 km/h). Twelve of the torpedoes were stowed internally with ten being located in topside deck containers in 3 external containers at the stern and 2 at the bow, with two torpedoes inside each.
U-505 colorized by E. Tambunan (Pinterest)
To load torpedoes into the bow torpedo room forced the use of a crane to lift them over the deck with a cradle being needed to bring them inside the submarine and into the torpedo room. In the case of the torpedoes stored in the cases on the outside of the sub, winches were used to lower them into the bow and stern torpedo rooms. The entire process took several hours for just one torpedo, making the submarines easy targets for Allied aviation patrols during the process.
Type IXA submarines were given a 10.5 cm (4.13 in) L/45 deck gun placed on a tailored mounting, forward of the conning tower. 180 rounds were carried. These rounds weighed 33.3-pound (15.1 kg), for the HE type of shell. The gun had a muzzle velocity of 780 m/s (2,600 ft/s). The range at optimal elevation was 15,175 m (16,596 yd). It was able to fire on aircraft at a 10,000 m ceiling. (11,000 yd). Its rate of fire was 15 rounds per minute.
The Type IX were given two guns, a 2 cm FlaK 30 and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) gun. The 2 cm FlaK 30 guns installed on the "wintergarten" ( platform aft of the conning tower) had a maximum range of 4,900 metres (5,400 yd), reduced in practice to 3,700 m against fast-moving aerial targets. Their rate of fire was 280 rounds a minute at a muzzle velocity of 835 m/s (2,740 ft/s). The 2cm rounds weighed 0.71 pounds (0.32 kg). The 3.7 cm SK C/30U had a practical range of 8,500 metres (9,300 yd) at up to 30 rounds per minute. Their muzzle velocity was 1,000 m/s (3,300 ft/s), and the shell weighed 1.64 lb (0.74 kg). It was located on the aft deck, after the conning tower.
As mine-layers, the Type IX could carry forty-four TMA or sixty-six TMB mines. However, not all IXs boats were fitted for mine operations. In theory, the first subclass of the Type IX given this capability was the Type IXC.
The German TMA was a moored mine, which floated above the surface and could be carried and launched from each torpedo tube, twelve at a time, with 32 reloads. They were small enough to be fitted in the tubes, with a diameter of 11.1ft (3.38m)/21in (533mm), and could be moored down to a maximum depth of 270m, and carrying a warhead of 215kg.
The TMB model was a ground mine (settled at the bottom of the seabed), detonated by the magnetic/acoustic signature of a passing ship. It needed to be laid only in shallow waters, down to 20 meters. Slightly smaller, three could be carried in each torpedo tube with 18 in all, being able to be launched at once. They measured 7.6ft (2.3m) in length and had a diameter 53 cm. They also carried a warhead of 580kg.
U-107 preparing to be supplied in the south Atlantic
Rendition of the FuMB-26 Tunis. The two systems were used concurrently or together on the Type IX (and Type VII): The FuMB-7 Naxos tuned to 9 cm wavelengths which was the British ASV Mk.III/H2S radars frequency. The FuMB-26 Tunis was tuned to the 3 cm wavelengths and was able to detect US radar emissions. The Naxos system consisted of two leaf-like antennas in the middle of a parabolic mesh reflector.
The Tunis model used a horn-shaped antenna from which the entire mast rotated via a mechanical linkage connected to the radio room. These antennas were not waterproof however and needed to be removed by the crew when diving. Often also a large loop antenna was found aft of these, used for direction finding in the VHF band. The "Bali" antenna was used to detect 1.5-meter signals used by earlier Royal Navy radars and had a cylindrical mesh grid.
FuMo 61 Hohentwiel
This antenna was 1,400 mm wide, 1,000 mm high, with an overall width of 1, 540 mm and an overall height of 1,022 mm with its extensions. The mesh size was 15 mm. The FuMo 61 Hohentwiel was a classic detection radar Transmitter. U-530 was one of the few to receive it, installed on the starboard side of the conning tower.
Characteristics Type IXA
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,032 t surfaced, 1,152 t (1,134 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: 76.50 m x 6.51 m x 9.40 m, draft 4.70 m
Powerplant: MAN M 9 V40/46 supercharged 9-cyl. diesel, 2 × SSW 1 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors, 1,000 PS (990 shp; 740 kW)
Performances: 4,400 PS (4,300 shp; 3,200 kW)
Armament: 6 TTs (4 bow, 2 stern), 10.5 cm SK C/32 naval gun, 3.7 and 20 mm AA guns, mines, see notes
U-111 surrendering to an armed trawler
The Type IXA in operations
By far, the best of the first eight boats was U-37 (Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schuch). It was by far the most successful of all Type IXA and the sixth most successful U-boat. In total, she sank 53 merchant vessels, about 200,124 gross register tons (GRT). She also sank two warships, over the course of 11 war patrols starting in August 1939 and ending in March 1941. U-37 survived and was withdrawn (which was rare in 1941) from combat service, to be used for training U-boat crews until the end of the war. However, in May 1945 she was scuttled in Sonderburg Bay off Flensburg. U-Oberleutnant Zur See Heinrich Liebe's U-38 made eleven patrols, sinking or badly damaging 30 vessels, becoming the 10th most successful U-Boat of the war. U-39 (Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Glattes) was unlucky as she was sank at her first sortie by the British destroyers HMS Faulknor, HMS Firedrake, and HMS Foxhound.
U-37 entering at Cuxhaven
Disabled by deep charges, she was forced to the surface and her crew were captured after attempting to sink the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. U-40 sank no ships but hit mines on 13 October 1939 in the English Channel. U-41 sank five vessels (22,815 GRT), captured two, and damaged one. She was sunk by the British destroyer HMS Antelope off the coast of Ireland in February 1940. U-42 (Kapitänleutnant Rolf Dau), she made only two patrols, damaging a ship, and was sank herself by HMS Imogen and HMS Ilex in 1939. U-43 (Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Ambrosius) sank 21 merchant ships (117,036 GRT), damaging two more, however in July 1943 she was spotted and sank by a torpedo plane from the escort carrier USS Santee. U-44 (Kapitänleutnant Ludwig Mathes) sank eight ships (30,885 GRT) but struck a mine off the north coast of the Netherlands in March 1940.
U-37 in drydock at Lorient
Type IXB: Better range
U-123 and U-201 arriving at Lorient
The IXB represented a gradual improvement, as an improved model with increased range. The dimensions were the same, with a slightly higher tonnage and more fuel carried. However, their new rage was 12,000 nmi (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced, rather than 10,000. However, their new submerged depth of 64 nautical miles (119 km; 74 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) was slightly less. Their armament was the same, but equipping mines was never mentioned.
Characteristics Type IXB (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,051 t surfaced, 1,178 t (1,159 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: Same as Type IX but height 9.60 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IX
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 12,500 tons
Armament: Same as Type IX
U-107 at Lorient in November 1941
The Type IXB in action
Their early service made them the most successful version of the whole series, with an average kill ratio of over 100,000 GRT. The series would include notable U-boats such as the U-123 commanded by Reinhard Hardegen. He opened up the attack in US waters, in early 1942 (Operation Drumbeat). Another standout boat was U-107 operating off Freetown, Sierra Leone under Günther Hessler. He made the most successful single mission of the war, reaching in one go 100,000 GRT sunk. After commissioned, the entire Type IXB group built prior to the fall of France were stationed at Wilhelmshaven and after, in the numerous French ports captured on the coast, but mostly Lorient.
The career of U-123:
U-123 at Lorient in February 1941
U-123 conducted 12 war patrols in all, sinking 45 ships, for a total of 227,174 gross register tons (GRT). She managed to damage six others, for a grand total of 53,568 GRT. Four neutral Swedish merchantmen also fell under her torpedoes. Her first sortie started from Kiel on 21 September 1940. She ventured through a gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands and fell on convoys off of Northern Ireland. One of them was the freighter Shekatika which needed no less than five torpedoes to sink. Her final destination was her new home port, Lorient, in occupied France on 23 October 1940. Her next two voyages were to the same area, with particular note for an action during her third voyage when she ran for nine hours, chasing the Grootekerk over 330 nmi (610 km; 380 mi) west of Rockall before being able to torpedo her.
On the fourth trip of U-123, she went further west of Ireland. Yet again she had to spend five torpedoes to sink a single ship. Like in many cases with u-boat attacks, there were no survivors. Her fifth sortie was further south in the Atlantic, in the vicinity of the Azores and the Canary Islands. On 27 June 1941 however she was tracked down and depth charged for 11 hours before escaping. Her sixth sortie was around the same area but with poorer results. The seventh was part of the early 1942 "second happy time" for U-Boats, along the coast of the US, called Unternehmen Paukenschlag ("Operation Drumbeat"). During this time she was strafed by a plane and near-rammed by the Kosmos II but escaped with the help of a recalcitrant power plant.
Her eighth trip was in the same area again, but under her new captain Reinhard Hardegen, the 24th best U-Boat ace. For her 10th patrol, U-123 had a new, ruthless commander, Horst Von Schroeter. During this patrol, she achieved the feat of sinking a British submarine, HMS P-615, 100 nmi (190 km; 120 mi) southwest of Freetown in Sierra Leone on 18 April 1943. On her 11th patrol however she was less fortunate and was depth-charged off Cape Finisterre in August 1943. She also became the first U-Boat to be fired upon and hit by a Canadian Mosquito armed with a 6-pounder (57mm) Molins gun on 7 November 1943; She was badly damaged but managed to get home for repairs. She would make a final sortie of 107 days, completing on 24 April 1944, after which she would be discarded in June 1944 and scuttled one month later, before being refloated after the war by the French. She became the Blaison (Q165), and was decommissioned only in August 1959.
Type IXC: Better range (still)
U-124 arriving in Lorient - She was one of the most successful U-Boat of the IX series. She was instantly recognizable due to the frog painted on the front of the conning tower and Edelweiss on the sides, a classic German symbol of bravery. She was very successful, sinking 46 merchant ships for a total of 219,862 GRT, two warships (5,775 tons), and damaging two more.
Type IXC was another step in refinement with increased storage, for a total of an extra 43 tonnes of fuel which gave the boat a much better range. For production simplification and in light of real use in combat, the control room periscope was dropped, leaving two tower scopes. The Type IX were fitted as mine-layers and could carry 44 TMA or 66 TMB mines, bar the U-162-U-170 series and U-505-U-550, leaving the mine-laying boats at 35 out of a total of 54, or 64% of the total. Dimensions were the same, but the tonnage was slightly higher. The Type IXB had a longer hull, at 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in) rather than 76.50 m. Yet, with an increased fuel capacity, the Type IXC range was increased to 13,450 nmi (24,910 km; 15,480 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced, but less, 63 nmi (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 knots submerged.
U-66 and U-177 attacked by allied aviation
The IXC in action
54 Type IXCs were seen active during the war. They enjoyed comparatively less success than their predecessors, but still more than the next series. One of the few U-boats sunk in the Gulf of Mexico was U-166, was a Type IXC. U-505 survives at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. She was completely renovated after her relocation in 2004 to a purpose-built indoor berth. She can be visited today.
Characteristics Type IXB (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,120 t (1,100 long tons) surfaced, 1,232 t (1,213 long tons) submerged
Dimensions: Same as Type IX but length 76.76 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IX
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 13,450 tons
Armament: Same as Type IX
Type IXC/40: The 1942-44 serie
The C/40 (Model 1940) which was in reality a serie of 87 boats completed in 1942-44, and proceeded from the Type IXC, as an improved version.
The series ran from U-167 to U-1235 (comm. 17 May 1944). This was the largest series of the whole class, although the D class was to be more impactful to the war effort.
The IXC/40s featured an increased range and surfaced speed. Production being massive, it was spread among DeSchiMAG AG Weser, Seebeckwerft of Bremen, and Deutsche Werft of Hamburg. The external hull was wider at 6.86 m (22 ft 6 in) but apparently, the draft was slightly lower at 4.67 m (15 ft 4 in) to the Type C's 4.70m. These slightly larger dimensions allowed the boats to carry more fuel, enough for a range of 13,850 nmi (25,650 km; 15,940 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced. Underwater range and speed were unchanged.
The IXC/40 in action
U-190 in June 1945.
Being completed at a time when heightened numbers of U-boats were being sunk in the North Atlantic, the area of operations was diversified, though this resulted in a lower number of kills, especially for the late boats. The life expectancy of the crews went down, especially after the entry of the US Navy's bulk into the fray. U-170 (1942) managed to do four patrols, her first being to move her to a more suitable port, from Kiel to Lorient, France. Her second trip led her to Brazil, where she managed to sink the Campos (4,663 tons). Her third trip was on the US east coast. Yet, during this, she failed to sink any ship.
Her last trip happened off west Africa. She failed to score any hits, but on her return trip, as she passed southern Ireland on 30 October 1944, she was badly damaged by destroyers in which she lost her snorkel. She would surrender in Horten Naval Base, Norway on 9 May 1945. U-183 fared better, sinking five ships including in the Penang area and Java sea. U-185 fared still greater, sinking ten ships, with Kapitänleutnant August Maus being awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. U-188 also scored 10 kills, most of which came in January 1944. Yet she would not survive the war and was scuttled in Bordeaux. U-527 had three kills, like many other boats.
U-530 at the Mar del Plata
The remains of U-534 are on display at Woodside Ferry Terminal, Birkenhead. The last boat, U-1235 reflected the fate of most U-boats commissioned at that time. She only had time to make two combat patrols in early 1945, during which she did not sink any ships, but she was sunk on 15 April 1945 in the North Atlantic, hammered by hedgehogs from the destroyer escorts USS Stanton and Frost (Operation Teardrop).
Characteristics Type IXC/40 (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,144 t (1,126 long tons)/1,257 t (1,237 long tons)
Dimensions: Same as Type IXC but width 6.86 m
Powerplant: Same as Type IXC
Performances: Same as Type IX *Surface Range 13,850 tons
Armament: Same as Type IXC
Type IX A/B
Type IXD/42 FLAK
Type IXD: The ultimate "U-Kreuzer"
The term "U-Kreuzer" was coined in 1916 after the Deutschland made her first trips and the model was adopted into the Imperial German Navy with success, so much so that the type was largely copied after the war. Yet, the Type IX evolution would ultimately be the end for the "ultimate long-range U-boat."
Blueprint of a Type IX
U-Boat Type IXD - The blueprints
The Type IXD proceeded from the same design but was significantly longer and heavier. Since underwater speed fell in previous versions, efforts were made to regain some in the IXD, but at the cost of a slightly reduced range. In order to do this, their powerplant was completely different: They were fitted with three pairs of Daimler Benz diesel engines, two pairs for cruise and one for high speed and battery reload. Eventually, three variants would be built from this type:
-IXD1: With unreliable engines, so they were later converted to surface transport vessels.
-IXD2: The main production run, which had revised machinery and a range of 23,700 nautical miles (43,900 km; 27,300 mi).
-IXD/42: Almost identical but with an again revised machinery to produce more power, 5,400 ehp instead of 4,400.
The very long range and speed made them suitable also for transport, especially to Japan. Therefore, from 1943 to 1944 many boats were picked-up and stripped of their torpedo tubes to be converted as storage boats. They could carry 252 tonnes of freight, which consisted of mainly precious materials and blueprints, which Japan exploited, and returned with equally precious goods Germany lacked at the time. Their range also benefited from this newly found internal space and rose to 31,500 nautical miles (58,300 km; 36,200 mi).
In all, DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen manufactured thirty Type IXD U-boats, with the first boat U-178 entering service on the 14th of March 1942 (she had been laid down on 25 November 1940 and launched 1 October 1941, which reflected how much these boats were cared about (but also production disruptions and changes). The last boat produced was U-884 of the D2 type, launched on the 17th of May 1944 but never active. She was destroyed while fitting out in her dockyard on 30 March 1945 by US heavy bombers. Series: U-177-182, U-195-200, U-847-876. The last IXD/42 series was a rarity: Indeed the yard was only able to barely deliver two by 1945, U-883 was launched on 28 April 1944, and commissioned 27 March 1945, but U-884 was still fitting out at the time she was bombed and thus technically she has not been commissioned. U-885 and U-888 were laid down but never launched. Construction was halted on 30 September 1943 and the whole series was canceled.
Characteristics Type IXD (AG Weser, Bremen)
Displacement surf./Sub: 1,610 t/1,799 t
Dimensions: 87.58 m x 7.50 m x 10.20 m (height) x 5.35 m (draft)
Pressure hull: 68.50 m (224 ft 9 in) x 4.40 m (14 ft 5 in)
Powerplant: 6 × Daimler-Benz MB501 20 cyl. Diesel, 9,000hp (IX-D/42)
Range: 23,700 nmi (43,900 km; 27,300 mi) /10 knots surface
115 nmi (213 km; 132 mi) /4 knots submerged
Armament: Same as Type IXC or none (IX/42 transport)
U-boat U-462 (center) commanded by Lt. Bruno Vove supplies U-755- Colorized photo by ED. Tambunan (Src. Reddit)
U-Boat Aces using the Type IX
A quick look at the "hall of fame" of U-Boat aces in WW2 shows the immense domination of U-Boat commanders in the Type IX, not the Type VIIC. Apart from superstars beloved by the propaganda like Gunther Prien who sank the HMS Royal Oak, the majority of successful U-Boats sorties were first and foremost made on the larger Type IX, and especially the IXC. While having comparatively lower kill numbers, the following series and variants of boats were still in service soon enough to accumulate victories, at least until late 1943.
This success could be explained by the long range of these boats, able to rampage in less-defended areas and shipping lanes around the globe. Even with their combined might, the British, Americans, and their allies were never able to cover all possible trade networks. The efforts concentrated mainly on the North Atlantic and the Royal lane between the US and UK, This area was already a battleground where the Type VIIC operated in a majority, meeting shorter operations with greater losses. Due to the superior cost and capabilities of the Type IX, it was common for U-Boat commanders successful on the VIIC to be 'promoted' to the Type IX, which had a more elite status.
Wolfgang Lüth: The second highest-scoring U-Boat ace of the war after Otto Kretschmer (which did all his career on the Type VII) was also on the VII, but also commanded a Type IXA, the U-43 and ended the war with a IXD2, the U-181. Amazingly he survived the war and was shot by a German sentry by accident on 13 May 1945.
He made 15 sorties and sank 46 ships (225,204 tons) on U-43 (IXA) and U-181 (IXD2). He also made a 205 days multi-missions trip, the second longest of the war.
He made 9 sorties, sinking 34 ships (187,267 tons) on U-38.
7 sorties, 35 ships for 180,073 tons on U-103.
5 sorties, 27 ships sunk (170,151 tons) on U-68 (IXC).
4 sorties, 26 ships (156,082 tons) on U-160 (IXC).
7 sorties, 24 ships (155,714 tons) on U-515 (IXC).
5 sorties, 26 ships (152,080 tons) on U-172 (IXC).
8 sorties, 24 ships (151,260 tons) part on the U-107 (IXB), 13 ships.
8 sorties, 25 ships for 146,815 tons, part on U-177 (IXD2).
5 sorties, 20 ships for 145,656 tons on U-130 (IXC)
6 sorties, 27 ships for 129,292 tons on U-124 (IXB)
8 sorties, 25 ships for 128,190 tons on U-108 (IXB)
-Adolf Cornelius Piening:
8 sorties, 25 ships for 126,664 tons on U-155 (IXC)
4 sorties, 23 ships for 119,554 tons on U-159 (IXC).
3 sorties for 21 ships and 118,822 tons on U-017 (IXB)
5 sorties and 25 (118,560 tons) on U-126 (IXC)
5 sorties, 22 ships (115,656 tons) on U-123 (partly) (IXC)
4 sorties, 26 ships (115,337 ton) partly on U-198 (IXD2)
5 sorties, 16 ships (106,200 tons) partly on U-66 (IXC).
13 sorties, 19 ships (101,744 tons) partly on U-106 (IXB)
8 sorties, 22 ships (101,519 tons) mostly on U-848 (IXD2)
2 sorties, 17 ships (101,321 tons) on U-158 (IXC)
3 sorties, 19 ships (100,773 tons) on U-129 and U-166 (IXC)
11 sorties, 19 ships on 100,373 tons on U-107 (IXB)
5 sorties, 20 ships for 97,504 tons on U-156 (IXC)
10 sorties, 20 ships for 96,639 tons on U-110 (IXB)
10 sorties, 21 ships 93,197 tons partly on U-123 (IXC)
8 sorties, 19 ships 89,886 tons partly on U-124 (IXB)
10 sorties and 16 ships for 85,779 tons partly on U-105 (IXB)
-Hans-Georg Friedrich Poske:
4 ships for 16 ships and 85,299 tons on U-504 (IXC)
5 sorties and 12 ships for 83,639 tons on U-37 and U-128 (IXC)
5 sorties and 17 ships for 82,873 tons on U-37 and U-125 (IXC)
14 sorties and 16 ships 82,108 tons partly on U-847 (IXD)
3 sorties and 14 ships for 82,027 tons on U-162 (IXC)
5 sorties and 15 ships for 79,302 tons partly on U-103 (IXB)
-Jürgen von Rosenstiel:
4 sorties and 14 ships for 78,843 tons on U-502 (IXC).
Liveries and camouflage of the Type IX
https://coollib.com/b/297951/read - Excellent source !
U-858 surrendering to the USN, escorted by a patrol boat to Portsmouth in May 1945. A very famous color photo and movie (cc)
Type IXA on tubosquid
U107 HD rendering, profile and deck
Bronco 1/350 NB5009 German Long Range Submarine U-IXB Model Kit
//store.spruebrothers.com/product_p/rvg05114-os.htm (Revell 1/72 IXC late U-505)
HobbyBoss DKM U-Boat Type IXC 1/700
Colors and markings of Kriegsmarine boats (Scribd)