Dutch Navy WW1

Origins of the Dutch Navy: A rousing start

Creation in 1488

The Koninklijke Marine was first formed as a semi-independent local Habsburg fleet in 1488, but was really formalized and independent at the end of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), from the House of Habsburg. She reached a peak during the Dutch Republic era (1581–1795), having at some point the world's largest navy, which was pitted against England, France, and Spain's own mighty fleets. During this golden age of great galleons and Indiamans, the Dutch Republic naval forces were spread among five separate admiralties (three in Holland, one in Friesland and Zeeland) operating local fleets, up to command organization, and revenues. The famous VOC (Dutch East India Company or Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) chartered in 1602 had its own fleets, armies, organization and command plus an international network of naval bases and colonies. This was the first modern global company, a state withing the state. The VOC was eventually closed when Napoleon's armies conquered the Netherlands, after 200 years. This makes this navy almost the oldest in Europe.

Willem Van de Velde Aug. 10/1653 Old Glories and remembrance: Willem Van de Velde victory over the British at Scheveningen on August, 10, 1657, part of the First Anglo-Dutch War.

The XIXth Century was bleaker for the Dutch as a declined, which started from after 1713 and cluminated in the 1780. At this point, the Dutch Marine was no longer a match for the French and British navy, despite an ambitious revival in 1780, the fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-1784) was a catastrophe, the Dutch allowing free passage throughout the East Indies whole until 1789 what remained of the home squadrons were sent to the Dutch East India Company. Reforms with the academy and command structure occurred with the Batavian Revolution (1795) and a central organisation was funded in The Hague.

The fall of the Empire

However warships stayed in dry-docks, a few conveying William V to Great Britain and the others sailing to East Asia. In 1796 a squadron surrendered at Saldanha Bay (1796) while the lost Battle of Camperdown in 1797 followed by the surrender of the fleet near the Vlieter in 1799 erased what was left of the Batavian navy, now part of Imperial France. After regaining independence in December 1813, the Dutch navy was revived. But later in the 19th century, it suffered from a constant shortage of manpower. In addition, bankruptcy of the East India Company, against the bulk of the home fleet shifted to East Asia in 1850, with the "Government Navy".

The XIXth Century

Koning der Nederlanden 1874
Koning der Nederlanden 1874

The navy began to modernize the fleet, introducing a series of monitors, two large turret ram ship (then ordered abroad). From 1867 however, the Rijkswerf in Amsterdam was the first shipyard modernized and capable of delivering major, modern all-steel warships. In the 1890s series of protected cruisers and coastal defense ships was introduced, with what became the Royal Netherlands Navy in 1905. The first submarines were introduced in 1910, and there were plans to order several dreadnought battleships in 1912.

List of articles

The Dutch Navy in the Great War

Amsterdam at the start of the century (wow screen)

In 1914, the Dutch fleet was in the same position as other Scandinavian fleets, having only one coast defense squadron to defend its shores and several obsolescent cruisers and torpedo boats. She was totally outclassed by the Hochseeflotte at home, while the bulk of her naval forces resided in the "pearl of the empire", future Indonesia, facing since 1905 the rise of Japan's empire, overconfident after Tsushima. Achin's war had, by its duration (1873-1904), considerably drained treasure, and naval budgets could only be modest. The metropolitan fleet could only waged a delaying action against the German navy, since the real perile came obviously from land. On the Dutch East Indian Squadron, based at Java, the fleet could at least resist better to the Japanese until the help of one of its potential allies, like nearby Great Britain. That was all theoretical as the Netherlands remained neutral. In addition, by 1914 the British own Indian fleet had been withdrawn for the benefit of home waters; no longer there as a wild card. The French navy of Indochina could only deploy minor units, while the Chinese fleet was inoperative, divided between local warlords, of dubious allegiance and value.

Therefore in 1908 at last, a vast rearmament plan was decided: Four coastal battleships of 7,000 tons were ordered as well as submersibles and destroyers. The main focus was however on mine-laying capabilities in order to immobilize the adversary or channel it towards coastal artillery or strong torpedo forces.

A royal commission was appointed to study the question of defense of the East Indies, and recommended in 1913 the starting of 5 dreadnought battleships in the 20,000 tons range, as well as four for home waters as well as fifty destroyers, dozens of torpedo boats and large submersibles, as well as new minelayers. It was also planned to reinforce Batavia, transform it into a fully fledged fortified naval base with coal reserves and three forts own heavy artillery. With political opposition to this proposal, a crisis broke, and the plan was not voted on until August 1914. The outbreak of the war made it obsolete.
So here is the fleet strength on this date:

7 Coastal Battleships: De Zeven Provincien (1909), Kortenaer (1894-Evertsen class survivor), and five smaller Konigin Regentes (1900-06). 4 Cruisers: Classe Holland (1896-98).
8 Destroyers: Classe Fret (1910-13).
35 Topedo boats: 16 classe G (1904-14), 3 classe Draak (1906), 2 classe Ophir (1901), 5 classe Hydra (1900), Makjan, 4 classe Ardjoeno (1888). Seconde class XXI (1890) and 3 classe K (1905). 8 more in construction.
6 Submersibles: O1 (1905), 4 class O2, and K1 (1913). Two more on order.
35 Misc.: 3 armoured gunboats Brinio class (1912), 2 minelayers Hydra class (1911), gunboat Borneo (1892), 2 Nias (1897), 3 Koetei (1898), 8 Hydra (1873-76), 16 Wodan (1877-79).

Tonnage 1914:
7 Coastal defence ships
4 Cruisers
8 Destroyers
6 Submersibles
35 TBs
35 Misc.

The Dutch Navy that never was: 1912 and 1924 plans

1912 Dutch Dreadnought

Germaniawerft design (top) and the two others.

This topic is a bit of sea serpent, with lots of literrature and some fantastic designs. Theses projected battleships were basically the results of the Royal Commission on the defence of the East Indies. Like as it was disconnected from the Dutch economy and worked in a vacuum, this commission proposed the construction of no less that nine dreadnoughts. For the Netherlands, which never went further than a large coastal battleship, this was nothing short of revolutionary. Discussions went on until consensus appeared on a single design: 24,665 tonnes, 21 knots, eight 13.5 inches (356 mm), sixteen casemated 5.9 inches, and twelve 75 mm guns. The Dutch givernment itself proposed to even enlarge the elected proposal.

Soon, tenders were offered to major shipyards of the time, Germaniawerft, Blowhm und Voss in Germany and Vickers in UK. Requirements notably were really specific in decreasing slightly the armour thickness in favor of a better speed, tailored for duels in the Java sea. Better than average hull protection also, against mines and torpedoes. In the end the Germania design was chosen (see tables below) as the closest to Dutch requirements. However the program was eventually not approved, no order was passed, and if it had, the proposed date for it of December 1914 would have been doomed by the war. Ships built in Germany would have been almost immediately scrapped, or completed for Germany. If built (with no war) completion dates would have been around 1918.

Eight battleships would have probably changed a bit Japanese plans in WW2 for the Dutch East Indies, but not much. Another pearl-harbor style attack was indeed possible at Sorebaya and Java in early 1942. In the end, the cost of such endeavour was simply too much for the Netherlands. Apart the Java class, the only interwar major naval program was the sold light cruiser De Ruyter, a far cry from an eight battleships fleet. Specifications (Germania design 1914)
Displacement: 24,600 tons standard, 26,835 tons FL
Dimensions: 184 x 28 x 9 m (603 x 91 x 30 ft)
Propulsion: 3 shafts turbines, 6 Double boilers, 38,000 shp, 22 kts, 2040 tons oil
Armament: 8x 356mm (14 in), 16x 150mm (5.9 in), 12x 75mm, 5 TT sub.
Armmour: Belt 150-250, Bkhds 200, TBkhds 40, Bbets 300, Dck 50, CT 300mm.
Crew: 900+ est.

Lichtendahl's Superdreadnoughts and 1923 naval plan

In 1919 the "Lichtendahl" Superdreadnoughts and a Battlecruiser were envisioned in the essay of that year called "De economische, politieke en strategische ligging van Indisch-Nederland", by lieutenant 1st class N.F. Lichtendahl. Recommendations for a 30 000 ton Super-Dreadnought & cruiser fleet led by a 27,000 tonnes battlecruiser capable of 26kts. He predicted that East Asia was was going into an era of economical and military decline, and was going to be hihmy vulnerable to foreign expansionism. The Dutch cabinet, in concertation with and Dutch East Indies government decided to plan a good defence aimed mostly at Japan, upon Lichtendahl's recommendation. He foresaw that without good preparations, the colony would fall within 2 months to the Japanese.

It was believed a fleet in being needed to be mustered by 1922-1924, consisting of a single division of battleships of four 30.000 ton super dreadnoughts and a flotilla of eight destroyers, on division of cruisers led by a single 28.000 ton battle cruiser and three 7.000 ton protected cruisers plus three 1.500 ton scout cruisers, three 3 flotillas of submarines and a torpedo cruiser, three torpedo boats and ten submarines for coastal defence. He planned this in order to repel a force expected to comprise 8 super dreadnoughts supported by cruisers, in the Java Sea. Then, the plan once approved, cost issues were studied:

Four super dreadnoughts at 160 million, one battle cruiser at 40 million, three protected cruisers at 30 million total, 3 scout cruisers at 12 million total, three torpedo cruisers at 9 million, 8 destroyers at 12 million and 9 torpedo boats for 9 million plus 30 submarines for 45 million which made a grand total of 317 million Dutch guilders, added to that 35 million for new naval base and renovating the old ones, and built a coastal naval air force, which represented 352 million (less available bases and material) but 8 million for unsuspected costs, for a grand total of 280 million Dutch guilders, and 20,87 million Dutch guilders for maintenance and training, 4 million for the management of the arsenal, the support department and administration, for an added 24,87 million Dutch guilders.

Needless to say, such sums were painful to hear in a time of resolutely pacifist opinion, but in 1923 the Dutch cabinet was pressed to modernize the navy seriously. However, the Vlootwet 1924 of naval bill FY1924 did not passed the vote at Dutch Parliament on 26 October 1923... with the difference of just one vote. Budget was curtailed to cosmetic additions, until WW2 was at the gate, and a new ambitious plan was launched, of course too late. As predicted in early 1942, the Dutch colony fell in less than two months, hopeless with its limited fleet, and even with allied reinforcements (ABDA) to face the IJN juggernaut. Src

Situation at home

"It's not easy to stay neutral", Dutch humoristic postcard of WWI.

In 1914, the Dutch fleet was in the same position as Scandinavian countries, having only one coast defense squadron to defend its shores, totally outclassed by the Hochseeflotte, the expansionist Reich being the most feared at the time. west, while the bulk of his naval forces resided in the "pearl of the empire", Indonesia, and had to face the rise of Japan's empire, considerably strengthened since 1905 in morale, confidence and capabilities. The Achin war had, by its duration (1873-1904), singularly impoverished the treasury, and naval budgets were curtailed.

The metropolitan navy could not do much against the German navy, but the real military peril came in the occurrence of the land. On the Dutch Eastside, the Japanese fleet outclassed the squadron of Java, but at least it had to resist until the concurrence of one or all the allies.

HNLMS Noord-Brabant
HNLMS Noord-Brabant

The Dutch Empire's last colonies

However, the prevalent budgetary constraints policy had its limits. Against Japanese appetites, the Russian Pacific Fleet no longer resisted after 1905, while the British Indian Fleet had been withdrawn for the benefit of the Metropolis. The French navy of Indochina could only deploy minor units, while the Chinese fleet was inoperative, crippled after 1894, and stranded because of its division between local warlord and the regime's corruption, rarely able to fight. In 1908, a vast rearmament plan was decided: Four coastal 7000 tons battleships and are submersible plus destroyers. The main focus was on minefields, to immobilize the adversary or force an enemy to pass through areas beaten by coastal artillery, mined and easily defended by few ships. The classic "Salamine trap".

HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (1906)

A royal commission was appointed to study the question of defense of the East Indies, and it recommended in 1913 the start of construction of five 20,000 tons dreadnoughts for this sector, but also four for the metropolis, assisted by about fifty destroyers. There were also dozens of torpedo boats and large submersibles, as well as new minelayers. It was also planned to reinforce Batavia, transformed into a naval base with the addition of coal reserves and defended by three forts. Despite the political opposition that provoked a crisis, the plan was not voted on until August 1914. The outbreak of the war made it obsolete.

Here are Dutch naval force at the eve of WWI:
7 Coastal Battleships: The De Zeven Provincien (1909), the Kortenaer (1894), a survivor of the Evertsen class, and the 5 class Konigin Regentes (1900-06).
4 Cruisers: 4 Holland class (1896-98).
8 Destroyers: Freja Class (1910-13).
35 Raiders: 16 Class G (1904-14), 3 Class Draak (1906), 2 Class Ophir (1901), 5 Class Hydra (1900), the Makjan, and 4 Class Ardjoeno (1888). Second class: The XXI (1890) and 3 class K (1905). 8 others planned under construction.
Submersibles: O1 (1905), O2 class, and K1 (1913). Two others planned.
35 Miscellaneous: 3 armored gunboats class Brinio (1912), 2 Hydra class minesweepers (1911), the Borneo gunboat (1892), 2 class Nias (1897), 3 class Koetei (1898), 8 multipurpose ships class Hydra (1873 -76), and 16 class Wodan (1877-79).

HNLMS Hertog at Hendrik at Makassar strait HNLMS Hertog at Hendrik at Makassar strait (1906)

The Batavian Navy during the First World War:


The neutrality shown by Holland in 1914 was one of the most difficult to hold: Neighbor of the Second Reich, whose armies would have made a mouthful of her, granting herself valuable opportunities on the North Sea, it should also spare the Japanese, neutral too, but who could then very well switch to the camp of the triple alliance. Its imposing maritime trade, with Germany as well as with Great Britain, was also a powerful obstacle to any engagement.

With the blockade imposed by the English and the severe control of the merchant traffic, economic activity was significantly weakened. In practice, the reception of German cargo ships was almost impossible, a consortium of Batavian merchants committing themselves to it and Great Britain keeping the right to "blacklist" the offending importers, particularly by weighing on coal imports allocated to companies.

HNLMS De Zeven Provincien departing for the East Indies (1910)

However, blockades were always possible, thanks in particular to the intermediaries represented by the Scandinavian countries. Thus Germany received millions of tons of Norwegian iron passing through Rotterdam. A large illegal food trade also developed illegally, with the black market inflating prices and freeing appetites from many adventurers... The Royal Navy also did not hesitate to pursue German blockade enforcers in Dutch waters; Those who passed through the Batavian ports were not in principle worried.

Knonigin regentes plans
Plans HNLMS Koningin Regentes

HNLMS Koningin Regentes (1898)
HNLMS Koningin Regentes (1898)

In 1917, with the development of submarine warfare, the Dutch were not spared and lost, despite their safe conduct, 230,000 tons of commercial ships, worth 147 million pounds sterling. New ships constructions were launched: In 1916, two cruisers of the Java class, completed in 1925-26, 6 torpedo boats class Z, 2 submersibles class O6, the KII, 2 class KIII, 3 class KV, 3 class KVIII (these last completed after the war, in 1919-23), 2 trawlers and 5 tugs converted as minelayers, 2 Van Meerlant class minelayers. In addition, two submersibles, a German type UC and an English type H were recovered after sinking in home waters and were reused by the Navy, under the names of M1 and O8.

HNLMS Cruiser Java, launched 1920.

The Dutch Navy in detail

Coastal Battleships

Reiner Claeszen (1891)

Certainly the oldest of the lot, named after Vice Admiral Reinier Claeszen, this 2,440 tonnes vessel was no longer operational when WWI broke out, but since only four months. Hr.Ms. Reinier Claeszen was built as a ram armoured ship, at the Rijkswerf in Amsterdam. She launched on 21 November 1891 and commissioned on 1st March 1894 in Hellevoetsluis, her construction costs was 1,960,000 Florins. Her designation changed in May 12, 1893, so even before she was operational, as a "monitor". She was not seaworthy, steering poorly and often ran aground damage. She remained as a coast defense ship for the Dutch coastal waters. In 1907 she stayed in port, and was used to "tame" the massive harbour strikes of Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

On April 22, 1913, HMS Reinier Claeszen was drydocked at Hellevoetsluis for full maintenance and conversion, but work was stopped on November 28, 1913 and on 21 April 1914 she was was decommissioned, used as a floating oil depot when the war broke out, freeing crews where they were needed. On November 21, 1915 she was sold, for 40,539 ans scrapped later. Quick specs (see the 1898 fleet for details -upcoming): 2479 tons, 70 m x 13,52 m x 4,55 m, crew 159, 2 VTE, 6 Coal-fired boilers 2,315 shp, 12,5 kts, 96 tons coal, crew 160. She was armed with a single forward turret Krupp 8.2 inches/32 (210 mm), a single 6.7in/35 aft (173 mm), four 4-pdr and two 14-inches TTs (356 mm).

Evertsen class (1894)

Evertsen, Piet Hein, Kortenaer

Three 3,500 tonnes coast defense ships were built at Fijenoord, Amsterdam and de Schelde Yards, all launched in 1894 and completed in 1895-96. They were the firsts with a complete waterline armoured belt. They were better armed also, with no less than three (one twin and one single) 210 mm/35 Krupp guns, two single 150mm/35 Krupp guns, six single Vickers 75mm guns and three 450mm torpedo tubes. Their armor reached 150mm thick for the belt and 240mm for the gun turrets faces.
Quick specs: 3463 tons standard, 86.2 x 14.33 x 5.23 m. 2 VTE engines, 6 coal-fired boilers, 4,700 shp, 16 knots, 289 tonnes of coal in store. Crew 263 men.

Only Kortenaer on paper, was still operational when WWI broke out. Evertsen was discarded in 1913 and Piet Hein in 1914, actually just before the war broke out.

Koningin Regentes class (1900)

K. Regentes, De Ruyter, H. Hendrik, M.H. Tromp, J.V. Hermskerck.

K.Regentes 1914

Another serie of three (and two modified ones) coastal battleships as planned in 1894, but this time provided by two large guns (240 mm, 9.4 inches) fore and aft in individual turrets, slightly better speed and better protection overall. They were built in the same slipways as the three Eversten class, laid down in 1898-1901 and launched in 1900-1902, commissioned in 1902-1904, so they were still relatively recent when WWI broke out. They represented by then the bulk of the defense coast fleet, alongside Tromp and Van Hermskerck. As earlier ships, they had a single funnel and two masts, with a low profile and forecastle, so the aft turret was one deck lower, and in general better seakeeping qualities and seaworthiness as well as handling.

These three ships were still in service in 1920: K. Regentes was decomm. that year, De Ruyter in 1923, but Hertog Hendrik was still in service when WW2 broke out (see that section). Marten Harpertzoon Tromp was built at Amsterdam in 1903-1904, commissioned April 1906 on a modified design: The only difference were the secondary 5.9 inches guns single-mounted on the beam were now in turrets again fore and aft close to the main turrets, and the lighter guns under shields on the broadside. For the rest, Tromp had the not same displacement, but 210 tonnes more, she was larger at 110.78 x 15.19 x 5.69 m, a belt 6.4 inches thick, turrets faces downgraded at 8 inches, but like the rest, Krupp guns and armor. Jacob Van Hermskerck on her part was slighlty lighter and shorter (4920 tonnes, 98 x 15.19 x 5.69 m), but she had two additional 5.9 in guns amidships. Both vessels were still active in WW2. Hertog Hendrik became the German floating FLAK-batterie KMS Ariadne and Van Hermskerck KMS Undine.

Van Hermskerck 1908

Specifications (K. Regentes)
Displacement: 5002 tons
Dimensions: 96.41 x 15.19 x 5.82 m ()
Propulsion: 2 VTE, 8 boilers, 6,500 shp, 16.5 kts, 736 tons coal
Armament: 2x 240 mm (9.4 in), 4x 149 mm (5.9 in), 8x 13-pdr, 1x 1-pdr, 3x 457mm (18-in) TTs
Crew: 340

De Zeven Provincien (1909)

Although all previous coastal battleships derived from 1860-70s monitors, HMS De Zeven Privincien became the closest to a pre-dreadnought the Dutch Navy would ever have: This unique ship reached 6,530 tonnes, which was half the tonnage of a small pre-dreadnought, she was not as fat, but at least her main armamment now reached battleship standard, with a pair of 280 mm Krupp guns. Compared to a 12-inches, the German gun compensated by slightly more accuracy and range. The seocndary armament still consisted in four 150 mm, this time in hull recesses. The hull was designed to be more seaworthy and the flush-deck hull was taller. Dimensions were slightly larger, about 80 cm more in beam, more draught as well. However she was not faster than previous ships.

Built in Amsterdam NyD, she was laid down in February 1908, launched in march 1909 and completed in October 1910, having trained extensively for four years when the war broke out; After the war she stayed in home waters instead of being sent to the east indies. In 1933 a serious mutiny was quelled by a bomb dropped by a navy seaplane, killing 32. Laid up, she was converted as a training ship in 1935-36 with paret of her powerplant removed (five boilers and forefunnel) and the rest converted and her armament altered. In 1937 she was recommissioned as Soerabaya, and served in the East Indies (see the WW2 Dutch Navy for more), sunk in 1942 by IJN aviation.

General Scheme
Specifications (1914)
Displacement: 6,530 tons
Dimensions: 103.50 x 16 x 6.20 m ()
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 8 Yarrow boilers, 8,000 shp, 16 kts, 1030 tons coal
Armament: 2x 280mm/42 (11 in), 4x 150mm/40 (5.9 in), 10x 75mm, 4x 37mm, 1x 9pdr mortar, 2 MGs.
Crew: 452

WW1 Dutch Cruisers

HrMs Tromp of the Atjeh class unprotected master crusiers (1877)

The lineage of Dutch Cruisers is the following: HMS Adolf Hartog Van Nassau, a 1861 Frigate, Anna Pulowna, a 1867 screw corvette, the eight Djambi class screw corvettes (1860-72), and the seven Atjeh class, unprotected cruisers (1876-86) -More. Ships active in WW1 were the following: Sumatra, K.W.Der Neth., the famous Holland class, and the late war Java class.

Sumatra (1890)

A small protected cruiser (1,693 tonnes) with a 38mm thick turtleback armor deck. She was armed with a single 210mm gun (8.2in/35) forward and single 150mm (5.9 in/35) aft, both under shields, and the two 120mm in sponsons, abreast the foremast. In addition the cruiser carried four 1-pdr QF guns and two 1-pdr howitzers that can be transferred on a boat for landing parties and two 14-in (305 mm) torpedo tubes. Quick Specs: 69,97 x 11,30 x 4,67m (230 x 37 x 15ft), two VTE steam engines, two propellers and four boilers for 2350 shp and 17 knots. With her low, flush deck hull, much broader at the center, and ram, she was not much more than a glorified gunboat. Plan. Built in Rijkswerf Amsterdam between 5.3.1888 and 2.6.1891 she had a fairly short career, discarded in 1907, but still extant as an utility hulk during WW1.

Koningin Wilhelmina der Netherlanden (1892)

A much larger protected cruiser intended for home waters, she was built in Amsterdam, launched 1892. Much larger at 4,530 tonnes, she was unusually designed, with a single 11 inches/30 (283 mm) forward single 8.2 inches (209 mm) aft, two 6.7 inches (173 mm) on the broadsides, four 75mm/37 Krupp, six 37mm/20 Hotchkiss QF, and four multiple barrel 37mm/17 Hotchkiss HMG plus four 356mm TTs (1 bow, 2 beam, 1 stern). Quick specs: 99.8 x 14.9 x 6.07m, 2 shafts, four VTE, 6 cylindrical boilers, 4600 shp, 15.8 knots, 411 tons coal for 1800 nm at 10 kts plus rigging. She was protected by a 50 mm compound deck armor with 75mm slopes, and had barbette 280 mm thicj for the main turret, which had a 280 mm face. She too had a short career, discarded and stricken in March 1910.

Holland class (1896)

K. Regentes, H. Hendrik, M.H. Tromp, J.V. Hermskerck.

In 1886, the Dutch naval staff planned an ambitious new class of six ships to serve as long range commerce raiders, in distant stations like i the East Indies, but morever to take place in the defence of the homeland. They were to be all named after Dutch provinces and inspired by the British Apollo class. As protected cruisers, they were a good compromise for the limited economy of the country, not costly as armoured cruisers (and perfectly out of question since there was no battle line to fill), but yet, better protected than second class light cruisers of the time.

Built in two groups in various locations, launched in 1896-98 and completed by 1898-1901 these pantserdekschepen had quite an active service, seeing and participating in the Second Boer War, the Boxer war, Aceh War, or second Castro crisis. Due to budget cuts only four would remain active in 1913, two decommissioned. Holland, Zeeland saw WW1 and were discarded in 1920-24 while the last, Gelderland and Noordbrabant wee still active in 1940 as minelayers and training vessels. Both have been modernized prior to the great war.

Full article

Java class (1920)

Java, Sumatra, Celebes, laid down 1916-17

The three cruisers of the Java class were started in 1916-17 to replace older units in the Dutch Navy squadron. The class counted the HLMNS Java, Sumatra and Celebes, but construction of the third was delayed and finally was abandoned in 1919, resources being focused on the remaining two. They were eventually completed in 1923, and entered service in 1924. Already these ships were of an obsolete design with their single masked artillery positions of 6-in mounts, but both were fitted with a catapult to launch Fairey IIID seaplanes.

Full article

WW1 Dutch Destroyers

Fret class destroyers (1910)

Bulhound, Fret, Jackhals, Wolf, Hermelijn, Lynx, Panter, Vos

Of the initial naval plan of 1905, eight destroyers were voted and construction started in 1909, loosely inspired by British designs, they mostly of a purely domestic design, and the first Dutch destroyers ever. Unlike Germany which Hochseetprpedoboote or high seas TBs were derived from a long line of torpedo boats, the Dutch vessels shared nothing with its last class of torpedo boats. They were designed to operate with the fleet, and shared the same speed and range required. Called "Fret", or "Wolf" they were commonly known as the "roodfier" class, the "predators".

Displacing 510 t however they were on the small side, sharing this with the British River class. They were powered by four Yarrow boilers producing 8,500 hp (6,300 kW), mated with two Krupp-Germania steam turbines. They all ran on coal but the last four (Lynx, Hermelijin, Vos, Panter) had a small oil tank 12.5 t for fuel injection and an additional 340 nmi of endurance. Armament was relatively weak, with four 75 mm/52 and four 7.92 mm machine guns, but only two single 450 mm (18 in) torpedo tubes. Completed in 1911-1914 they served for a short time, being discarded in 1922-34.

Specifications (1911)
Displacement: 510 tons
Dimensions: 70.5 x 6.6 x 2.8 m (231 x 22 x 9 ft)
Propulsion: 2 shafts VTE, 4 Yarrow boilers, 8,500 shp, 30 kts, 120 tons coal
Armament: 4x 75mm (3 in), 4x 0.3 in MGs, 2x 450 mm TTs.
Crew: 83

WW1 Dutch Torpedo Boats

First class Torpedo Boats (1886-1915)

Z5 class TBs
In 1914, the Dutch Navy aligned some 21 first-class (with six more in construction) and five 2nd class ones, so 26 in all.

Ardjoeno group (1886): 80-90 tonnes, 10 ship initially, of which only four were still active 1914.
Lamongan group (1890): 59 tonnes, 3 ship initially, only HMS Makjan active 1914.
Hydra group (1900): 101 tonnes, 5 ships.
Ophir group (1901): 140 tonnes, 4 ships.
Draak class (1906): 103 tonnes, 3 ships.
G1 class (1906): 140 tonnes, 12 ships.
G13 class (1913): 180 tonnes, 4 ships, also WW2
Z1 class (1914): 277 tonnes, 4 ships, all seized > Germany. Still active WW2 also
Z5 class (1915): 263 tonnes, 2 ships, completed 1916-17, also WW2.

Second class Torpedo Boats (1886-1915)

K1 class TBs
XV group (1881): 30 tonnes, 2 ships, none active 1914.
Etna group (1882): 45 tonnes, 2 ships, none active 1914.
III/XXI group (1890): 37 tonnes, 3 ships, one active 1914.
K1 group (1900): 47 tonnes, 3 ships, all active 1914.

WW1 Dutch submarines


Not many were present in home waters to change the course of history. Coastal in nature, they were held in harbour defense for the duration of the war. All in all, seven submarines, and in addition a single one (K1) was deployed in the Dutch east indies (see later). In addition, the Dutch Netherlands Navy had a single German Type UC I submarine in service, called M1 after being recommissioned, and a single British H-class submarine, called O 8. The first was the ex UC-8, stranded near the Frisian island of Terschelling on 6 November 1915 and captured, after her crew opened the valves to sink her. She was recovered and repaired, interned, and then acquired from Germany, entering service in January 1917. Her fate is not known with certainty, she was either scrapped after the war or kept as a training boat.

O 8 was the ex H-6, stranded also, but on Schiermonnikog on 18 January 1916. She was refloated and interned, because the country remained staunchly neutral during the conflict. By agreement, when was acquired by the government and pressed into commission in May 1917. She had a long service time, for whole the interwar, not surprising due to the quality of these boats (see WW1 British Submarines). In May 1940 she was captured in Den Helder by the Germans. They turned her as the UD-1, used as a training boat, and later was repatriated in Germany. She was scuttled in Kiel in May 1945.

O 1:

The First Dutch submarine, built at De Schelde Yard as a private venture in Vlissingen, after the Dutch Navy purchased plans from Electric Boat Co. He first name was Luctor de Energo, and she was -as anticipated by the yard- purchased by the Navy and renamed Hrms O 1. She was launched in July 1905 but commissioned in December 1906, completion and trials leading to many fixes. Basically a very early commercial Holland boat, she was typical of the type, fast and agile after diving, slow and short range on surface. Initially fitted with a petrol motor, it was replaced in 1914 by a MAN diesel engine. It saw service during the war as a coastal/training boat and was stricken in 1920. She displaced 105/124 tonnes and was capable to reach 8 knots on surface, 6 underwater, and carried a single 250 mm TT (9.8 in).

O 2 class:

HrMs O2
O2 class: O2-O5 were basically the main submarine class in service when the Netherlands went at war in August 1915. They were all built at De Schelde, based on plans prepared by the British engineer Marley F Hay, and Whitehead & Co in Fiume (a famous torpedo manufacturer since the 1870s). Laid down in 1909-1912 they were completed in 1911-1914, but already obsolescent as the war started. Despite of this, they were modernized after WW1 and maintained in service as training/coastal submersibles until stricken in 1931-35.

Displacement: 130/150t
Dimensions: 31.1 x 3.1 x 2.9 m (102ft x 10ft 2in x 9ft 6in)
Propulsion: 1 shaft MAN diesel 6-cyl, 1 electric motor 350/200 shp, 11/8.6 knots
Range: 500 nm/10 kts, 26 nm/8.6 kts underwater
Armament: Two 450 mm TTs (17.7 in)
Crew: 10

O 6 class:

Wartime submarines (launched 1916), comprising O6 and O7. They were born from different yards (O7 from Fijenoord) and sufficiently different for some authors to have them separated.
O 6 was indeed of the Holland type, O 7 of the Hay-denny type. The O 6 was ordered on 8 May 1913, laid down in May 1914 in Flushing, De Schelde, launched on 10 June 1915 or 15 July 1916, comm. on 5 December 1916. During the war she remained based in Den Helder. In early june 1920 she made a trip to Norway, visiting Odda, Bergen, Gudvangen and back. In June 1923 she was used by Professor F.A. Vening Meinesz for gravity measurements in the North Sea. Without no other notable events she was decommissioned in November 1936. O 7 was ordered on 8 May 1913, laid down on 12 May 1914 the O 7 in Rotterdam, Maatschappij Fijenoord, launched on 22 July 1916 and commissioned on 23 December 1916. Nothing notable happened during WW1 as she was posted as O 7.
On 18 May 1927 she collided with the Swedish steamer Scania off the coast of Texel, but survived and was repaired. From 1935 she was used only as a training vessel, until December 1936 decommissioned and sold for scrapping, but still extant in 1940, when the Germans invaded the Netherlands. Captured, she was of no use and stayed idle, until sinking on 2 May 1944 in Den Helder because of water leaking and scrapped after the war.

Specifications (O 7 in brackets)
Displacement: 189/229 (716/206 t)
Dimensions: 37.7 x 3.8 x 3 m (34.2 x 3.7 x 2.9 m)
Propulsion: 1 shaft MAN diesel +EM 375/185 shp (350), 12/8.5 kts
Armament: 3x 450 mm (17.7 in) TTs bow and stern, 1 MG
Crew: 15

WW1 Dutch Gunboats

Assimilated to sloops five vessels preceded proper gunboats in the naval inventory: HMS Watergeus (1986), Marnix (1867), Alkmaar (1874), Sommelsdjik (1882) and Java (1885). They were all masted and retired long before WWI. Gunboats were divided into two classes, above and below 500 tonnes. For the 1st class gunboats, this went from 541 to 800 tonnes. For the 2ns class, the 1874 Hydra and Wodan classes. Like most of the others, they were all discarded before WW1 started. We will only focus on a the latest of them:

Ashahan of the Koetei class

WW1 Dutch Minelayers

Hydra class

Focus shifted from gunboats to minelayers as a way to built a potent coastal deterrent in case of war. These were mostly light ships, most converted. Read More

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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