Java class cruisers (1921)

The Netherlands - 1921

The battling Dutch cruisers

The three cruisers of the Java class were started in 1916-17 to replace older units in the Dutch Navy squadron. The class counted the HLMNS Java, Sumatra and Celebes, but construction of the third was delayed and finally was abandoned in 1919, resources being focused on the remaining two. They were eventually completed in 1923, and entered service in 1924. Already these ships were of an obsolete design with their single masked artillery positions of 6-in mounts, but both were fitted with a catapult to launch Fairey IIID seaplanes.

In 1934-35 both cruisers were modernized at home, fitted with a modern fire system with, in a new armored tower on the German model. Six to eight 40 mm AA Bofors replaced the old “13 pounders” on the decks. In 1940 HDMNS Sumatra took refuge in France and later fled to Britain. She was eventually scuttled as an artificial breakwater on D-Day, but her sister ship HDMNS Java faced the Japanese alone after the loss of the cruiser De Ruyter and the ABDA squadron. She was sunk in February 28, 1942 by Haguro and Nachi after an harrowing, legendary duel.

Development of the Java class

Java class blueprint
Blueprint of the class, showing the entire hull and deck view.

Designed in 1913, built in the Schelde naval shipyards, these three cruisers were named after Dutch famous islands in the East Indies. The concept was to replace the existing Dutch cruisers in service at the eve of the Great War, namely the four ageing Holland class ships (1896-98) which formed the bulk of the east Indies fleet, coastal battleships being preferred to maintain the safety of home waters. However we have to look also at the broader scope: At the end of the 19th century indeed, Japan emerged politically and economically, developing at lightning speed. The IJN in particular, unsignificant in 1890, left the battle of Yalu victorious in 1894 and was considerably reinforced. This came with unveile ambitions and this caused some concerns in the Dutch East Indies. In 1902, it became a conviction that Japan was about to risk an attack on the Dutch colony, the only question was when.

The Netherlands in addition was forced to face this prospect all by itself, since Japan and Great Britain signed a cooperation agreement and the Royal Navy started to retire the RN ships back to the home fleet. In 1913 therefore, plans were made for a rapid, drastic extension of the fleet. Originally the admiralty expected no less than nine battleships, 6 cruisers and dozens of destroyers, most of which were due to the East Indies. In 1915, over submission, the German Krupp Germaniawerf company came up with a proposal looking like a scaled-down Moltke class battlecruiser.



Primary armament was to be ten 150 mm guns on a displacement of 6670 tons. A design was elaborated, looking towards the latest German cruisers of the time. The armament of ten 6-in guns was adopted as an answer to the Japanese Tenryū class light cruisers. The rest were workarounds to have a ship fast enough to compete. The plans prepared by Krupp Germaniawerft and approved were very modern when ordered and almost an overkill, with a straight stern and tandem guns forward and aft, plus torpedo banks.

Design of the Java and Sumatra

A superficial look clearly shows some german influence, in particular with the design of the funnels, compartimentation, armament location and type, powerplant architecture, and target control military masts. In size and tonnage, they looked similar enlarged German Graudenz class cruisers, displacing 6670 tons standard and 8087 tons fully loaded, for a lenght of 155.3 m (509 ft 6 in) a beam of 16 m (52 ft 6 in), and a draught of 6.22 m (20 ft 5 in); In 1916 when they were laid down, they were closer to the Cöln class, 7500 tons fully loaded and capable of 27.5 knots.

Powerplant

Java and Sumatra however were much faster thanks to a powerful machinery for the time: The HrMS Java drive consisted of three Curtis-Parsons-AEG steam turbines. They were driven by eight oil-fired boilers, for a total output of 53,637kW, enabling a top speed of 30 knots. The range was still 7725 kilometers at 12 knots. The three-blade propellers had a diameter of 4.1 meters. On the HrMs Sumatra, three Zoelly steam turbines were planed, fed by eight oil-fired boilers, connected to the propellers not by direct drive but via reduction gearboxes, which made another difference. Total output was 60,250kW, enough for 31 knots, and a range of 8050 kilometers at 12 knots. This different drive was the result of a replacement as her initial machinery was entirely destroyed by fire in a supplier's warehouse and later will cause many operational problems in service.


HrMs Sumatra - Flickr, Joost.J.Bakker at IJmuiden

In the end, these were replaced by three Parsons geared steam turbines, fed by eight Schultz-Thornycroft boilers, mated on three shafts. Total output was still 73,000 shp (54,000 kW), for a top speed of 31 knots, as much as a destroyer. This top speed match was to match the Japanese cruisers as much as for their "pocket battlecruiser" initial concept. Indeed 31 knots for a cruiser was impressive in 1916, but no longer ten years after: The British County class were capable of 32 knots, 33 for the Enterprise class, but the earlier Hawkins 31 knots. The German KMS Emden was slower at 29 knots but used diesels for a better range. Indeed the latter was able to cover 6,700 nmi at 15 knots, versus 4,340 nmi (8,040 km; 4,990 mi) at 11-12 knots for the Java class. However, armament-wise, the Java had the advantage of two more guns.

Armament

Given the ship's size, ten guns seemed right. This was clearly a superior artillery compared to the Japanese Tenryu, however it stayed ahead of the following classes, of the Kuma (7 x 140 mm guns), Nagara and Sendai, and was still a match for the early Aoba class (six slower 8 in guns). This primary armament of ten 150 mm guns was placed in superfiring positions fore and aft rather than in tandem, with the other six placed amidhsips, a pair abeft the rear superstructure, two abaft the aft funnel and two abaft the main funnel. The secondary armament consisted of four 3-in (75 mm) guns. While anti-aircraft armament comprised six single 40 mm Bofors guns and six .50 Browning machine guns. The ships also carried depht charges and two Fokker C-11W seaplanes for reconnaissance. It was a solid package for long range missions in autonomy.

Fokker C.XI

Protection

This consisted in relatively light armour overall, only 75 mm (3.0 in) for the belt, 25-50 mm (2.0 in) for the decks and 125 mm (4.9 in) for the conning tower. In addition the guns were covered by 100 mm (3.9 in) armored shields. A torpedo could have made short work of the ships, which despite some internal compartimentation had no dedicated ASW protection. Speed and agility were a possible answer, but 8-in shells would have no difficulty in penetrating the decks.

Construction



The Java was laid down at Koninklijke Maatschappij de Schelde, Flushing, on 31 May 1916. Sumatra was started at Nederlandse Scheepsbouw Maatschappij, Amsterdam on 15 July of the same year, and Celebes at Wilton-Fijenoord, Schiedam, laid down on 14 June 1917.





The First World War however caused these works to stall and eventually to stop completely. Construction resumed after the war, although a strong pacifist atmosphere weighted on the debates. As a result, the House of Representatives and population in general declared against any fleet expansion program. The battleships planned were canceled, as well as the three other cruisers, but since but the keel of three Java class cruisers had already been laid down, it was later decided that two of the most advanced would be completed.



Design obsolescence was already a concern in 1919, but in addition their hull has been left to rot for years, a fire at the company that supplied the propulsion of HrMs Sumatra ruined the powerplant. The introduction of the 8-hour working day, strikes and lack of foreign building materials, compounded by economic depression also all delayed the ship's completion. Because of this, they entered service very late, making them obsolete even before commission: Sumatra was launched first, 29 December 1920, but was the last to be completed, on 26 May 1926, and Java one year before, despite her launch on 6 August 1921.

HrMs Java - AWM
HrMs Java in 1942, Australian War Memorial

Kruiser Hr.Ms. Java (1925-1942)

The Java class in actions

HrMs Java

She emerged from the Koninklijke Maatschappij de Schelde in Flushing on 6 August 1921, before fitting out and be commissioned on 1 May 1925. On 14 October she left the Netherlands for her first trip to her intended station in the Dutch East Indies. She arrived in Tanjung Priok on 7 December.

On 29 July 1929, Java escorted by destroyers De Ruyter and Evertsen, submarines K II and K VII left Surabaya for Tanjung Priok (North Jakarta, later Indonesia). She was greeted by the royal yacht of the King of Siam (Maha Chakri) escorted by destroyer Phra Ruang in official visit. Together with the Java, the squadron visited Bangka, Belitung, Riau, Lingga Islands, Belawan and Deli. On 28 August they returned to Tanjung Priok. On 31 August Java participated in a fleet review at Tanjung Priok in honor of the Dutch Queen Wilhelmina in company of the destroyers De Ruyter and Evertsen.

On 23 August 1936, Java and Sumatra escorted by the destroyers Van Galen, Witte de With and Piet Hein joined the fleet days in Surabaya. On 13 November the same squadron made a courtesy fleet visit to Singapore, practising gunnery training and manoeuvres in the South China Sea on their way. Java returned to the Netherlands, through Suez and Gibraltar. From there, she protected a convoy during the Spanish Civil War in April-May 1937.

After seven months of refit at home, she returned to the East Indies on 4 May 1938, making convoy escort on her way down to the strait of Gibraltar 10-13 May. She arrived in Tanjung Priok on 25 June 1938. On 13 October unfortunately, she collided with Piet Hein in the Sunda Strait and was sent Surabaya for repairs.

Nakajima B5N Kate
After the war broke up, the ship guarded the East Indies, making exercises and patrolling home waters. In December 1941, Japan was found at war with the US and soon threatened the Dutch and British possessions. She performed convoy duties with the British Navy and on 15 February 1942, her squadron was attacked by Japanese Navy B5N "Kate" bombers from IJN Ryūjō. She received little to no damage due to near-misses.

Java in Sydney

On 19 February, the reinforced multinational squadron ABDA sailed to Bali, attempting to disrupt Japanese landings. Java took part in the Battle of Bandung Strait. A gunnery exchange with the Japanese followed, but Java was left unharmed. The Japanese later captured Bali and badly damaged the cruiser Tromp and a destroyer, sinking the Piet Hein.

On 27 February 1942, HNLMS Java was present at the Battle of the Java Sea. In the evening she was hit by a Japanese Long Lance torpedo fired from IJN Nachi. This exploded inside the aft magazine, ripping off the stern off the ship. Massive flooding started in the aft engine room while the anti-aircraft deck was engulfed by flames. Java suddenly took a heavy list to port, and the electrical equipment shut down. Deprived of any means to save her, the captain ordered to abandoned ship.

Java in Sydney harbour

HNLMS Java sank in about fifteen, carrying with her 512 of her crew. Some were killed in the impact, others were trapped inside, and others escaped only to drawn, as only a few were rescued. It is odd to consider a ship named after the battle in which she was sunk. Nothing has survived. The same battle saw also the loss of HNLMS De Ruyter, sank by the same devastating torpedo attack. Admiral Karel Doorman, the head of ABDA went down with his ship. Only 111 were saved from both ships.

The wreck of Java was discovered by a specialist diving expedition on 1 December 2002. The ship was laying on her starboard side at 69 metres (226 ft) depth. De Ruyter's wreck was also discovered the same day, as HNLMS Kortenaer, in August 2004.

The controversy came when the Dutch Ministry of defence reported on 15 November 2016 the disappearance of the three wrecks. An investigation was launched, in order to discover a possible illegal salvage. In February 2017 a report confirmed it. This created a scandal as all three ships were registered as national memorials. It is possible also that clandestine operation was approved higher up to clean out the busy lanes in these waters.

Crew of Sumatra

HrMs Sumatra

HlMNS Sumatra in Bombay, circa 1942
HlMNS Sumatra in Bombay, circa 1942 (cropped). This is one of the very rare photos showing the ship's camouflage. There is another dark band in between the two large "chunks" coverinf the first half and stern, but also a lighter color at the stern, while the foward funnel had a triangular pattern and the aft one was entirely painted in the dark tone. There has been conjecture about the color, although model kit manufacturers such as Pacific crossroads and Niko models seems to favor the dark green theme, which made sense with the numerous islands of the East Indies. Src

Sumatra was launched by the Nederlandsche Scheepsbouw Maatschappij in Amsterdam, on 29 December 1920, and inaugurated by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. The intended turbines however were destroyed by fire on 31 May 1922 at Werkspoor (Amsterdam). After fitting replacements, the ship was commissioned on 26 May 1926. On 21 September left the Netherlands for the Dutch East Indies, sailing via New York City, the Panama Canal, San Francisco, Shanghai and Nagasaki. On 19 February 1927 she stayed Shanghai, amidst rising tensions between Nationalists and Communists, evacuating civilians after in-fighting broke out. A landing party of 140 men went into the business quarter to cover the evacuation. Sumatra returned to Surabaya in the Dutch East Indies.

On 18 June 1930, Sumatra came through an extensive refit at Surabaya after a damaged turbine and returned there after a fire in the boiler room during speed trials, towed by the ship Krakatau. Bad luck went on, as Sumatra was stranded on an uncharted reef near Kebatoe on 14 May 1931. Three days later she was towed away by two ships, and then to Surabaya for further repairs. Until mid-1935 she was modernized at Surabaya, loosing the old 75 mm AA, replaced by six 40 mm Bofors AA.

Sumatra in 1926

On 16 November 1935, HrMs Sumatra, Van Galen and Witte visited Saigon and the next year joined Java and the destroyers Van Galen, Witte de With and Piet Hein at Surabaya. HrMs Evertsen joined the squadron which visited Singapore in November 1936, making gunnery exercises in the China sea. On 8 June 1938 she departed for the Netherlands and started escorting convoy during the Spanish Civil War via Gibraltar. She returned home for a short refit at Den Helder and participated in Scheveningen's review held in honor of Queen Wilhelmina 40 years of reign.

Sumatra at Pearl Harbor
HrMs Sumatra off Pearl Harbor in 1927

As the Netherlands were overrun by the German Army during May 1940, Sumatra left the Netherlands for England. After having a degaussing cable installed to protect her from magnetic mines, she proceeded to Milford Haven. Princess Juliana of the Netherlands and her daughters were taken aboard there and transported to Halifax, Canada. Afterwards she performed convoy escort duties and took part in the search for the German commerce raider Widder.



During the fall of 1940, HrMs Sumatra returned to the Dutch East Indies for an extensive overhaul, not completed in January 1942 when war broke out with Japan. Sumatra was recommissioned and sailed to Ceylon with midshipmen at 15 knots. In 1941 she was in Great Britain at Portsmouth to try to solve her propulsion problems. The diagnostic was the ship was not able to perform her duty and necessitated extensive replacement of her powerplant.



In the end, a meeting between the refugee Dutch admiralty and British Royal Navy estimated the ship needed to be mothballed due to other priorities. The crew joined the Free Dutch Navy. After a while, Sumatra was towed off the coast of Normandy on 9 June 1944 at Ouistreham. She became a part of a gooseberry pier, protecting an artificial Mulberry Harbour (Operation Overlord). Her 150 mm guns went into the Flores-class gunboats instead. On 14 February 1951 Sumatra's wreck was auctioned to be scrapped.

Specifications of the Java class

Displacement: 6670 tons standard, 8087 tons full load
Dimensions: 155.3 m x 16 m x 6.22 m (509 ft 6 in x 52 ft 6 in x 20 ft 5 in)
Propulsion: 2 shaft turbines, 6 oil-fired boilers (see notes), 46,000 hp. and 30-31 knots.
Armour: Deck: 25-50 mm, belt: 75 mm, CT: 125 mm, Gun masks: 100 mm
Crew: 435
Armament: 10 x 150 mm, 8 x 40 mm AA, 8 x 12.7 mm AA MGs, 1 Fokker C.XI seaplane (see notes). Read More Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921 & 1922-1947
Teitler, G. (1984). De strijd om de slagkruisers. Dieren: De Bataafsche Leeuw.
Anten, J. (2001). Hr. Ms. Kruisers 'Java' en 'Sumatra'. Zierikzee: Asia Maior
van Dijk, Anthonie (1989). The Drawingboard Battleships for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Part II
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java-class_cruiser
//www.netherlandsnavy.nl/Javacl.htm
//www.navypedia.org/ships/netherlands/nl_cr_java.htm
//www.world-war.co.uk/dutch/java.php3
//marineschepen.nl/dossiers/waarom-we-de-javazee-niet-moeten-vergeten.html
//www.netherlandsnavy.nl/Javacl.htm
//www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/1924/Lichte-kruisers-van-de-Java-klasse.htm?c=gw
Kimenai, Peter (February 6, 2010)
On modelshipworld.com

Models Corner:
1/700 Niko Model of the Java on scalemates.com
Pacific - 1/350 Resin Java
Video of the kit's mounting and full review
Kit review on steelnavy.net
shapeways.com 1/250 Java 3D printing

Additional Pictures: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hr.Ms._Java_(ship,_1925)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hr.Ms._Sumatra_(ship,_1926)

Java 1942
The HLMNS Java shortly before the battle of the same name in February 1942. It seems Sumatra was painted the same way, but with one additional band and the aft funnel painted dark. Exact colors are foggy, rather dark grey or green than blue..

Naval History

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Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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