Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)

US Navy ww2 USA (1931-32) USS Portland, Indianapolis.

The Portland class: The 2nd generation.



Designed after the Northamptons, the two heavy cruisers Portland and Indianapolis were contemporary of the New Orleans class which still looked like the Northamptons. But in reality they improved on many points and especially that of protection, so much so that they are considered by most authors now like the "second generation" of american post-Washington cruisers, the third one being represented bu the Brooklyn/Whichita in direct line with the wartime cruisers (Cleveland and Baltimore).

They were roomier, larger and much heavier than the Northamptons, with a tonnage fully exploting the treaty limit but in reality reaching 10,260 tonnes standard. There was no additional armor margin left within the treaty limitations for future upgrades, more than questions of stability. This impacted their AA upgrades notably, but they still fared well during WW2. Portland soldiered in the pacific campaign, making all the most important battles and being several times damaged, earning 16 battle stars before being discarded in 1959. She certainly was one of the most decorated, battle-hardened, long serving cruiser in USN history. USS Indianapolis on the other hand became (in)famous for being sunk by a Japanese submarine after delivering the Bomb A ("Little Boy") at Tinian, on July 29, the last major warship to be sunk in WW2. Survivors were left stranded for days fending off relentless shark attacks, leading later to an inquiry.


USS Indianapolis at Pearl Harbor circa 1937

Design development

1925 treaty cruiser
The initial early 1925 design study 9 about the forecastle variant of the Pensacola design, which led to the Northamptons. The next were an evolution of this.

1925 treaty cruiser
Another proposal of 1925, N°8 proposal with two aft 8-in guns turrets to improve on stability.

Just as the Northamptons design was approved, the admiralty board started right away to look at a third class of heavy cruiser. Years after the 1920s designs that led to the controversial Pensacola class (design finalized 1926) which emphasized armament and speed over protection and stability the six vessels Northampton class (ordered 1927) improved on many point already with a forecastle, better balance on many areas and better accomodations. But armor protectin was still a weak point in the design, and there was not much room for improvement over the waterline due to metacentric height issues. The configuration of three triple turrets was their legacy, and became a standard, likely to be retaken for the next classes. So the Portland class as initially defined was just an evolution of the Northampton designs, originally designated "light cruisers", with the range to counter German-style commerce raiders.

They were quickly redesignated CA- ("heavy cruiser") given the new 1930 London naval treaty adjustments for gun calibers. So the eght ships ordered on a simple early blueprint FY1930 as CL-33 and following, became CA-33 from 1st July 1931.

In all, fifteen 8in cruisers were authorised for the 1929 programme, Fiscal Years 29 (CA32-36), 30 (CA37-41) and 31 (CA42-46) and the original eight cruisers envisioned were close copies of the modified Northampton-class with just a few incremental changes from the experience gained in 1929, but only two ended with this design, called Portland class, since the admiralty wanted a radical departure over previous design and go back to a more heavier armor protectrion. So much so that these ships even were designated for a time "armored cruisers". They becalme eventually the New Orleans class, with the remaining batvh of sis cruisers FY1933 and following. In fact the first three of these, USS New Orleans, Astoria, and Minneapolis were ordered originally as Portland-class but soon reordered on a design based on the new USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37).

Although the New Orleans really targeted protection and went to a radically new, smaller design, the Portland looked very luch like Northamptons, with very few immediately apparent differences. Indeed, the basic design was the same to gain time, but much time and effort has been deveoted for two years working o the protection scheme, notably by allowing almost twice as much weight to the armour, and thus, reaching the standard tonnage limit right away. It was not the case for the previous ships, barely above 9,000 tons.

The main reasoning behind the split between the first two (CA-33, 34) and the next six of the second group to be completely redesigned with better protection (criticism had been considerable, this weak protection seeping in the press which dubbed these Treaty 'Tinclads'), as the first group was too far advanced to be modified when this decision was taken. A balance was made and the "Portlands" ended as interim cruisers in order to avoid creating a gap in the programme. The other reasons were the pecularities of procurement policy when ordering to admiralty (public) or private yards: Three of the first group were contracted to Navy Yards ans thus could be redesigned without incurring hard-cash payments unlike CA33 and CA 35 ordered from private shipyards. The on-cost would be 'lost in the system' as per the government's use.

Design orientations of the Portland class

Thus, the two private yards Portlands (Ordered on 17 Feb and 31 March 1930 to Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Fore River Shipyard and New York Shipbuilding Corporation respectively) differed in many ways from the Northampton design which was kept as a basis. That why we lack the intermediate proposals and design schemes. Work was done on more advanced blueprintts, with just some upadtes communicated to the admiralty board. The original intention was to decrease the hull length by 10ft (8ft forward and 2ft aft) while keeping the internal arrangements, using the free weight to increase the magazine side armour to 5in and amored deck by 0.5in. The beam remained unchaged, but the bulbous bow would be eliminated to gain some weight again. The light splinter-proof gunhouses would remain the same also.

The problem of being underweight was now fully understood and measures were taken while the side protection of the magazines asked for was raised to 5.75 in, still possible as they laid low into the hull. Although still not fully immune to 8 inches shells, this seriously decreased the chance of a lucky hit. The side belt (2.25in) was thought to be increased by adding a layer, but later dropped due to cost issues, and still adding weight.

For the machinery Yarrow boilers were unsed instead of what was onboard the Northampton class, the armament was also a repeat but this time the torpedo tubes originally planned were eliminated well before completion. Also, this was compensated by the addition of four 5in guns (8 total), as were rearmed the Northamptons.

Like the latter, they had generous accomodation and two-tiered bridges to act as Fleet Flagships. The superstructures were still very similar, but the bridge was doubled by an open one with massive overhanging deflectors, keeping the crew from the spray and guns blasts. The front mainmast was made lower as the aft one, both were also lighter and cleared of spotlights relegated to the funnel to improve stability.

Hull & general design

USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet
USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet
USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet
USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet
USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet
USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet
Ship's original blueprints, signed 1932.

The Portland-class hull was 610 feet 3 inches (186.00 m) overall long and 592 feet (180.44 m) at the waterline, way more than the Portlands. The beam was ported to 64 feet 6 inches (19.66 m) slightly less than the northamptons at 66 ft 1 in (20.14 m), but making for a more lenght-width favourable ratio, therefore for a better to speed. Her buoyancy was supposed to be better as a result also, with a draft of 21 feet (6.40 m), up to 24 feet (7.32 m) deeply loaded, way more than the 16 ft 4 in (4.98 m) of the Northampton, compensating largely in terms of metacentric height and greatly improving stability. They also had a revised bow shape and extended forecastle, further improving sea-keeping abilities. The forward main tripod mast was also reduced in height and weight and there was single pole aft.

They were also designed for a standard displacement of 10,096 long tons (10,258 t), 12,554 long tons (12,755 t) fully loaded. As already stated before this was much greater than the 9,050 long tons (9,200 t) of the previous class, translated into 900 tonnes for more armour and structural strenght, but also counting the extra weight of the longer and drafter hull. Both were in any case, way more strongly built, a radical reparture over the "tin clad" generation, and yet not to the level reached in the New Orleans class.

Both ships however ended lighter than expected by the constructor, at 9,800 long tons and 9,950 long tons respectively. They still have the caracteristic two heavenly spaced raked funnels, a forward tripod foremast, and small tower bridge, pole mast aft. Top weight was therefore better mastered and distribited.

Powerplant

The Portland were equipped with the same powerplant basically, four propeller shafts drove by four Parsons GT geared turbines, in turn fed by eight Yarrow boilers. Total output was 107,000 shaft horsepower (80,000 kW) for a design speed of 32 knots (59 km/h). Range was 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at a cruiser speed of 15 knots (28 km/h). The previous Northamptons had Forster Wheeler boilers but very comparable performances. No significant improvement was made on this topic, apart range decreased (about 2000 nm) as well as top speed (0.7 knot) due to the added weight and deeper draft, compensated by the longer hull. Both ships as completed however showed on trials they rolled badly, until fitted with bilge keels in drydock at the first occasion. This further improved stability and procured a roll compatible with a relatively stable gun platform. Over time, modifications made to made their superstructures lighter improved this, but only to compensate for the added weight of the wartime AA battery.

Armament

USS Portland's bow in 1944
USS Portland's bow in 1944

Like the previous ships, the Portland still featured the same 8-in triple turrets, completed by eight 5-in/25 DP guns and two QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss guns use dmore for saluting than AA purposes. Woefully obsolete, this was improved in 1941 by the addition of eight single Browning 0.5 in (12.7mm/90) heavy machine guns for AA defence.

Main guns: 3x3

Mark 9 8"/55 caliber guns in solidary mounts (not independent elevation for the barrels) like previous cruisers. The turrets were about the same models also, a superfiring pair fore, a single deck turret aft.
These early guns were introduced on the Lexington class. The 440 inches (11 m) bore (55 caliber) barrels weighted 30 tons, including the liner, the tube and its jacket plus five hoops. They were fitted with down-swing Welin breech blocks closed by compressed air, which came from the gas ejector system in order to accelerate reload.
-335 pounds (152 kg) AP shell
-260 pounds (118 kg) HE shell
-Muzzle velocity 2,500 feet per second (760 m/s)
-Maximum firing range 30,050 yards (27,480 m)
-Charge: two silk bags 45 pds (20 kg) (smokeless powder)
-2,800 feet per second (850 m/s) muzzle velocity (HE)
-Range 18 miles 31,860 yd (29,130 m) max at 41°


Gunnery at Leyte, October 1944, seen from the open bridge;

Secondary guns: 8x 5-in/25

This 2 ton 11 ft 10 in (3.6 m) gun (10 ft 5 in for the barrel itself) was rifled, 127 mm. Contrary to the Northamptons armed with only four when completed, they all had their eght pieces early on.

Shells: 52-54.5 lb (23.6 to 24.7 kg) HE/AP.
Elevation -10° to +85° range 14,500/27,400 feets (13,300 m) at 40/85°
Muzzle velocity 2,100 ft/s (640 m/s) manual

AA guns: Great changes over time.


1-1 inches AA guns (here on USS Astoria's aft deck)

When completed, the cruisers only had two QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss. These venerable pieces ordnance were not supposed to be used for AA purpose bu merely as salute guns, possibly also dismounted for landing parties.

Basically, the engineered trusted the heavy 5-in guns for AA defence, as it was assumed ships attacks (when the ships were first designed in 1929) were lilely to come from high altitude bombers. The large targets would be dealt for at long range. From paper to reality however common sense prevailed and in 1941 at last, a better AA was planned. The 1.1 in (28 mm) guns intended to be adopted were still not realy or available in large numbers. As an interim measure, eight single cal. 0.5 Browning heavy M1920 machine guns were placed on the fighting top, aft tower and bridge in 1941. They were intended to deal with low-flying planes whih went through the 5-in barrage.

Later, in early 1942 the ships received their well-awaited four quadruple 28/75 Mk 1 light AA cannons. At a latter date, likely, the Brwownings wree replaced (or completed) with twelve single 20/70 Mk 4 AA Oerlikon guns.

From May 1943, 40mm/56 Mk 1.2 replaced the 1.1 inches "Chicago Piano", as they were way more effective. They stayed until the end of the war on the same spots. Soon, the same metacentric height problem that plagued other cruisers of the previous classes and there were limits to what could be added. In 1944 extra AA gus were naturally added, at first four twin 40mm/56 Mk 1.2, and five 20mm/70 Mk 4 on Portland.

Indianapolis followed soon with twelve 20mm/70; two extra quadruple 40mm/56 Mk 1.2, then eight twin 20mm/70 Mk 4, and a full displacement reaching in excess of 15,000 tons. Not to be undone, USS Portland at the end of the war had four quadruple 40mm/60 Mk 2 and four twin 40mm/60 Mk 1 AA guns, plus seventeen 20mm/70 Mk 10 AA guns.

Onboard aviation


Mid-section of USS Indianapolis in April 1942 showing the crane, catapults and partially wings-folded (outwards one) Curtiss SOC seagulls.


Curtiss SOC seagull onboard USS Indianapolis, 1942, author's illustration.

Like previous ships of the Northampton and Pensacola class, the Portlands were completed in 1932-33 started with the common observation floatplane of the time, the Vought O2U and O3U Corsair (1928), although according to navypedia, they were equipped with OL models before swapping on the O2U.

-The Curtiss SOC Seagull (1934) was introduced probably from 1936 and kept until around 1943, with perhaps the intermediary of the Curtiss SO3C Seamew, which is not documented.

The Seamew was a known "pig", both slow and unreliable. Introduced as a replacement of the Seagull in 1939-40, it was soon replaced by the same in many cases. Photos shows however only the SOC ad at the end of the war the SC-1 Seahawk.

-Curtiss SC-1 Seahawk probably introduced when available during a refit in 1944, and until decommission. Onnboard USS Indianapolis as her remains shows when a exploratory dive was made. From May 1943, USS Portland only carried two planes and Indianapolis a single one.
Like the Northamptons, they had hangars wide enough to shelter four aircraft abreast the aft funnel, served by a single gooseneck lattice crane in front of the aft funnel, and two amidship catapults located behind the forefunnel. Even after refits and installation of better radars at the end of the war, their planes were still used notably for artillery spotting, liaison and recoignition of the vessels spotted at long range by radar. By 1944 both only had one catapult left to free weight for the installation of more AA, on the port side. Also, the seahawk was a faster and nimbler aircraft.

Fire control systems and radars

The Portland class started the war without radar. They were however fitted in early 1942 with an SC, Mk 3, and Mk 4 radars. By May 1943, they received SK radars in addition. In the autumn 1944 their electronics suite was duly modernized and both were installed Mk 3, Mk 4 radars and Mk 8, Mk 18 radars. In 1946 Portland was limited to the SG, SK, Mk 8, and Mk 18 radars.


Mark 33 Director


Mark 37 director, radar-assisted, installed during their wartime reconstruction. Note the victory marks. It was completed by a Ballistic computer Mk.1/Mk.1A below decks. The circled box is a Nancy IR signalling unit.


The crew inside a Mk.37 director. We are far from automation here. Decribed as badly cramped, they were superseded -with much relief- after 1945 by the smaller, less labor intensive Mk.67 and 68. The separation between the pointers and trainers were a major issue as they were complicated to coordinate. There was also no cross-leveller contrary to a Mk.33 or 28. The control officer had a telescope like the pointer and trainer, later replaced by simple binoculars so he could concentrate in scanning for targets instead. The post-war version also had a Mk25 radar integrating a scanning-r=target acquisition mode.


Mk1A ballistic computer, the cruiser's standard at the time. Associated to the Mk 37 director it was crewed by three operators: A range, an elevaton and a star shell operators. They were supervised by a plotting-room officer. There was a stable element close to the computer generally manned by a level operator and cross-level operator (Historic Naval ships assoc. R.S. Pekelney)


AA gun gun director Mark 54, associated with the 28 mm and then 40 mm.

Reconstructions

USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet
USS_Indianapolis_Booklet_Plans_Sheet


D.ONI recoignition plates for the modernized Portland class, 1944-45

Indianapolis 1942
Indianapolis in Mare Island 19 April 1942, aft view (first modernization)


Same, forward view from the same vantage point

Modifications were made early on as USS Portland received an extension to the fore funnel, but this was limited. The major alterations came in wartime. Lie their precessors, at each opportinity of overhail and drydocking back home, modifications were made, starting in early 1942: Four quadruple 1.1in were fitted abreast the bridge and close to the 5in guns. Later, twelve 20mm guns were added instead of the twin 0.5 in cal HMGs. They were fitted with radars: SC, Mk 3, Mk 4 radars.

In May 1943, both were sent in drydock for a complete rebuilding: The bow received additional AA, which more than doubled, superstructure were completely rebuilt, lightened and lowered with an open deck. The bridge was extended, the after superstructure lightened, CT eliminated as well, tripod mast removed, replaced by a lattice structure close to the aft funnel. The AA saw four extra quadruple and four twin 40 mm Bofors, plus 12 supplementary 20 mm Oerlikon guns. These modifications later served as models to rebuilt the remaining Northamptons. Also in May 1943, light tripods were added forward of the second funnel and a large Naval director installed aft, whereas new SG, SK radars were installed.

USS_Portland_drydock_Cockatoo_Island_Dockyard_late_1942
USS Portland in drydock at Cockatoo Island Dockyard late 1942

USS_Portland_Mare_Island_Naval_Shipyard_30_July_1944
USS Portland at Mare Island Naval Shipyard 30 July 1944

Portland (CA33), was very active and deployed during most major naval operations of the Pacific. She survived the war and was broken up in December 1959.

Specifications (1941)

Displacement9,800-9,950 t FL
Dimensions592/610 ft (180/186 m) wl/oa x 66 ft 3 in (20.19 m) x 21-23 ft (6.4/7 m)
Propulsion4 shafts Parsons steam turbines, 8 White-Forster boilers, 107,000 hp
Speed32.7 kn (37.6 mph; 60.6 km/h)
Range13,000 nmi (14,960 mi; 24,080 km) at 15 kn (17 mph; 28 km/h)
Armament9 x 8-in (203mm) (3×3), 8 x 5-in (127mm), 4 seaplanes*
ArmorBelt 5 in, Deck 2.5 in, Barbettes 1.5 in, Turrets 2.5 in, CT 1+1⁄4 in
Crew917


USS Indianapolis illustration
USS Portland in 1945, the horizontal livery in effect since the end of 1944: Light gray/medium gray/dark blue - Illustration by the author. More to come, HD and modern.

Sources/Read More

Links

world-war.co.uk
pwencycl.kgbudge.com
Book: Naval Anti-Aircraft Guns and Gunnery By Norman Friedman
On globalsecurity.org
On navypedia.com
On history.navy.mil
On history.navy.mil
On ww2db.com
uboat.net
On worldnavalships.com
On DANFS
historyofwar.org
nytimes.com about the court martial



USS Portland under the St Johns bridge of her namesake city in Oregon.

Books

Conways all the world's fighting ships 1922-1947
Baker, A. D. (2008), Naval Firepower: Battleship Guns and Gunnery in the Dreadnought Era Annapolis
Bauer, Karl Jack; Roberts, Stephen S. (1991), Register of Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1775-1990 Greenwood Press
Hixon, Walter L. (2003), The United States and the Road to War in the Pacific: The American Experience in World War II 3 Routledge
Kearns, Patricia M.; Morris, James M. (1998), Historical Dictionary of the United States Navy Scarecrow Press
Miller, David M. O. (2001), Illustrated Directory of Warships of the World: Zenith Press
Morrison, Samuel E. (2001), History of United States Naval Operations in World War II (Vol 15) Castle Books
Silverstone, Paul (2007), The Navy of World War II, 1922-1947 Routledge
Stille, Mark (2009), USN Cruiser vs IJN Cruiser: Guadalcanal 1942 Osprey

Videos

Movie trailer (2016)
Missing The USS Indianapolis Documentary
podcast by dan carlin
On the The National WWII Museum channel

The modeller's corner


The Indianapolis 1945 matchbox 1/700 kit

On scalemates
On sdmodelmakers.com

USS Portand's career

USS Portland in 1944


USS Portland in 1944, colorized y Hirootoko Jr.

After commission on 23 February 1933, USS Portland departed Boston on 1 April 1933 to Gravesend Bay in New York late before departing for a seach the next evening to the site where USN aicraft carrier airship USS Akron just crashed at sea. 36 minutes later she was underway and was first on scene. She started coordinating search and rescue operations as other vessels arrived in turn, but despite of the mobilization all 73 crewmember has been killed in the crash including Admiral William Moffett (Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics). This disaster put a nail in the coffin of USN us of airships, at least until the 1970s return of specialized blimps. The rest of the year and the next were spent in exercises between the east and wet coast, the Carribean in winter and Pacific in summer.

She steamed to, and departed from San Diego soon after on 2 October 1935 with USS Houston, to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a goodwill visit of south America. Both cruisers stopped in Panama and other ports until making it back to Charleston in South Carolina. There, the President disembarked and Portland served in the the Scouting Force, Cruiser Division 5 in 1936, 1937, 1938 and later the United States Pacific Fleet in 1939. She alternated peacetime training and goodwill missions, crossing the equator on 20 May 1936.

On 7 December 1941, USS Portland was underway to Midway Atoll, escorting the USS Lexington's carrier group carrying reinforcement planes. Until 1st May 1942, she adopted a long patrol route from Hawaii to the Fiji islands. She would have a fairly long and active service in the Pacific theater.

USS Indianapolis in NYC

Battle of the Coral Sea




He first major action in May was to counter Japanese "Operation Mo", targeting Port Moresby. USS Portland was assigned to Task Force 17 (Rear Admiral FJ Fletcher, USS Yorktown) escorted also by USS Astoria and Chester, the destroyers USS Hammann, Anderson, Perkins, Morris, Russell, Sims, the oilers USS Neosho and Tippecanoe. TF 17 departed Tongatabu (27 April) and on 1st May, joined TF 11 300 nmi northwest of New Caledonia, the refuelling and gathering point. While TF11 was still refluelling until 4 May, Fletcher departed with TF 17 towards the Louisiades archipelago. At 17:00 on 3 May, her was notified Japanese troopships spotted at Tulagi and en route the southern Solomons.

TF 17 sailed towards them at 27 knots, in a position to launch an airstrike the next morning. On 4 May TF17 indeed launched an aistrike from 100 nmi (120 mi; 190 km) south of Guadalcanal, before retiring southwards and on 5 May, was reunified with TF 11 and TF 44 at a programmed site, 320 nmi south of Guadalcanal. Reports of a convoy bound for Port Moresby, the force sailed to the Louisiades. Task Group 17.2 (Rear Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid) was the new assignation for USS Portland, with USS Minneapolis, New Orleans, Astoria, Chester, and five destroyers, still screening Yorktown. On 8 May she helped fejnding off Japanese air attacks, but could not prevent damage, before escorting the crippled USS Lexington. However the fired onboard now uncontrllable she was evacuated and scuttled, teh cruiser taking onboard 722 survivors. She lost four crewmen onboard USS Neosho when she sank.

USS Portland at Midway

transferring survivors of USS Yorktown to USS Fulton, 7 June 1942
USS Portland transferring survivors of USS Yorktown to USS Fulton, 7 June 1942.

After fixes and resplenishing at Tongatabu, USS Portland saw Captain Laurance T. DuBose be coming her new commander. She escorted USS Yorktown back to Pearl Harbor and proceeded to Midway Atoll, as part of the trap set up to ambush Japanese forces incoming for "Operation mi". On 4 June, Yorktown and Enterprise launched their air strikes which devastated the Japanese carriers, when Japanese aicraft from IJN Hiryū arrived and immediately targeted USS Yorktown. USS Portland, to her port prompted a vigorous anti-aircraft barrage with Pensacola and Vincennes at 14:00. Another wave came after 16:30, and this time USS Yorktown was torpedod several times. Abandoned, her 2,046 survivors were picked up by five destroyers, and later transferred onboard USS Portland, which crew was not reaching nearly 3,000 men.

She steamed toward Pearl Harbor, and transferred the crew on the submarine tender USS Fulton on 6 June, departing to search for downed naval aviators on the 7th, before being ordered to join Saratoga's TF, prepared to depart fot the Aleutian Islands before being recalled to Pearl Harbor as the Japanese invasion took place in between.

Guadalcanal Campaign

Portland was part of the invasion fleet to Guadalcanal, defending USS Enterprise, now the one of two CVs still operational after the losses at Coral sea and Midway. She covered the landings at Tulagi and Guadalcanal on 7–9 August but missed the Battle of Savo Island and followed USS Enterprise retiring, remaining in the area for upcoming Marines operations on Guadalcanal, and protect communications lines? She soon participated in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on 24 August, and helped with the other cruisers attached to CV-6, she was claimed 4-5 Japanese aircraft. But despite her efforts, the aicraft carrier was hit at 18:34. Close defense went on 25 August, eventually foiling the reinforcement planned by Admiral Yamamoto.

She escorted Enterprise back to Pearl Harbor before being ordered to perform a secret mission to the Gilbert Islands, a raid on Tarawa with USS San Juan, hosting Rear Admiral Mahlon S. Tisdale for the operation, in what became Task Unit 16.9.1. On 15 October she attacked Japanese shipping near Tarawa, damaging a transport and a destroyer. She only had one observation aircraft damaged. She was back to USS Enterprise's task group for upcoming operations.

She took part next in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, trying to repel Japanese airstrikes on USS Enterprise on 24 October. She had one 1.1-inch (28 mm) exploding when firig at too low depression, with no casualties but 19 injured. USS Enterprise was hit again and was soon targeted while retiring by a Japanese submarine that fired and missed CV-6 but hit instead USS Portland with three torpedoes. Fortunately, none detonated as they were probably too close to arm. Basically USS Portland shielded CV-6 and paid a moderate price for it.

Indianapolis, 20 April 1942
USS Indianapolis 20 April 1942.

She participated also in the 2nd Battle of Guadalcanal, mostly a serie of air battles on 12–15 November. The Japanese failed at landing 7,000 reinforcements and destroy Henderson field as a result. USS Portland was escorting a convoy from New Caledonia (TF 67), offloaded supplies on 12 November when an aistrike of 46 aircraft arrive don sight. The following night, she despatched with four other cruisers and eight destroyers (Daniel J. Callaghan) sent to stop a Japanese force, spotting two battleships, one cruiser and eleven destroyers. A firce night battle unsued, IJN Akatsuki being promptly sunk, but USS Portland was struck by a long lance torpedo (either from IJN Inazuma or Ikazuchi). It happened at 01:58, and the torpedo detonated, mushing her stern on the starboard side. Both inboard propellers were dislodged and the rudder jammed as well as her aft main turret.

Her 4° list was quickly compasented by ballast, but steering caused her to turn in circles to starboard for the remainde rof the action. She nevertheless engaged IJN Hiei with her forward turrets, and the latter returned fire, missing. Portland started fires on Hiei. When dawn came, there were talks about her fate, since she was unable to exit the area. At 06:30 she opened fire the crippled IJN Yūdachi, which exploded and sank. Her teams, which frantically worked on her steering system eventually succeeded and she was able to proceeed and leave the area. She later was awarded a Navy Unit Commendation but deplored 18 killed and 17 wounded.


Torpedo damage after Guadalcanal.

Higgins boats a YP minesweeper and a tug helped her to reach Tulagi on 14 November, for further repairs until she was able to proceed to Sydney under tow by USS Navajo, escorted by USS Meade and Zane. Sh arrived on 30 November but stayed out of the busy drydock until 24 December. Chester and New Orleans were still in repairs there; The crew was given extended leave meanwhile. After preliminary repairs she was able to steam at full speed back to the US, at first escorted by HMAS Warramunga. She refuelled at Samoa and Pearl Harbor, and made it into Mare Island Navy Yard on 3 March 1943 for a welcome refit and modernization in addition.

Aleutians and Pacific raids

Thuis long immobilization and modernization needed to make a refresher training cruise in southern Californian waters. She was then prepared for the invasion operation of the Aleutians, late in May 1943. On 11 June she was off Kiska, starting a shelling to cover the landings, starting on 26 July. On 23 September she was recalled to Pearl Harbor. In San Francisco by early October, she returned to Pearl Harbor in mid-October and from November 1943 until February 1944, she took part in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaigns. Tarawa on 20 November (lightly damaged by friendly depth charge there), and Marhsall Islands by December 1943 with USS Lexington (II). She was back to Pearl Harbor on 25 December, drydocked for further repair to her rudder and propellers; never properly fixed since her torpedo damage.

She then joined TG 51 (Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill) for an operation on Darrit on 30 January 1944. The island was pounded and a firce landed, only to discover it was empty of Japanese presence. She particpated next in the Eniwetok Atoll landings on 8 February, Parry Island on 19 February. She screen Essex-class carriers during airstrikes at Palau, Yap, Ulithi, and Woleai until 1st April 1944, then moved to cover the landings around Hollandia and Tanahmerah (New Guinea) on 21-24 April. Next she covered a raid on Truk with five other cruisers and bombarded Satawan (Nomei). It was by then time for an overhaul, which was done at Mare Island, completed in August 1944. She participated in the bombardment on Peleliu (12-14 September), covering the invasion from 15 to 29 September, and heded to replenish in Manus Island.

Battle of Leyte



She was part of Cruiser Division 4, steaming off Leyte on 17 October, and entering the Gulf on the 18th, starting a 18h shore bombardment before the landings. On the night of 24 October, a large japanese force was spotted entering the Surigao Strait, advancing in a column in full darkness, before encountering the ambuishing US force, of which Portland was a part of. She steamed across the strait to cross the T of the Japanese, already shaked by PT boats attacks, then destroyers, until caught by a withering textbook fire. USS Portland targeted herself the cruiser IJN Mogami hitting her four times at around 04:02 and battering her for ten minutes, then until 05:30. One such hit devastated her bridge, killing the captain and executive officer. This concluded her Battle of Surigao Strait, part of the larger confrontation of Leyte.

Final Operations

From 3 January to 1 March 1945, USS Portland covered task forces operating at Lingayen Gulf and Corregidor. From 5 January she shelled Cape Bolinao and entered the Gulf, shelling the eastern shore until forced to fend off a large kamikaze force. On 15 February she shelled the south shore of Corregidor before landings and was back further south on 1 March for repairs and replenishment. From 26 March to 20 April, she was assigned to TF 54 operating off Okinawa, asked for close support of the landings. She fended off no less than 24 kamikaze attacks, shooting down four confirmed Japanese, planes, with two assists. On 8 May until 17 June, she provided on-call fire to ground forces progressing inland. She saild out on 17 June for maintenance and resplenishment before returning in Buckner Bay (6 August) for more shore bombardments. The end of the war on 15 August was a relief for many crewmember there since December 1941. The last eight month in particular has been particularly intense.

USS Portland became flagship for Vice Admiral George D. Murray, in command of the Mariana Islands sector and accepting the surrender of the Carolines. She was in Truk Atoll when Murray accepted for Nimitz, a formal capitulation, with the ceremonies held aboard USS Portland. She then was prepared for runs within Operation Magic Carpet, back to Pearl Harbor on 21-24 September with 600 troops, dismeabarke din her namesake city of Maine followed by examplary Navy Day celebrations, on 27 October 1945. She left the Pacific, making two trans-Atlantic crossings uintil Christmas and a well-deserved, long crew leave. On 11 March 1946 she was sent to Philadelphia Naval Shipyard for inactivation, Reserve Fleet. Due to her age it was decided to have her decommissioned at Philadelphia NYd, on 12 July 1946, although maintained in Reserve. She was struck from the Navy List on 1 March 1959, sold on 6 October and scrapped in Panama City, Florida in 1961-1962. There were proposals to save her to become a museum ship at Portland, but this never went to pass. At least her tripod mast was preserved at Fort Allen Park in Portland. "Sweet Pea" as she was nicknamed, earned 16 battle stars, one of the highest score from any USN cruiser at the time. She missed almost none major battle of the pacific.

USS Indianapolis's career

USS Indianapolis in 1944, colorized y Hirootoko Jr
USS Indianapolis in 1944, colorized y Hirootoko Jr.

USS Indianapolis (CA 35) was commissioned on 15 November 1932, second ship of the USN named after this city of Indiana, followin a 1918 cargo ship, and chistened during her launching by the daughter of the former Mayor of Indianapolis. After a shakedown cruise under command of her first captain, John M. Smeallie, through the Atlantic to Guantánamo Bay, she was ready for duty on 23 February 1932. She sailed via the Panama Canal for training exercises off the Chilean coast. After post-cruise fixes in Philadelphia she sailed to Maine, carrying President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at Campobello Island in New Brunswick (1 July 1933). She was back to Annapolis (Maryland) on 3 July to be visited by academy's cadets and hosting six members of the Cabinet with president Roosevelt. On 4 July she steamed for Philadelphia Navy Yard.

On 6 September, she carried Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson in a Pacific fleet inspection, between the Canal Zone, Hawaii, San Pedro and San Diego until 27 October. On 1 November 1933, she was flagship, Scouting Force 1, and for large scale manoeuvers off Long Beach. On 9 April 1934 she departed for New York to embark president Roosevelt for a naval review.



Back at Long Beach on 9 November 1934 she had a new captain, William S. McClintic, from 10 December 1934, until 16 March 1936. She continued training in 1935-36, changed captain, with Henry Kent Hewitt in command, and on 18 November 1936, she embarked Roosevelt (3rd time, so she was almost nicknamed the "presidential yacht"), to Charleston in South Carolina, and then starting a goodwill cruise to South America: Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and back to Charleston on 15 December. Northing much happened in 1937-39, she alternated between the Pacific and Atlantic during seasonal manoeuvers and fleet problems, always as Scouting Force 1's flagship. Thomas C. Kinkaid took command of 5 June 1937 (yes, that one), and was replaced on 1st July 1938 by John F. Shafroth Jr. until 1st October 1941. This was her first prewar captain.


USS Indianapolis underway in 1939

New Guinea Campaign


USS Indianapolis after refit, off Mare Island Navy Yard 20 April 1942

On 7 December that year, USS Indianapolis was now flagship of Task Force 3 under command of Captain Edward Hanson, operating with ships from MineDiv 6 and MineDiv 5, conducting mock bombardment of Johnston Atoll. USS Indianapolis ws reassigned in Task Force 12 , as part of the large search for the Japanese carriers. Back to Pearl Harbor on 13 December she was versed to TF 11 to participate in the New Guinea campaign. She arrived 350 mi (560 km) south of Rabaul (New Britain) escorting USS Lexington. On 20 February 1942, they were attacked by 18 Japanese aircraft, 16 being shot down, in part by AA fire from her and nearby destroyers.

On 10 March, combined with Yorktown's TF, they were sent to attack Lae-Salamaua. Arriving by surprise through the Owen Stanley mountain range, the US airstrike was very successful. Indianapolis then was discharged and sent back to Mare Island for an overhault. She soon get orders to escort a convoy to Australia. On 11 July 1942, Morton L. Deyo took command.

Aleutians Campaign




Indianapolis next was ordered to the North Pacific, to carry out a support mission for the Battle of the Aleutian Islands. On 7 August, Indianapolis was off Kiska Island, where the Japanese landed. Fog disrupted observation and covered their approach, and USS Indianapolis fired her main guns on the assembled Japanese fleet in the bay, soon spotted in detail by her Floatplanes. Several ships were reported sunk while shore installations were damaged. Japanese shore batteries returned fire but made little damage before being silenced. Japanese submarines approaching were spotted and hunted down by American destroyers. The US force then moved for the attack on Adak Island, establishing a base at Dutch Harbor (Unalaska Island). This force returned to Pearl for resplenishment and were back in early 1943.

In January 1943, USS Indianapolis covered the landing of Amchitk in the Aleutians. On 19 February she led two destroyers on patrol, southwest of Attu to locate a signalled Japanese convoy to Kiska and Attu. Indianapolis soon caucght the 3,100-long-ton (3,150 t) cargo ship Akagane Maru, which tried to reply to her radio challenge and was shelled until sinking. Until May, CA-35 remained off the Aleutians, escorting convoys, providing shore bombardments during landing. Attu and Kiska were retaken, the latter from 15 August. Captain Nicholas Vytlacil took command on 12 January 1943 and stayed until 30 July 1943, replaced by Einar R. Johnson.


Blueprint of the last overhaul in 1944

Pacific campaign 1943-44

After an overhaul in Mare Island, USS Indianapolis became flagship, Vice Admiral Spruance, 5th Fleet. She was underway on 10 November with the Southern committed for Operation Galvanic (Gilbert Islands). On 19 November, she shelled Tarawa, and participated next in the Battle of Makin, then back to Tarawa for inland fire-support. She also claimed an aircraft and stayed for close support until the end of the Battle of Tarawa.

On 31 January 1944, she was one of the first ships bombarding Kwajalein. She dealt with shore batteries and many strongpoint of the defence, destroy an important blockhouse, devastated shore installations and continued during the landing and progression inland. She was in Kwajalein Lagoon proper on 4 February. Departing in March she attacked the Western Carolines, starting with the Palau Islands (30–31 March) partiipating in the sinking of three destroyers, 17 freighters, five oilers, with 17 others badly damaged and airfields destroyed. Yap and Ulithi were next on 31 March, Woleai on 1 April. She fended off several air attacks, claming her second plane, a "Kate".

By June 1944, the Mariana Islands campaign was next. She covered an airstrike on Saipan on 11 June, and shore bombardment from 13 June, in fact USS Indianapolis as flagship played a major coordinating role during the Battle of Saipan. Landings proceeded from 15 June when it was signalled a major Japanese force incoming to the Marianas. Spruance detached a fast carrier force, another taking care of the airfields at Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima.

Battle of the Philippines sea

USS_Indianapolis_underway_1944

On 19 June, Indianapolis played her part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Japanese carrier planes were met those of the US Taks Forces in the area, and AA from a multitude of Allied ships. The "turkey shoot" cost the Japanese in a single day 426 Japanese planes for 29 losses. USS Indianapolis had her third victory, another "Kate" B5N. IJN Hiyō, two destroyers and a tanker were also sunk, Taihō and Shōkaku bing claimed by US submarines.

Indianapolis was back in Saipan on 23 June to resume support, then Tinian for the preparatory shellings of the Battle of Tinian. Guam fell also and USS Indianapolis was the first ship to enter Apra Harbor since 1941. For a few weeks she patrolled and escort ships there until moved to the Western Carolines and attacked on 12-29 September on Peleliu (Palau) with a run for resplenishment to Manus Island and back. After 10 days of intense support she was sent for a welcome overhaul at Mare Island. On 18 November 1944, Charles B. McVay III took command of the ship, until 30 July 1945 and his court martial for the loss of his cruiser (spoiler alert).

Iwo Jima & Okinawa

admiral February 1945
U.S. Navy Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher, Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz and Vice Admiral Willis A. Lee, Jr. (listed from left to right) aboard the heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis (CA-35) in February 1945.

When this was over, USS Indianapolis was assigned to Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carrier task force, on 14 February 1945. She escorted them when launching an attack on Tokyo in support for the operations on Iwo Jima planned to take place on 19 February. Air facilities and many strategic installations of the Home Islands were pummeled, a mission accomplished in complete tactical surprise. 499 enemy planes were caliamed, many on the ground, for the loss of 49 carrier planes, mostly due to AA fire. Many ships were destroyed, including an aircraft carrier.

This force was back to the Bonin Islands, then deployed in support for the landings on Iwo Jima. Indianapolis stayed there until 1 March, before making it back to escorting Mitscher's task force for a strike against Tokyo on 25 February, and later Hachijō. Next was Okinawa, Indianapolis still assigned to the fast carrier force from Ulithi (14 March). The first strike was on 18 March, 100 mi (160 km) off Kyūshū, targeting airfields on Kyūshū and shipping of the area. Kobe and Kure notably were hit. There was an air attack on 21 March.

Now as part of Task Force 54, the cruiser was sent to bombard positions before the invasion of Okinawa. Pre-invasion bombardment started on 24 March, and lasted for a week, until the cruiser depleted her stocks. Her AA gunners had any occasions to fend off attacks, just like her sister ship. She claimed six planes, two damaged. On 31 March, her lookouts spotted an incoming Ki-43 "Oscar" which targeted her. Her 20 mm guns were too late to react, so the plane was it, but not before the pilot managed to drop his bomb at just 25 ft (7.6 m), crashing his plane close to the port stern. The bomb penetrated all deck, until the keel and exploding underneath. The concussion almost broke the keel. Flooding was intense drawining nine. Her bulkheads however stopped the flooding eventually and the cruiser was found listing to port. A salvage ship came quickly for emergency repairs. She had her propeller shafts out of action and fuel tanks ruptured, water-distilling plant destroyed. She was ordered to proceed under escort to Mare Island for repairs in April.

Sinking and controversy


Last known trip charted.

Major repairs had her inactivated from April to July, so four months, with an overhaul. USS Indianapolis emerged in July, and after training she received orders for a top-secret mission, embarking enriched uranium to Tinian, a load which represented half of the world's supply. She also carried all the parts and engineers committed to assembly "Little Boy". She departed San Francisco's Hunters Point Naval Shipyard (16 July), and steamed to Pearl Harbor at around 29 knots (setting a distance record by the way). From 19 July she departed for Tinian and deliverd her most precious payload on 26 July.

She proceeded to Guam, for an exchange of sailors after completing a tour of duty. A fateful day for those lucky who disembarked. Indeed, departing on 28 July, proceeding to Leyte for training before heading Okinawa and Jesse B. Oldendorf's Task TF 95, she was caught underway.

At 00:15 on 30 July 1945, two Type 95 torpedoes hit her starboard side, launched from a submarine later identified as I-58 (Commander Mochitsura Hashimoto). The latter mis-identified her for USS Idaho. The explosions caused immediate flooding and the ship took a heavy list, settling by the bow. After a 12 minutes continuous list she capsized, her stern rising as she sank. 300 men when still aboard went she disappeated, leaving the rest of the crew, which had 12 minutes to flee the ship, in dire conditions. They were few lifeboats afloat, many other sailors were without life jackets. This was the start of their cursed week at sea.

Outside those dying on uncared injures, other went down by exhaustion, all suffering from lack of food (but a few crackers salvaged from the debris) and acute dehydration and hypernatremia. Under the hot sun and night hypothermia preventing them to rest, severe desquamation, their worst threat however was still relentless shark attacks. It was etsimated hundred of sharks were drawn there after the explosion and pacing together, caused such rampage that many men were driven ade and killed themselves at the occasion. In fact only 316 of the nearly 900 men adrift survived, with an estimated 150 kills by sharks, the rest from exposure.

One important point in that affair was the late rescue operation. It was down to several factors:
  1. The Navy command did not knew of the ship's sinking in the fist place: Survivors were spotted 3.5 days later*.
  2. HQ Commander Marianas (Guam) assumed that ships as large as Indianapolis would reach their destinations on time. Positions were based on predictions, not reports.
  3. When supposedly arrived in Leyte it was just removed from the plotting board.
  4. It was erroneous recorded as arrived in Leyte by Commander Philippine Sea Frontier HQ
  5. Lieutenant Stuart B. Gibson, operations officer in Tacloban failed to enquire (and was later reprimanded)
  6. Three stations received the distress signals from a survivor, but none acted upon the call
*By a PV-1 Ventura (Wilbur "Chuck" Gwinn), confirmed later by a PBY 2 (Bill Kitchen both during patrol flights). Gwinn dropped a life raft and radio transmitter so all available assets were dispatched at once. A PBY-5A Catalina managed to rescue as many survivors as possible, some strapped to the wings, and the first ship there was the Destroyer escort USS Cecil J. Doyle later joined by six other ships. They picked up the remaining survivors. The event was reenacted in 2007 Discovery Channel series "Shark Week".

In short, late war complacency and near incompetence were to blame. At last something emeged positive from the tragedy as the Navy created the Movement Report System to prevent such disasters in the future. Captain Charles B. McVay III survived the sinking of his ship and was also court-martialled for his part in the disaster. Although his ship was unescorted back from her mission, two charges were retained against him: Failing to order his men to abandon ship and hazarding the ship by failing to zigzag as prescribed far from patrolled lanes. Admiral Chester Nimitz latter remitted McVay's sentence but even after his return to active service his reputation was broken and he retired a rear admiral in 1949 and shot himself in 1968, aged 70. After new elements were brought to the table recently, McVay's name was cleared of all wrongdoing by the Secretary of the Navy in 2001, to the relief of his family. The loss of the cruiser did not diminished its metits, as USS Indanapolis ("Indy") won 10 battle stars for her service.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
Seaplanes
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)



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