IJN Chin Yen (1882)

The first Japanese Ironclad

The result of the first Sino-Japanese war in 1894 was a devastated, scuttled Beiyang Fleet, the largest fleet ever fielded by the Chinese Empire so far since the days of Zheng He. The prize which topped it all were a pair of Chinese ironclads built in Germany: The Dingyuan class. However both had been already damaged at sea during the battle of the Yellow sea, and were further damaged by a night attack b torpedo boats, one being beached to avoid sinking, and both were later finished off by Japanese field artillery bombarding directly from the inner fortifications of Heihaiwei.

These events would repeat themselves against the Russians in 1904-1905. After the Beiyang fleet scuttled itself, the ships became war prizes. However the Japanese choose to only reactivate the lest damaged of the two ironclads: the Chen Yuan (or Zhenyuan). Summarily repaired a first time in situ, then further at Port Arthur, and again at Yokosuka, she was rearmed and became IJN Chin Yen, the first Japanese modern battleship. In 1914, IJN Chin Yen was maintained as a training ship due to her age and condition but did not participated really in WW1.

Japanese strength prior to 1894

Knowing history, it's difficult to accept that in 1890, the Chinese completely dwarved the Imperial Japanese Navy. The first however had to spread out this strength between three fleets along its long coastline. The Nanyang (southern) fleet, already blooded against the French at Shipqu in February 1885 was the second best, followed the famous Beiyang (Northern) fleet, once dubbed "the best in asia". In 1885 indeed, it comprised at its peak 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 6 gunboats, and 4 torpedo-boats. Compared to this, the Imperial Japanese Navy had:
-Armoured corvette Ryujo (1868), British built, TS 1894 (scrapped 1904)
-Central battery ironclad Fuso (1877), british-built, refitted 1894.
-2 Armoured Corvettes class Kongo (1877), British-built (ironclads for some authors).
-2 Protected cruisers class Naniwa (1885), British-built
-3 Protected cruisers class Matsushima (1890) French built
-Protected cruiser Akitsushima (1892), Japanese-built
-Protected cruiser Yoshino (1892) British built, puchased on the stocks
-Protected cruiser Idzumi (1883), British built for Chile, purchased.

The only armoured ships were the very old Ryujo, not deployed as she was a TS, the Fuso, modernized just in time but slow, and the two Kongo and Hiei, also modernized. None had the armament or tonnage of the still fresh (barely eight years old) Chinese battleships built in Germany, along the lines of the Sachsen class, but much better armed.

IJN Hiei
IJN Hiei, armoured corvette

History and design of the Dingyuan class ironclads

The two ironclads leaving Kiel
The two vulcan-built ironclads leaving Kiel.

Bayard_Port_Said French Ironclad Bayard, flagship. The bulk of the French force threatening southern China and therefore the Nanyang fleet was initially part of the Tonkin coasts division and later joined the Far East naval division (based in Yokohama) to form Far East Squadron.

The combined force also comprised the ironclads La Galissonnière, Turenne, Triomphante, Atalante, 15 cruisers and many other ships, gunboats and auxiliaries. During the 1885 war, the Beiyang fleet failed (refused) to assist Nanyang fleet, which was not forgotten. Both ironclads had been ordered in 1880 at a time tensions both with France and Japan were high. Germany was chosen to provided these as the British government did not wanted to antagonize Russia, whereas Germany waited before delivering both ships to not antagonize France.

This was for sure quite some help as none of the Chinese fleets combined could have won over the French at that time. In 1894, the Beiyang fleet had received the ironclads plus an armoured cruiser and perceived more cruisers, making it the largest Asian fleet in operation. A veritable scare campaign started towards the Japanese, both ships were thought to act as a naval deterrence.

But provocations and an incident definitively severed the last remnants of Japanese tolerance for these ships, constrained to be maintained in Port Arthur alone which was limited.

The two ironclads had been the first major ships ordered for the renewed Beiyang fleet, a considerable expanse won by the will of the Zhili governor, Viceroy and the Minister of Beiyang Commerce, Marquess Li Hongzhang. Not only he won the support of Empress Dowager Cixi, but also resolutely bolstered the Chinese Imperial Navy, after quelling several rebellions.

The man ordered ships modelled in a way like himself, in Krupp hardened steel. Both battleships after being ordered in Vulcan in 1880, made a sensation, and immediately entered in French calculations, as they were larger, faster and better armed than any of the Far East Squadron older ironclads.

They also far outclassed the Japanese old ironclads, the 1878 Kongo class and 1877 Fuso. The Dingyuan was twice as large and carried 30 cm guns, compared to 17 cm and 25 cm on the old masted Japanese ships.


Dingyuan as reconstructed as a museum ship nowadays.

The Dingyuan and Zhenyuan displaced about 7800 tons, with a top speed of 15 knots (see the specs). Propelled by three-cylinder trunk steam engines (HTE) on two shafts, the total output was estimated 7200 ihp, with the steam coming from eight cylindrical boilers.

The lack of maintenance meant 14 knots was not even approached in 1894. In fact the ships barely cruised at 6 knots, partly because of the slower troops steamers coming from the Yalu they escorted, and partly because their captain did not wanted the risk of broking anything.

This fact allowed the Japanese fleet to surround at 10 knots the while squadron, pummelling it on both sides, whereas the total disorganization of the Chinese meant their ships often masked their (otherwise uncoordinated and poor) respective field of fire which was inefficient at best. Main armament of IJN Chin Yen blueprint

Where the Sachsen class ships has six 28 cm guns, the Chinese ironclads had four 300 mm Krupp guns in two barbettes placed in échelon (lozenge). The main armament allowed to fire a combined broadside (although disrupting the gangway structure), and forward and aft fire.

The great novelty of the design was to procure two turrets housing secondary guns with 6-in Krupp BL (Breech loading) artillery pieces, at the forward and aft ends, literally to the bow and stern. This feature was pretty unique and rarely seen elsewhere.

In addition both ironclads carried 10 3-pdr and 2-pdre QF guns to deal with other TBs. Another interesting feature was a pair of torpedo boats carried at the rear, abaft the rear mast. They were known as Dingyuan No. 1 and 2 and Zhenyuan No. 1 and 2, making the only TB presence on the Beiyang fleet.

However these were midget torpedo boats, barely 15.7 tons, armed with two 14-in torpedo tubes in the bow. They could only operate by calm sea, not usual in the north. After capture and modernization, this was changed by the Japanese (see later).

Armor of IJN Chin Yen
The original armor was left untouched by the Japanese in 1895. The main belt ranged from 10 to 14 in which was excellent, in Krupp steel, whereas the main turrets had walls 12 in thick, and the forward and aft secondary turrets had walls 2-in thick. The armoured deck had a 3-in thickness and the conning tower had 8-in thick walls.

Defeat and capture

battle of Yalu

The Battle of Yalu has been a disaster, not only for the Beyiang fleet, which lost four cruisers that day, and the rest of the fleet badly damaged, but for the Chinese Imperial Navy as a whole. Indeed, remembering the 1885 refusal to help her, Admiral Li Chengmou declined to send any naval reinforcement to the northern fleet when war erupted over Korea with Japan in 1894.

The Chinese fleet at that point has been severely weakened already by internal forces: In 1888, Grand Tutor Weng Tonghe advised the Guangxu Emperor to cut all funding to the navy (and army as well) as Japan was not yet perceived as a threat whereas several natural disasters required a more urgent reallocation of the funds.

Also, despite the advices of Captain William Lang, ammunition and coal supplies dropped to a standstill, ans crews went to other occupations whereas the ships rot at anchor, without training nor maintenance whatsoever. This was compounded by the exclusion of many foreign advisors, corruption in general and Li Hongzhang's own enemies manoeuvers at the court.

In 1894, the fleet had sunk to an all-low when the war broke out, and admiral Ding Ruchang, a cavalry officer(...) had to make due with what he had. Worst still, the Dingyuan first salvo collapsed the bridge and prevented him to led the fleet for the whole battle. The result, opposing a smaller yet well-trained, led and equipped Japanese squadron, was already written at the wall.

battle of Weihaiwei
Admiral Ding Ruchang The Beiyang fleet's survivors took refuge in port Arthur where some repairs could be done.

But the Chinese Imperial army performed equally as poorly on land and Japanese troops, Prussian trained, soon arrived to the gates of the fortress port, which was besieged. Fearing its impending fall, Ding Ruchang ordered the fleet to leave for the southern port of Weihaiwei, also well fortified.

However with resources still lacking, little could do to improve the situation and in the end, the fleet was trapped and cornered when the Japanese succeeded in taking all fortifications and turn all their field guns and artillery against the Beiyang fleet.

After the fleet surrendered, the Japanese contemplated the fleet which was once "the strongest in Asia". The battle of Weihaiwei had lasted from 20 January to 12 February 1895. This was the last and most decisive battle, and action of the first Sino-Japanese War. The prize were 16 warships, including the ironclads Dingyuan and Zhenyuan, the protected cruisers Jingyuan and Pingyuan plus 13 gunboats and TBs.

For the Dingyuan the second torpedo boat attack on the night of February, 4, was the most devastating: On this night a second torpedo-boats atack took place in three squadrons and the torpedo attack was preceded by a diversion of two small gunboats, Chokai and Atago.

Very large blueprint of the Dingyuan class in Chinese service
Very large blueprint of the Dingyuan class in Chinese service

Four IJN TBs discharged eight torpedoes and two were lost during the action, because of a boilers explosion and another ran aground near the eastern forts, and was finished off by the Chinese artillery. Dingyuan was reported hit and slowly sank, whereas Zhenyuan's captain was forced to beach her to avoid her sinking completely.

On 9 February, Zhenyuan faced a third attack, this time with more substantial ships, and scored a hit on the cruiser Itsukushima. Dingyuan was lost and Admiral Ding decided to scuttle the ship, and a wave of suicides followed until 12 February.

After the surrender the next day, the Japanese combined fleet entered the port to assess the Beiyang Fleet's damage and inspect the vessels. Zhenyuan was declared to be in salvageable condition. Only her hull's bottom has been damaged when beached and she was seized as a war prize.

General Major Odera Yasuzumi commanding the artillery at Weihaiwei
General Major Odera Yasuzumi commanding the artillery at Weihaiwei (Ogata Gekko).

The Chin Yen in action

Recovering the ship took time: The Japanese used support vessels and divers to repair what they could and refloat the ship eventually. Saikyō Maru, badly damaged once at the Battle of the Yalu River, has been repaired in between, and was used to two the Zhenyuan to Port Arthur here facilities would allow to repair her more extensively.

After repairs were done, notably in the engine rooms, IJN Chin Yen was declared seaworthy to some extent and as officially commissioned into the Japanese Navy. The ceremony happened on 16 March and she was officially renamed Chin Yen, which was the Japanese version of her original name. Nevertheless she was drydocked and temporary repaired from April until June.

Damage was inspected closely and later drawn lessons that were incorporated in proper Japanese designs. The main observation was that side armor needed to be strengthened rather than deck armor. This was merely linked to the close range (2000-3500 m) of the engagements of that time.

On 5 July, Chin Yen sailed to Japan, as the largest vessel in the Japanese Imperial fleet. She became its de facto capital ship, and steamed for a triumphal tour of archipelago, the very embodiement of the victory over the Chinese. After Nagasaki until 16 July, she crossed the Seto Inland Sea, stopped in Hiroshima, and afterwards in Kure and Kobe. IJN Chin Yen final destination was Yokohama, reached on 28 July.

From there she joined the Yokosuka Naval District and was immobilized for a substantial rebuilding, and permanent repairs, never done properly since Port Arthur. The main battery stayed unchanged bu modern a fire-control directors were installed, whereas the secondary battery was modified and modernized.

Rearmament of IJN Chin Yen:

Instead of the two old breech-loading short-barrel Krupp guns, the ship received four modern QF 6-in/50 Vickers guns, installed in the former forward turret, and the remainder three in single positions under masks, one in place of the aft turret, and two either side in sponsons, abaft the rear mast.

In addition, the light artillery was also completely new, with two 6-pdr (57 mm) guns placed on the lower hull sides (hull recesses decks) and the others eight 3-pdr (47 mm), with shields, on the decks, four aft, two immediately rear to the funnels, and two on the forward deck. A blueprint of the Chin Yen which originated in the jane's fighting ships 1904, shows one 47 mm (1.85 inches) on each mast fighting top, so ten in all, and two 37 mm (1.46 inches) on the recess decks instead of the larger 6-pdr. The figures here are from Conway's.

Service until the Boxer war

The Meiji Emperor visited the ship at Yokosuka on 25 November 1896 after another triumphal tour of Japan when the ship has been refitted and repainted white. However by that time, Japan just waited for the Fuji class battleships to enter service and IJN Chin Yen was reclassified as a second rate battleship. She would served with the Combined Fleet until 21 March 1898. By that time she had been versed as the flagship of the Reserve Fleet and for the following years, she multiplied cruises in Japanese waters, visiting many ports.

As the Boxer Rebellion broke out in China, she was sent to join the Eight Nation Alliance and covered ground operations during the Battle of Tientsin, putting an end to the siege by the Boxers.

The Russo Japanese war

Battle of the Yellow sea
After 1901, IJN Chin yen returned as flagship of the reserve fleet, spending periodic time at anchor. However soon, situation deteriorated over the control of Korea, tensions rose with Russia. In 1904 it broke out, and the Japanese on 8 February launched a surprise night torpedo-boat attack on the Russian First Pacific Squadron in Port Arthur, exactly what they did against the Beiyang fleet in Weihaiwei. Chin Yen by that time served with the 5th Squadron, 3rd Fleet, Vice Admiral Kataoka Shichirō rausing his mark on her mast. She served with the three other veterans of 1894-95, the Matsushima-class cruisers. They sailed from Sasebo on 6 February in preparation for the war and stayed in reserve, ready to intervene at sea.

The Blockade of Port Arthur
They were called at least to enforce the blockade of Port Arthur, which represented a large area. Desperate to make a breakthrough, the Russian sortied and this led to the second Battle of the Yellow Sea on August, 10.

Chin Yen saw action under Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō and her fire contributed to repel the Russians, force them back to port. During this battle she apparently scored several hits in exchange of two hits without serious damage. The blockade resumed and the Japanese combined fleet shelled Russian positions on 6 March. Chin Yen then shelled Vladivostok with other ships, firing on another Russian squadron during forty-minutes, with few results.

Battle of Tsushima
On 27–28 May 1905 the Russian Second Pacific Squadron was made if the former Baltic Fleet, and made a long trip to Asia. Tōgō intercepted this fleet off Tsushima Strait. Chin Yen with the 5th Squadron was posted at the line of battle's tail, ready to take on the back Russian line.

IJN Chin Yen, with others, sank the Kamchatka and badly damaged the Knyaz Suvorov. The following day, after all appeared wrapped up, the 5th Squadron ships made a large sweep to search and destroy the remainder of the Russian fleet still in action.

She also escorted seven surrendered warships to Japanese ports, to be taken as war prizes. The bounty was even more larger than at Weihaiwei.

Chin Yen led the 5th Squadron to Tsushima on 20 June. At last, the old ironclad was placed in drydock to be refitted in Kure. She was assigned to the Ōminato Guard District, northern Honshu. However she was chosen to participate in a late action: The Sakhalin landings on 4 July 1905.

The war ended on 5 September. IJN Chin Yen escort the cruiser Bayan, scuttled at Port Arthur, but raised and salvaged, then conducted to a Japanese yard for permanent repairs. Chin yen also participated in the 23 October victory review, for her last major event in the active fleet.

There was a parade of captured Russian warships, and the Chin Yen and two other former Chinese ships making the world's largest naval spoils displayed ever shown to a public. As a veteran of two wars, the Chin Yen was revered.


Chin yen as modernized by the Japanese.

Later years

IJN Chin Yen was reclassified as a first-class coastal defense ship on 11 December. She was now indeed too slow, old and obsolete to join any action with the active fleet. During 5.5 years, she was also used as a training ship for naval cadets and took part in several training exercises with the fleet, culminating with the October-November 1908 Imperial review in presence of the the Emperor. By April 1911 she was decommissioned, replaced by IJN Itsukushima as a training vessel.

IJN Chin Yen was disarmed and used as a target ship. The new cruiser Kurama notably fired on her in late 1911. Her hull was sold to ship breakers in April 1912 and the sell funds were partly used to create the grand hall of the Naval Academy Etajima (Hiroshima).

Her anchors were taken apart and preserved from 1896, later deposited at Ueno Park (Tokyo) as a victory monument after WW1. This caused an outrage in China and the Chinese nationalist government later obtained their return, granted by the American occupation authority in May 1947. They were displayed at the naval academy in Qingdao. After the 1949 communist victory they were seized an later transferred to the PLAN Military Museum in Beijing.

Read More/Src

Chamberlin, William Henry. Japan Over Asia, 1937
Jane, Fred T.The Imperial Japanese Navy (1904)
Kodansha Japan An Illustrated Encyclopedia, 1993, Kodansha Press, Tokyo
Lone, Stewart. Japan's First Modern War: Army and Society in the Conflict with China, 1894-1895
Paine, S.C.M. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Perception, Power, and Primacy
Warner, Dennis and Peggy. The Tide At Sunrise, 1974
Wright, Richard N. J.The Chinese Steam Navy 1862-1945
Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1865-1905
http://sinojapanesewar.com/PortArthur.htm
http://sinojapanesewar.com/weihai.htm
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanyang_Fleet
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beiyang_Fleet
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far_East_Squadron

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Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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