Nakajima A4N (1932)

IJN aviation Imperial Japanese Navy, 148 built

The 1930s IJN naval fighter

The Nakajima A4N was a carrier-based fighter, last biplane by Nakajima. The first prototype was completed in 1934, but engine issues delayed the entry service until 1936. It was internally called Nakajima YM (factory designation), or Navy Type 95 Carrier Fighter. In all, 221 were built, mostly active during the Chinese War and until its replacement in 1937-38 by the Mitsubishi A5M.


Type 95 Shiki Kansen

The precedessor: Nakajima A2N


Type 95 Siki Kansen

The A2N was developed as a private venture by Nakajima, intended to fill the carrier-borne fighter niche in 1929. It was based loosely on the Boeing Model 69 and 100, both imported a year before and the same for technical analysis and evaluation. Takao Yoshida was chief designer of the project and created two prototypes: One was designated Navy Type 90 Carrier Fighter (in anticipation of Navy trials, outside specifications). It was ready in December 1929, Powered by a Bristol Jupiter VI engine under licence.

The Navy tested it, but it was rejected as not offering much advantage over the existing Nakajima A1N. The latter was indeed a copy of the British Gloster Gambet, which prototype first flew on 12 December 1927, introduced in early 1929 in active units, and which production was ongoing (151 were delivered). They already equipped IJN Hosho, Kaga and Akagi. But the IJN had an ambitious program of new "sub-treaty" light aircraft carriers, and IJN Ryujo was one of these. Nakajima, like its competitor Mitsubishi knew they would be a greater need for fighters in the near future.


4-view blueprint of the A2N

After the refusal, Jingo Kurihara started a major redesign, leading to the creation in 1930 of another prototype, the Type 91 or A2N1, powered by the improved 432 kW (579 hp) Nakajima Kotobuki 2 engine. It was completed in May 1931 and trialled this year extensively. This time the naval staff was impressed by its performances and accepted it in April 1932 for service. 100 were ordered (the most common number given), bbut the company started to work on the next iteration, believing it had now secured the IJN fighter market for years. The production run went on in 1936 with a two-seat trainer called the A3N3-1, with 66 built until 1939 as advanced trainer for the next A2N. Evolution

The A2N In Combat

In 1932, Minoru Genda, later famous for its constribition to the attack at Pearl Harbor, formed a flight demonstration team. It was called the "Genda's Flying Circus", and was used to promote naval aviation. He flew the A2N all across the country, creating vocations in the youth, some of these ending as kamikaze in 1944-45. The Type 90 Carrier-based fighter was as planned the main fighter of IJN Hōshō, Kaga and Ryūjō, replacing completely the Mitsubishi 1MF. The A2N was also of course deployed in China, taking part in the Mandchurian incident and northern air force patrols, and the first air battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. However production ceased in 1936 and the type ws considered already obsolescent. Mitsubishi notably already worked on a new monoplane, more promising. Air-combat units flew the A2N in many high-profil operations such as Japanese troop-landings in the Battle of Shanghai (16 August 1937), where Akio Matsuba from Kaga shot-down a Chinese Douglas O-2M, followed by many other victories. The first aces of the IJN were A1N pilots, but the model by that time was already uperseded by the A4N, and soon the A5M as well.

Brief specs:

6.183 x 3.025 m, wingspan: 9.37 m (30 ft 9 in), weight 1,045 kg/1,550 kg (3,417 lb), Powerplant Nakajima Kotobuki 2 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine 343–433 kW (460–580 hp) with a 2-bladed Hamilton Standard fixed-pitch metal propeller. Top speed 293 km/h (182 mph, 158 kn), cruise 167 km/h, Range 500 km (310 mi, 270 nmi), ceiling: 9,000 m (30,000 ft), climb rate 3,000 m (9,843 ft)/5 minutes. It was armed with two fixed forward firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine guns but carried no other payload.

Development of the Nakajima A4N


4-view blueprint of the A4N

The Imperial Japanese Navy developed official requirements for a new "9-Shi specification" carrier-based aircraft one of these being a fighter, in order to replace the main Nakajima A2N. In February 1934 this specification was issued to Mitsubishi while instructing Nakajima to modernize its A2N. Takao Yoshida and Shinobu Miyake took the head of the new design team. The first prototype called Nakajima YM flew for the first time in October 1934, and flew in early 1935. There was an hypothetic A3N in 1933, but the model was never developed further.

The first tests revealed a top speed of 352 km/h at 3,200 m, matching the official specification. However on February 1, 1935, Mitsubishi presented its Ka-14 prototype, forerunner of its future A5M? Inspired by the Boeing P26, it first flew that day. The Navy was faced with two fighters of similar performances, one monoplane, the other biplane, and there were two school of thoughts about them. Some believed the monoplane was not a viable solution and just a fad. So the two companies stuck to their guns and defended their "baby".

At last, the Navy made comparative tests, by selected combat pilots. The end result was that the Mitsubishi prototype had a better high speed, Nakajima better maneuverability. This just confirmed the general opinion about monoplanes versus biplane worldwide at the time. Soon, the Navy realized it could have both fighters, one reserved for escort and dogfights, the other as interceptor, and given the planned construction of two new carriers, replacing existing parks and limited production capacity of both manufacturers, started to discuss about the possibility to have both models accepted.

Further tests took place at the end of 1935 conducted by Lieutenant Minoru Genda and Lieutenant Ryosuke Nomura, plus other selected, high profile pilots. Since they were celebrities at the time, this new test took almost a public importance. A more extensive palette of tests was performed, and according to the results the Nakajima fighter won, notably due to its superiority in a popular aerobatic tactic at the time, the so-called "dog dump". The Navy however did not sidelined the A5M for long as it would came back soon, with the needs of the 1937 war. The first production fighter was designated A4N1, and classified in the Navy ordnance as the "Type 95 carrier-based fleet fighter."

Design

The new A4N was similar to the A2N, but still with important differences. Dimensions of the airframe were slightly larger, the engine was a more powerful Nakajima Hikari 1 capable of 730 hp with 600 liters of capacity. The single-bay chassis was redesigned, with split struts combined for better stiffness and increasing rigidity. Also a tailwheel was added for better control on the ground. To increase the range, suspended tanks were installed under the left or right wing. They allowed the A4N to reach 950-980 km, but generally capped to 845 km with a reserve for dogfighting. Armament comprised two Type 97 7.7 (0.3 inches) machine guns and the power to weight ratio was now positive to such point, the wings were reinforced to carry a limited bomb load, up to 120 kg (either the standard light 30 kg or heavier 60 kg models).


Nakajima Kobuki 1 engine

Design

Engine:

Nakajima Hikari 1 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 500 kW (670 hp) to 544 kW (730 hp). A classic star engine, long developed for the Kobuki and a British model, but modified along the lines of the Wright used in Boign models, and a lot of local modifications to improve its performances. This was a sturdy engine, which equipped most IJN models: The Aichi D1A2 and D3A prototype, Kawasaki Ki-45 prototype, Mitsubishi F1M1, Nakajima B5N1, C3N and Yokosuka B4Y1. The Hikari 1 developed 820 hp (610 kW) which was considerable in 1935, but the Hikari 1 kai was pushed to 730 hp (540 kW), the Hikari 2 up to 840 hp (630 kW) and the more tamed Hikari 3 offered 770 hp (570 kW).

Armament:

Two fixed, forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.8 inches) Type 97 machine guns. Two 30 kg (66 Ibs.) or two 60 kg (132 Ibs.) bombs underwings.

Detailed specs

A4N1 1931

Crew: One pilot
Fuselage Lenght6.64 m (21 ft 9 in)
Wingspan10 m (32 ft 10 in)
Height3.07 m (10 ft 1 in)
Wing Area22.89 m2 (246.4 sq ft), load 76.9 kg/m2 (15.8 lb/sq ft)
Empty weight:1,276 kg (2,813 lb)
Gross weight:1,760 kg (3,880 lb)
Powerplant:Nakajima Hikari 1 9-cyl. 670-730 hp (500-544 kW)
Propellers:2-bladed Hamilton fixed-pitch metal propeller
Maximum speed:352 km/h (219 mph, 190 kn) at 3,200 m (10,499 ft)
Service ceiling:7,740 m (25,390 ft)
Range:846 km (526 mi, 457 nmi)
Time to altitude:3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 3 minutes 30 seconds
Power/mass:0.2884 kW/kg (0.1754 hp/lb)
Armament2x 7.7 mm LMGs, 2x30/60 kgs bombs

The A4 in action


A4Ns in formation in China, 1937 (world of warships)

However, the service of this biplane was short-lived, since the leadership of the Imperial Navy was convinced of the superiority of monoplanes over biplanes. The tactics of using the A5M high-speed monoplane proved the unconditional advantages of this scheme in fighter aircraft, but the rearmament was carried out for a very long time. By the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War, as part of the naval aviation, only the 12th mixed kokutai (Luda airfield, Dairen) had 12 A4N fighters in its composition. The functions were short-range escort operations and air defense.

The first battles were unsuccessful: on August 24, 1937, the commander of the 24th Fighter Squadron of the Air Force of the Republic of China, Captain Liu Chuikang, in a Curtiss Hawk III fighter shot down an A4N northwest of Shanghai, and the pilot was killed. On August 25, the Japanese from the aircraft carrier "Hosho" tried to intercept He-111A bombers, damaging two bombers. In August, the 12th Kokutai went on vacation, but returned to service on September 5 as part of the 3rd Fleet, stationed at Kunda Air Base (Shanghai), and joined the support of the ground forces. A4Ns also became stormtroopers. The losses intensified: on September 18, the plane of senior lieutenant Kazue Sato was shot down in the Baoding area by air defense forces, and the captain, having made an emergency landing, was killed in a firefight. In October-November, the fighters began to be replaced by Mitsubishi monoplanes. Since December 1937, the Kanoya kokutai began to operate in the Shanghai area, which had the A4N daitai (squadron), but they were only engaged in air defense. A4N have become only a tool to make up for losses.

On April 13, 1938, the aircraft carrier "Kaga", having several A4N fighters in its air group, supported the attacks on Canton, and that day at least one A4N fighter was shot down: Lieutenant Teng Chunkai from the 28th squadron distinguished himself about two aircraft shot down, but the second was the Aichi D1A deck bomber. Lieutenant Kwan Yensun reported another A4N shot down and two injured. In response, two Japanese shot down two Gloster Gladiator fighters: Chief of the 2nd class Hatsuo Hidaka (pilot U Bojun died) and Chief Petty Officer Chono distinguished themselves. On April 25, 1938, the air group of the Soryu aircraft carrier (Nanjing airport) joined the hostilities, and in June the 15th kokutai with old aircraft was also abandoned. The reason for such a massive inclusion of the Nakajima A4N in the battle was the large losses in aircraft. On July 16, Chinese Air Force bombers launched a bombardment of the airfield, and the 15th Kokutai repelled the attack, shooting down three planes. Chief Petty Officer Ichiro Higayashima and Petty Officer 2nd Class Yoshiharu Matsumoto distinguished themselves.

In March, the Kanoya Kokutai withdrew the A4N, in April the Soryu and Kaga aircraft carriers withdrew their aircraft, and in September 1938 the 15th Kokutai abandoned them as well. For a short time, the aircraft was based on the Ryujo aircraft carrier as a training aircraft. By the end of 1938, it was gone in combat units: all Nakajima A4Ns became training ones.

References

surfcity.kund.dalnet.se
shanghai1937.tv
surfcity.kund.dalnet.se
aviastar.org
pacificeagles.net
www.historyofwar.org
ww.aviastar.org
www.scalemates.com

Green, William; Swanborough, Gordon (1994). The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Smithmark.
Mikesh, Robert C.; Abe, Shorzoe (1990). Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books.
Passingham, Malcolm (November 1995). "Les premiers chasseurs embarqués Nakajima (2e partie): Le A2N Type 90"
Gustavsson, Hakans. "Håkans Aviation page – Sino-Japanese Air War 1937". Biplane Fighter Aces - China.
Sun, Lianggang. "Shanghai 1937 – Where World War II Began". SHANGHAI 1937: WHERE WORLD WAR II STARTED.
Gustavsson, Hakans. "Japanese biplane fighter aces - Akio Matsuba". Biplane Fighter Aces - Japan.

The initial prototype tested in 1934.


AKN-1 IJN Akagi, 1936


A4N1, 12th Kokutai 1936


12th Kokutai, Shanghai August 1937


Unknown unit, China winter 1937/38



A2N3-1


Nakajima Type 97 650 hp engine





The 1937 Panay incident, where A4Ns were involved in

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V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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