Battleship Henri IV (1899)

France (1899) - France's strangest pre-dreadnought

Background

The French Navy was under the influence of the 'Jeune Ecole' ('Young School') during the years 1820-1909. There has been a collection of concepts and experiments to compensate the French inferiority in numbers compared to the arch-rival, the Royal Navy, by innovation. France has been very active in the development of a new artillery shell (Paixhans incendiary shells), adoption of steam on capital ships, first ironclad, and innovative submarines and torpedo boats.

One of the most crucial aspects of her fleet was the apparent lack of coherence in battleships; There were literally no homogenous classes built during the 1880-90s and up to the arrival of Admiral Boué de Lapeyrère. The latter decided to stop this absurd trend and concentrate on more conventional homogeneous and large classes of battleships and battlecruisers.

Hneri IV carte postale
Postcard showing Henri IV's stern. carte postale Pages14-18 uploaded by Raphodon src (CC)

Unfortunately the war broke out before his plans, passed onto his successors, could see the light of day. Therefore the French Battleships fleet was separated into three distinct groups, 1914 dreadnought classes (Courbet and Bretagne), 1909 pre-dreadnoughts of the Republique and Danton class and "Jeune Ecole" era pre-dreadnoughts which were for the most part, quite unusual. Their most distinctive and common traits were their lozenge main battery with single side turrets, heavy military masts and pronounced tumblehome among others. But certainly among the weirdest oddballs of this collection was the Henri IV.

Emile Bertin's pet project

Henri IV
Battleship Henry IV - Symons & co. Coll. (cc)

Louis-Émile Bertin (1840-1924) was certainly one of the most colourful and influential of these French architects and engineers. He won international recognition as naval architect in 1871 and was himself well influenced by Dupuy de Lôme, author of many French avant-garde designs of the 1850-70s. Many saw him as his rightful inheritor. Among other things he was sent to Japan, helping shape the Japanese Navy of the early 1890s, and notably designed their flagship, the Matsushima, earning the Order of the Rising Sun after the Japanese victory over China in 1894.

He became also Director of the School of Naval Engineering in France, Director of Naval Construction. However he was found at odds with Admiral Aube's Jeune Ecole architects and both would be virulent in critics. Bertin supported the idea, before the dreadnought era, of a lightly armored, heavily-gunned cruiser.

However he also had innovative ideas about using water as a protection. The strange semi-submerged spar torpedo vessels of the 1860s (including civil war ships such as the Spuyten Duyvil and Stonewall Jackson) steel rams like the British Polyphemus an the French Taureau toyed with the idea of partially submerging the hull and delete straight walls in order to deflect rounds. The Union riverine ironclad USS Monitor in a sense, describe as a "raft" used water as a natural barrier, offering little or no target above the water. Therefore at some point in 1895-6, Bertin lobbied the minister in order to evaluate some of his ideas on a new battleship. This was to be the Henri IV (Reformer French king of 1589-1610).

battleship hoche
Battleship Hoche - Mitchell painting (cc).

He was willing to take the exact opposite of Jeune Ecole battleships such as the Hoche. Another infamous 1889 oddball Kaiser Wilhelm once famously described during a naval review "what nice target". The Hoche was also nicknamed by French crews the "grand hotel" by derision. The Henry IV was instead designed to offer the smallest target possible, yet offering the same firepower. However many compromises led to radically revise the design and ended with a curious long range coastal battleship of some sort. This was as he described it as a sea going monitor, based on the Bouvines class. He wanted the ship to be unsinkable and very stable. Henri IV was laid down at Cherbourg on 15 July 1897 and launched on 23 August 1899, but was only operational in 1903. Construction cost has been 15,660,000 francs.

French battleship Henri IV HENRI IV 1902-1921 Shipbucket
French battleship Henri IV HENRI IV 1902-1921 Shipbucket src alchetron.com

Emile Bertin's design for the Henri IV

Contrary to the common practice of the time which consisted in making a pronounced tumblehome in order to gain stability and make the ships higher, a characteristic of French Battleships of the time, she was designed to present the smallest target possible. In order to achieve this, the normal rear superstructure was deleted altogether and it was limited to a casemate-like to support and elevate the rear turret. Indeed the rear freeboard was so low the Turrets risked of being washed out. The rear hull indeed was only 4 feet (1.2 m) above water (at nominal displacement as design) and was anyway much smaller and lighter than usual battleships of the time, 2,300 metric tons (2,260 long tons) less in fact, the weight of a protected cruiser.

The upper deck height amidships and bow however were made as a traditional forecastle for better sea-keeping and provided much-needed accommodations in a cramped vessel. The superstructure was narrow, recessed from the hull above the main deck however. The superstructures were compact: A conning tower on which was mated the bridge, one enclosed and one open above, immediately backed by the thick military mast behind. Then followed the two funnels and a single pole mast before the rear secondary turret support, in superfiring position above the main aft turret.

Armament

For stability reasons, the most important decision was to cut down the main artillery to just two turrets, fore and aft. There was no room for large main gun single turrets like in French contemporary battleships. Instead secondary barbettes and turrets took place in the side superstructure. The ship's small size and Bertin's own ideas favored a simplified armament for heavier maintenance, a blessing compared to other battleships of the time which could have six-seven different calibers on board.

The main guns were two 40-cal. 274 mm (10.8 in) Canon de 274 modèle 1893/1896s which packed far less punch than a 12-in but was standard compared to the German Krupp 28 cm. Nevertheless they fired a 255 kg (562 lb) AP shell with a muzzle velocity of 865 metres/second (2,840 ft/s).

The secondary armament was comprised of seven 45-cal. 138.6 mm (5.46 in) Canon de 138 mm Modèle 1893 guns. This was far less than the secondary battery of contemporary the HMS Canopus, twelve QF 6 in (152 mm) guns. However they were faster-firing on paper, 35–30 kg (77–66 lb) projectiles at muzzle velocities of 730–770 m/s.

Four were mounted in casemates on the main deck, facing the sides, front and rear at 180°, and two on the shelter deck with gun shields. The last one was mounted on the shelter deck turret in a superfiring position, a first for the French Navy and for the world. However the ship's small dimensions meant it was placed very close to the main gun turret aft. The barrel in fact was too short to clear the sighting hood of the turret below, causing problems with the blast when firing. She was extensively tested notably by cramming sheeps inside the turret below and apparently they did not suffered ill effects of the blast at first.

The tertiary armament was comprised of the usual small QF Hotchkiss revolver guns in order to deal with Torpedo Boats. These were twelve in total, 47 mm (1.9 in) 40-cal. Canon de 47 mm Modèle 1885. They were mounted in the main military mast on armoured platforms and on the superstructure. Their shell was 1.49-kilogram (3.3 lb), with a 610 metres/second (2,000 ft/s) muzzle velocity to 4,000 metres (4,400 yd) practical range. The rate of fire was 15 rounds/minute maximum on paper, but 7/minute were more realistic in practice in sustained fire. For close-quarters the Henri IV has the usual two submerged 450 mm (18 in) torpedo tubes, fitted with warheads of 110 Kgs (240 lb), speed 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph) and approx. range of 6,000 meters (6,600 yd).

Protection

Armor was supplied by Creusot, a Harvey type belt 2.5 m (8.2 ft) high, tapered from 280 mm (11 in) down to 180 mm (7.1 in) on both ends. Limits were a 100 mm (3.9 in) traverse bulkheads. Its lower edge ranged from 180 to 75 mm (7.1 to 3.0 in). The upper armor belt was 100 mm (3.9 in) thick. It was 2 m (6.6 ft) high up to 4 m (13 ft) forward and was closed by a 75 mm (3.0 in) traverse bulkhead.

The armored deck was 60 mm (2.4 in) or its thickest part, tapered to 30 mm (1.2 in) on both ends. There was a second armored deck below tapered from 20 mm (0.79 in) (centerline) to 35 mm (1.4 in) on the edges, curved down about 91 cm (36 in) to make a torpedo bulkhead, meeting the inner bottom.

Bertin conducted experiments in 1894 for this formula and improved in fact on the armor designed previously for the Russian battleship Tsesarevich. However it was too close to the sides, there was no room for damping any shock. The main turrets faces and sides were protected by 305 mm (12.0 in) of armor, and their ammunition shafts and barbettes were 240 mm (9.4 in) thick. Casemates for the secondary 138 mm guns were about 75–115 mm (3.0–4.5 in) thick, whereas their own ammunition wells were 164.7 mm (6.48 in) thick. Given the small size of the ship and main armament, it was fairly decent. The total weight of the armor was 3,528 tons, or 40.1% of the ship’s total displacement.

Propulsion

Propulsion on the Henri IV was not fairly innovative: Henri IV was given the typical French triple shaft, vertical triple-expansion steam engines. They were were rated for 11,500 indicated horsepower (8,600 kW), fed by 24 Niclausse boilers, coal-fired. As a result, top speed was 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph) on average, one knot slower than usual British battleships. She carried 1,100 tonnes (1,080 long tons; 1,210 short tons) of coal for a 7,750 nautical miles range (14,350 km; 8,920 mi) at 10 knots.

Henri IV n the Dardanelles, seen from the stern's low freeboard. Agence Rol - Gallica. (cc)

The Henri IV in service

The battleship Henri IV entered service only in September 1903, woefully obsolete by that time. Completion dragged on for almost four years as problems accumulated and has to be solved. At last prelimianry speed trials took place on 19 february 1903. They show quickly serious stability problems contrary to what Bertin planned: The roll was twice that of contemporary battleships. Indeed the very low freeboard made water rushed over the bridge everytime and the added wight of the water aggravated the problem.

In the end it was very difficult to correctly point the artillery. Also a heavy shell in plunging fire could still penetrate this low-freeboard rear part of the ship and flooded the engine rooms quite quickly. Although henri IV was built as a 2nd rank battleship she did not complied to this and was rather considered as a high seas monitor rather than a battleship at all. She ended the trend and proved to be of little value during the war, between her use as guardship or used for artillery support.

Early years 1903-1914

The ship was attached from the beginning to the Tunisian naval division. She was only active in coastal defence and port protection and made no cruises and squadron exercises contrary to other French battleships of the time.

Henri IV during WW1

The ship was a guardship at Bizerte, Tunisia when the war broke out. Three of her 138.6 mm guns were dismounted in November 1914, sent by rail from Salonica to reinforce the French naval mission to Serbia, the "Mission D" expeditionary force.

Henri left Bizerte in February 1915. She was assigned to the newly formed Syrian Squadron intended to attack Turkish positions and lines of communication in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and the Sinai. Henri IV however was transferred soon after to the French squadron in the Dardanelles to replace the Bouvet and damaged Gaulois after the allies crippling losses in the passes on 18 March 1915. The Battleship shelled the eastern side Kum Kale fort Asiatic in support of the French diversionary landing on 25 April 1915. She provided afterwards close fire support for the troops until May. However she received eight hits during this mission.

Back home she was placed in drydock and repaired, and in 1916, she was assigned to the Complementary (Reserve) Division of the 3rd Battle Squadron. She served with the French Eastern Division in Egypt in 1917. She was sent in 1918 to Taranto to serve as a depot ship. In 1920, Henri IV was stricken from the List and scrapped in 1921, after 18 years of service. Considered as a hazardous experiment, constructon time and engineering errors meant she was obsolete at launch, both as a ship and as a concept, and did not provided any significant help to the Navy.

blueprint


Postcard to sale: en.todocoleccion.net
https://www.flickr.com/photos/donshearman/1432472331/in/photostream/
Henri IV In Gallipoli Flickr Src
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4QBQUJ2fz8&feature=youtu.be

Henri IV class specifications

Dimensions108 m length, 22.2 m wide, 7.5 m draught
Displacement8,807 metric tons (8,668 long tons)
Crew26 officers 438 sailors
Propulsion3 shaft VTE, 24 Niclausse boilers, 11 500 hp.
Speed17 knots. max. (31 km/h; 20 mph)
Range7,750 nmi (14,350 km; 8,920 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Armament2x 274mm, 7× 138.6 mm, 12x 47 mm Hotchkiss guns, 2× 450 mm TTs
ArmorBelt 180–280 mm, Decks: 60 mm, Ammo wells 240 mm, Turrets 270–110 mm


Original Marine plans

main blueprint of Henri IV

The ship's construction plans and some of its equipment are available on the official website of the Defense Historical Service. The crew roles of the ship can be consulted at SHD Cherbourg, and logbooks are located at SHD Toulon. Plans are available on the web.

Read More/Src

alchetron.com/French-battleship-Henri-IV
fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_IV_(cuirass%C3%A9)
https://www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk/henry_iv.htm
www.agenziabozzo.it/navi_da_guerra/C-Navi%20da%20Guerra/C-1202_HENRI_IV_1899_corazzata_all%27ancora_nel_porto_di_Tolone_in_cartolina_1903.htm
'Cent ans de Cuirasse Francais' Eric Gille
Warships fotofax French battleships 1876-1946 R.A. Burt
Musée de la Marine, Paris
Gardiner, Robert (toim.): Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905
dreadnoughtproject.org/French%20Warship%20Plans/Henri_IV_1899
Another stern view The Model corner
http://www.modelwarships.com/reviews/ships/fr/Henry-IV/700-com/combrig-review.html
http://www.findmodelkit.com/content/battleship-henry-iv-1903

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
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Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
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De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
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A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
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Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
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Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
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Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
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Parana class Gunboats (1873)
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Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
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Konigin der Netherland (1874)
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Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
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Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
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Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
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Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
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Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
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Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
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La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
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Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
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Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
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Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
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Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
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Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
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Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
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Barbarigo class (1879)
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Scilla class GB (1874)
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Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
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Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
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WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
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Canopus class (1897)
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King Edward VII class (1903)
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HMS Dreadnought (1906)
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HMS Neptune (1909)
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Orion class (1911)
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Iron Duke class (1912)
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HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
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G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
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Cressy class (1900)
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Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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