Light Cruiser Krasny Kavkaz (1916)

Soviet Navy

Completed and rebuit

The Krasny Kavkaz is singular in more ways than one: Firstly because she was an old ship completely redesigned and rebuilt (a cruiser of the Svetlana class first drawn in 1913), but also by her main armament and general configuration. At the time, she was to be assigned to the Pacific fleet, opposed to the old Japanese antagonist. Specifically she had to deal with the Kako class (6 x 8-in or 203 mm in single turrets) cruisers, the configuration retained by the Russians being somewhat inferior. Indeed her 180 mm were experimental, and the simple turrets a configuration more suitable for testing. The caliber was also inferior and the Russians but these fewer 180 mm pieces were capable of a faster rate and were not inferior in range. The Kavkaz however would have a quite different active life. She remains one of the most unique and distinctive designs of the interwar.

Origins: From keel laid down to new commission

The history of this ship began on the eve of the First World War. In October 18, 1913 in Nikolaev, two new light cruisers were being laid down. One of them was named "Admiral Lazarev." The hull was launched on June 8, 1916, but never completed in the tsar's time. She was left completely abandoned, 63% completed, moored in a remote corner of the naval yard. She saw the passing of the regime and the revolution, the civil war, and the rebuilding of the state and the yard. In the second half of 1918, the Marine Department of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi was mobilize to complete of ship for the White Russians, formally renamed "Hetman Petro Doroshenko". The yard was later recaptured, and the hull was relatively undamaged. Only in 1927, workers, engineers and the military rose again on the deck of the cruiser covered with rust and overgrown with weeds. She has been renamed on December 14, 1926 "Red Caucasus", and departed from the pier. She undergone a long reconstruction from 1927 to 1931 and having successfully passed all the stages of acceptance tests, the newly built cruiser on January 25, 1932 entered service.


Blueprint of the Profintern class


Blueprint of the Kavkaz

Design

Although the Kavkaz was based on a hull first designed before ww1, her hull, engines and main accomodations were still usable. But basically all the superstructures were brand new, to serve best the new artillery turrets, and new wells and ammunition holds built inside the hull. Krasnyi Kavkaz was initially planned to receive eight 8-inch (203 mm) guns in four twin turrets (a stabdard design at that stage). But engineers quickly brushed aside this navy proposal given her narrow and light hull. A new design then plan three twin turrets with the new 57-caliber 180 mm (7.1 in) B-1-K gun under development. This also proved impracticable. Soviet authorities eventually accepted a third design of four MK-1-180 single 180 mm gun turrets. needless to say, the original casemates for 130mm guns were removed.





Kavkaz secondary artrillery

Her secondary armament was reduced to four 30-cal. 76.2 mm AA guns mounted each side of her funnels. The original internal torpedo tubes arrangement was dropped. Instead four triple 533mm (21.0 in) banks were on the deck mounted on each side, abaft the forecastle break. She was also crucially given an aircraft-handling crane. However she had to wait until 1935 to see her german-built catapult installed aft of her rear funnel. The deck also received mine rails (120 mines). She collided with the light cruiser Komintern in May 1932 shortly after her commissioning. Her bow was extensively rebuilt and the hull lenghtened of up to 11 metres (36 ft).


Rear View

Her propulsion group comprised four shafts, coupled to Brown-Boveri geared turbines, fed by ten Yarrow oil-fired boilers. She developed a total of 55,000 shp (41,000 kW), for a top speed of 29 knots (33 mph; 54 km/h), and a range of 3,500 nmi (6,480 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h). Her complement was 878 officers and sailors. Her armour was light, to say the least: The Upper and lower armoured decks were only 20 mm (0.79 in) thick each, the turrets 76 mm (3.0 in), the lower armour belt 76 mm (3.0 in) and the upper armour belt 25 mm (0.98 in) and the conning tower: 76 mm (3.0 in).

The Krasny Kavkaz in action

Ultimately, the Krasny Kavkaz ("Red Caucasus"), launched in 1916, was completed in 1932. In 1933, the "Red Caucasus" went beyond the Black Sea and made friendly visits to the ports of Turkey, Greece and Italy.

At the time of the Winter war in 1939 her AA armament was changed from 4 x 45mm pieces to 8 x 37mm guns and 6 DHSK 12.7 mm heavy machine guns. During the Great Patriotic War, the cruiser under command of officers AM Gushchina and VN Eroshenko operated near Odessa and Sevastopol, in Feodosia and near Novorossiysk. In 1941 she was damaged by the German coastal artillery, then the Luftwaffe in 1942 in Tuapse, and sent to Poti for repairs. She received on this occasion AA guns and the propulsion group of the cruiser Chervonia Ukraina, lost shortly before.





For the first time she fired her main guns on September 11, 1941, on positions of German troops in the village of Ilyinka near Odessa. On the morning of September 21, the "Red Caucasus" took on board 696 men and commanders of the 3rd Black Sea Marine Regiment under command of Captain 1st Rank SG Gorshkov, leading the squad of ships, landing the detachment to the village of Grigorievka the next day at dawn, covered by artillery. By 4 o'clock in the morning, Krasny Kavkaz went back to Sevastopol. in the first half of October 1941 she held in continuous campaigns between Odessa and Sevastopol, participating in the evacuation of the troops of the Odessa defensive area.


1971 commemorative stamp of the kavkaz

The brightest page in the history of this ship, perhaps, is his participation in the Kerch-Feodosia landing operation (December 28, 1941) having taken on board 1853 paratroopers, a battery of three-inch guns, 15 vehicles, as well as other military equipment and supplies, she headed the detachment from Novorossiysk Bay to land these in Feodosiya Bay, under heavy fire on the port facilities, railway station and piers. At dawn, the battle in Feodosia became even more intense and because of german batterie, the cruiser in two hours took 13 hits which caused seven fire breaks. Gaping holes were covered with improvised means. The next day, she sustained 25 attacks of enemy aircrafts. She left for Tuapse. On the morning of January 4, she again arrived in Feodosiya Bay to land more reinforcements.

The cruiser was attacked by Stukas, her stern being thrown out of the water, the right propeller and the bracket of the left propeller shaft were torn off, the rudder buckled and jammed. The ship took about two thousand tons of seawater, her waterline was raised by 5 meters, and the deck up to the fourth tower disappeared into the waves. The ship had to wait through a storm and a blizzard until making it back to Tuapse and two days later in Poti for long repairs. By April 3, 1942 she and her crew were awarded the Guards title.


The Javkaz crew honored members, the entire crew being awarded the Guards title.

By that time, the ship had carried out 30 combat assignments including nine fire support of the ground forces, and two mine-cutting operations. She travelled about 14 thousand miles and transported more than 25,000 soldiers and commanders of the Red Army, wounded soldiers and evacuated citizens of Odessa and Sevastopol. She also suppressed 16 enemy artillery and mortar batteries, dispersed and destroyed up to 5 infantry battalions and with her anti-aircraft gunners repelled 67 raids and shot down 3 aircrafts.

In 1944 her AA armament was reinforced by six twin 100 mm mounts, as well as four 37 mm AA guns and two additional 12.7 mm machine guns, then with the suppression of the hangar and catapult, and also the addition of two quadruple 12,7 mm mounts on her upper turrets. She survived the war and after a new refit to make it a training ship, and stayed in this role from 1947 until 1956, where she was used as a target for testing the SSN-1, the first Soviet anti-ship missile. She sank that year.


Memorial of the Kavkaz

Krasny Kavkaz
Author's illustration of the Kavkaz

Specifications

⚙ Specifications

Displacement7560t (metric tons) to 8330t standard, 9030t Fully Loaded (8,890 long tons; 9,950 short tons)
Dimensions169,50 x 15.70 x 6.20 m (523 ft 4 in x 51 ft 6 in x 21 ft 8 in)
Propulsion4 shafts, 2 Brown-Boveri geared turbines, 12 Yarrow oil-fired boilers, 55 000 hp (41,000 kW)
SpeedRange: 29 knots (33 mph; 54 km/h), Range: 3,500 nmi (6,480 km) @15 knots (28 km/h)
Range
Armament4 x 180mm (in), 4 x 100mm (in), 16 x 45mm AA (in), 4 x 12,7mm AA (0.5 in), 12 x 533 mm TTs (4x3), 100 mines, 3 seaplanes.
Armor20mm (decks) to 76 mm (turrets, conning tower)
Crew850

Sources/read More

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_cruiser_Krasnyi_Kavkaz
https://www.kchf.ru/ship/cruiser/krasniy_kavkaz.htm (Russ)
https://ship.bsu.by/ship/102181 (Russ)
Model kit 1/42 scale: youtu.be/N_vzIyrd43o

Kavkaz

Naval History

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WW1

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Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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