Hiyō class aircraft carriers (1941)

Japanese Navy Japan, 1938-45: IJN Jun'yō, Hiyō

The first IJN converted liners

Hiyo prow Jun'yō (隼鷹, "Peregrine Falcon") and Hiyō (飛鷹, "Flying Hawk") were two Hiyō-class aircraft carriers of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). They were started before the war as the passenger liner Kashiwara Maru and Izumo Maru, respectively, but both were purchased by the IJN in 1941 while under construction. They were both converted into aircraft carriers on similar designs due to their common base.

Completed in May and July 1942, they participated in the main Japanese Pacific offensives and campaigns campaigns, in the Aleutians, Guadalcanal, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Battle of the Philippine Sea (where Hiyō was sunk). Lacking both aircraft and pilots, Jun'yō by late 1944 was used as a transport, torpedoed twice in her carrer and under repairs until March 1945 until cancelled and BU after the war. Note that some authors would speak of the Jun'yō class, and classify them as "escort carriers".

Conversion genesis: From Liners to Aircraft carriers

These two vessels started existence as the fast luxury passenger liners Izumo Maru and Kashiwara Maru ordered by Nippon Yusen Kaisha, or Japan Mail Steamship Company, in late 1938. At the time like previous submarine or seaplane tenders built by the IJN to be later converted, they proceeded froom anagreement between the Navy Ministry and the company: In exchange for funding 60% of their construction costs they had to be designed in order to facilitate a conversion to aircraft carrier later. This was not an ad hoc, desperate wartime measure but rather a planned requisition.

Conversion of liners was not new at the time: HMS Argus showed the way already in 1918: She was the former Italian liner Conte Rosso built at Beardmore, requisiioned during the war and converted as carrier, commissioned in September 1918, so little time before the hostilities ceased. At the time this demonstrated to all navies the potential of such ships for such conversions. In WW2 Ialy will convert for their part two former liners as fleet aircraft carriers, the Aquila class and other nations would have similar endeavour, which rarely went to fruition.

The basic design of the Izumo Maru class therefore was planned from the beginning with a set of features facilitating the later conversion process. Unlike common liners they had a double hull, extra fuel oil capacity and provisions to fit additional transverse and longitudinal bulkheads for protection and bracing to support the deck, and the installation of a longitudinal bulkhead separating the turbine rooms in case of flooding. Steel frames were provisioned also to support the future flight deck, and there was extra room between decks, for a future hangar.

Also a rearrangement of the superstructure and passenger accommodations were made in order to facilitate the future installation of aircraft elevators. There were also more space in between walls and sheating, for future additional wiring. They were also given a bulbous bow, known to increase speed but sekldom used ion civilian designs, and extra tanks, void, buried deep withing for aviation gasoline storage, placed aft of the machinery spaces.

The only proper requirement of the Japan Mail Steamship Company was a top speed speed of 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph) in order to save fuel, but the Navy indicated they were only satisfied with no less than 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph) in order to ensuure fleet operations. The compromise was to limit performance for thee turbines installed, with a governor at 80% of maximum power for peacetime use.

Both ships were laid down in military shipyard in order to ensure this "military grade" readiness: SS Kashiwara Maru and Izumo Maru at Kawasaki Shipyard, Kobe in 30 November 1939, and SS Izumo Maru at Mitsubishi Shipyard, Nagasaki on 20 March 1939. She was the lead vessel, but was launched two days after her sister ship, although converted and completed sooner. This way, given the usual conventions, the class is not called Junyo but Hiyo.

Purchase and conversions start

junyo on navsrource.org

Both were purchased on 10 February 1941, four months before launch, by the Navy Ministry at a final cost of ¥48,346,000; and provisioned their armament and provisions for aircraft equipments, plus telemeters and fire con trols systems, for a supplementary cost of ¥27,800,000 and global, for the two, of ¥38,073,000 and ¥114,219,000 including their first aviation park. SS Kashiwara Maru and Izumo Maru were denamed, and provionally became No.1001 (Dai 1001 bankan) and No.1002 (Dai 1002 bankan) to keep work secret. The name Jun'yō (Peregrine Falcon) and Hiyō (Flying Hawk) were later chosen in accordance to allegoric flying beasts proper to aircraft carriers at the time.

The admiralty however did not have them classified as fleet carriers due to their still unsufficient speed but rather auxiliary aircraft carrier (Tokusetsu kokubokan). However after the loss of four carriers at Midway (Kaga, Akagi, Hiryu; Soryu) in order to beef up the 1s Fleet air force and wating for dditional proper fleet carriers (notably the Unryu class), they were redesignated as a regular carriers (Kokubokan) in July 1942, so about the time IJN Hiyō was completed.

Design of the conversion

As completed both vessels added a flight deck to the original hull and a large command island and funnel on the port side. The hull measured in the end 219.32 meters (719 ft 7 in) overall for an uncnaged beam of 26.7 meters (87 ft 7 in) and 8.15 meters (26 ft 9 in) in draft at normal load. Standard displaced was 24,150 metric tons (23,770 long tons) an the crew ranged from 1,187 to 1,224 officers and ratings.

Powerplant: Best range of any IJN carriers

junyo-left-side navsrource.org

Both liners had been fitted with two Mitsubishi-Curtis geared steam turbine sets. Togther they produced a combined output of 56,250 shaft horsepower (41,950 kW). They drove 5.5-meter (18 ft) propellers at the end of the shafts. Steam came from six water-tube boilers which differed from yards: Jun'yō had Mitsubishi three-drum models working at 40 kg/cm2 (3,923 kPa; 569 psi) pressure and 420 °C (788 °F). IJN Hiyō had Kawasaki-LaMont boilers (specs unknown).

Despite their machinery was designed for merchant service, it still was four times better than on the military-grade and purpose-built IJN Hiryū ! The latter indeed managed 153,000 shp but on 17,300 long tons, and 34.3 knots (64 km/h; 40 mph). It's ratio and displacement were indeed completely different, she notably had 7.84 m (30 ft)draft and only 22.32 m (73 ft) width.

The Hiyo class had a designed speed of 25.5 knots, and on trials they managed to exceeded them, but just. With 4,100 metric tons (4,000 long tons) of fuel oil onboard, their range reached 11,700 nautical miles (21,700 km; 13,500 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph), which was quite honorable, in factway better than the Soryu, Hiryu, Zuikaku class, or Kaga-Akagi on that matter. Simply this was an amazing feature of the design, more so with that speed, due to the economic nature of the engines, not tailored for speed.

Flight Deck and accomodations

-The flight deck as completed measured 210.3 meters (690 ft), so slightly shorter than their overall lenght, more so formward.
-Maximum width was 27.3 meters (89 ft 7 in), better than most fleet acrriers of the time, thanks to her larger beam.
-The large island starboard was overhanging from the side with a large, bulgy structures going down almost to the waterline.
-Engineers managed something new, they had the truncated exhausts from all boilers grouped into a single funnel and not side of the hull, below flight deck level as usual.
This innovation, with the funnel 26° angled outwards, allowed a better smoke disparsal far from the deck, and avoided "hot points" close to the flight deck. Models already were tested with this shape and smoke proving this was not interfering with flight operations. It became a feature of many future IJN carriers.

Their main feature was two superimposed hangars, like Ryujo and Ark Royal. Each was 153 meters (502 ft) long for 15 meters (49 ft 3 in) in width ony, but 5 meters (16 ft 5 in). The difference with the width was explained by all the crew quarters and stored installed on both sides of the hangar.

For fire safety, each hangar was subdivided into four sections in which were installed folded down fire curtains on rails. They could be deployed at a moment notice. These sections were also equipped with fire fighting foam dispensers on either each side, but not sprinklers. The air group was managed in between these two levels and the deck, by two equal size square (with rounde corners) elevators 14.03 meters (46 ft 0 in) long and wide.

Maximum capacity was 5,000 kilograms (11,000 lb), compatible with most IJN aicraft in service at the time. They reached the deck, from the lowest lever, in just 15 seconds. They had no catapult just like other IJN carriers, and planes landed by catching one of the nine electrically operated Kure type model 4 arresting gears. Two main Type 3 crash barricades were also installed at the main island level. For downed planes, boats service, or convertible seaplane operation, a crane was installed on the port side of the flight deck, next to the rear elevator, which could be collapsed flush in flight deck in case.


IJN Junyo
IJN Hiyo detailed plan, 1942

Being a civilian ship nevertheless it was difficult to "load" the design with heavy armor, and notably due to their role, a more minimalistic approach was chosen, to protect vitals, and against aviation fire mostly: They had no belt but an armored deck 2" thick (50 mm) plus an extra 0.8" (20 mm) plating over of ducol steel over the machinery, and 1" (25mm) box protection for their magazines and aviation fuel, also of ducol steel. This was insufficient to block a bomb penetrating the hangar, although fire fighting equipments were present, but at least, bomb fragments to penetrate the vitals. Against torpedoes however, apart the double hull, and some compartimentation including for the machinery spaces subdivided by transverse and longitudinal bulkheads to limit flooding, no particular measures has been taken. Junyo will pay for it dearly in 1944. By March 1944 however IJN Junyo aircraft fuel tanks receiving additional concrete protection.


5-in DP guns

By it's composition, this was a classic mix between the two standards of any IJN aicraft carrier of the time: Twin 5-in guns Type 89 dual purpose (DP) guns and triple 25 mm Type 96 AA mounts. The latter was augmented drastically until June 1944, mostly with single mounts.

Six twin Type 89 5-in (12.7 cm) DP

These 40-caliber 12.7 cm Type 89 anti-aircraft (AA) guns in twin mounts were located on six sponsons along the sides of the hull, supported by pillars. There were two forward at the same level, and because of the island, one opposite it, to port, another aft, just before the rear elevator, and two starboard after the island.

Eight triple Type 96 25 mm AA

They were also located on sponsons along the flght deck, four port side, opposite and aft of the island, and four starboard, behind the aft 5-in DP guns and at the level of the rear elevator. This issues were known: No suitable targeting system, vibrations, reloading labor intensive due to frequent need to change the fifteen-round magazines. In 1943, four additional triple mounts of the 25mm/60 96-shiki AA guns and two twin were added on both vessels. Junyo from March 1944 had seven extra triple 25mm/60 and 18 single 25mm/60 Type 96. In August 1944, twelve triple 25/60 96-shiki, and six 28-tubes 120mm AA Rocket Launchers.


They were completed in May-August with no radar, but this was provisioned in the design. During their late 1942 overhaul, both were fitted with the 1-shiki 2-go early warning radar, mounted on their bridge's roof. In 1943, they kept the 1-shiki 2-go radar, but a second was added aft of the flight deck, at the level of the rear elevator and on the port side, opposite the island.

By August 1944 the surviving IJN Junyo was given a 3-shiki 1-go radar, replacing the one fitted on the bridge's roof.

Other perks

In addition to a main telemeter for their main artillery installed on the bridge and another installed on a structure forward of the island, they had extra side safety nets, mostly installed alongsde the aft part of the flight deck, starting at the island port and starboard, and ending at the level of the aft lift. They were mounted on elevating frames, two port and three starboard. For communications they had a main tripod mast aft of the island, behind the funnel, a main radio mast just aft the funnel and two derrick antenna for long range communication on the side of the flight deck, port and starboard on sponsons.

The flight deck landing lip adt was beveled, painted in the standard red and white band pattern to make the start, and on both sides were installed sets of lights to help the pilot figuring out his position and balance approach. Another marking this time with direction indicators (painted white) were set in between the crashing barriers at the ismand level for the long launching spot, and at the end of the flight deck, cladded in metal plating while the rest of the ship, to the exception of the landing area, was wooden-sheated. Space aboard was limited. Two "vals", wingtip to wingtip, covered the entire beam though. Therefore parking was difficult.

The ships also carried several service boats: Two diesel-powered cutters aft, under the landing deck open space and reached by the aft cranes, a small yawl under davits under the side deck close to the island, another on the port side, opposite the island, but the rest comprised inflatable rafts installed wherever possible. The ships carried four paravanes for mines cutting, stored close to the bow where they were fitted, on either wall of the forward hangar section. Two static anchorage extra anchored were located close to the bow. There were side ladders to mount/dismount small boats on the starboard. For stability, they were both fitted with anti-rolling bars underwater.

Air Group

Technically, these vessels could carry 54 aircraft, which was honorable, but less than the Zuikaku class for example, which carried 72, or the Hiryu and Soryu which carried 64 and nine spares, despite their smaller size. This was expected however due to the limited width of the hangars. When completed in the summer of 1942 they wre wiven the "classic trio" of the time: A5M "Claude" fighters, D3A1 diving bombers, and B5N torpedo bombers ("Zeke", "Val" and "Kate" in allied code). Exact composition varied over time and ship.

As completed, Junyo had 16 A6M2 "Zeke" fighters (which replaced the planned 12 A5M plus four in storage) and 18, later 24 D3A (40) plus either spare and nine "Kates", which were nine in July, for 21 "Zeke" so 48 total, plus probable spares.
Hiyo nad 21 "Zeke", 18 D3A and 9 B5N when completed in August, but in early 1943, 27 fighters and 12 torpedo bombers only.
In November 1943, Junyo received its first 12 A6M5, in complement of her 12 A6M2s. The rest of heir air group comprised nine D3A2 "Val" completed by nine D4Y "Judy" and nine B5N so 51 aicraft.
IHN Hiyo retained her A6M2s in late 1943, but in June, at the battle of the Philippines, she had nine of them plus eighteen A6M5, in complement of eighteen D3A2 "Val" and nine B6N. She never operated the D4Y contrary to her sister.

From June 1944 until she was torpedoed and sent in repairs, she had nine A5M2, 18 A5M5 fighters, nine D3A2 "Val" and nine D4Y Suisei "Judy" and nine B6N Tenzan "Jill", both being for more capable. Her air group was sent to other carriers when she was sent to repairs, and never returned.

Aichi D3A2 "Val", 65th Kokutai aboard IJN Jun'yo, June 1944.

Yokosuka D4Y "Judy", 634th Kokutai IJN Jun'yo, August 1944

Mitsubishi A6M5b "Zeke", 652th Kokutai, IJN Jun'yo, June 1944

Author's illustration of IJN Junyo in 1944, battle of the Philippines

⚙ Specs 1942

Dimensions219.32 x 26.7 x 8.15 (719 ft 7in x 87 ft 7in x 26 ft 9in)
Displacement21,150 t. standard -28,000 t. Full Load
Propulsion2 GS turbines, 8 Kampon wt boilers, 56,250 hp.
Speed25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph)
Range11,700 nmi (21,700 km; 13,500 mi) at 18 knots (33 kph, 21 mph)
ArmorBelt 25-50mm (0.98-1.97 in)
Armament6x2 127 AA (5 in), 8x3 25 mm AA, 54 aircraft
ElectronicsType 13, Type 21 early-warning radar

Sources/ Read more


Sturton, Ian, J. Gardiner's, R. Chesneau Conway's all the worlds fighting ships 1922-1947
Brown, J. D. (2009). Carrier Operations in World War II. Naval Institute Press (NIP).
Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. NIP
Hata, Ikuhiko; Yasuho Izawa (1989) [1975]. Japanese Naval Aces and Fighter Units in World War II. NIP
Jentschura, Hansgeorg; Jung, Dieter & Mickel, Peter (1977). Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945. NIP
Lengerer, Hans & Rehm-Takahara, Tomoko (1985). "The Japanese Aircraft Carriers Junyo and Hiyo". Lambert, Andrew's (ed.). Warship IX. Conway
Lundstrom, John B. (2005). The First Team and the Guadalcanal Campaign. Annapolis, Maryland: NIP
Polmar, Norman & Genda, Minoru (2006). Aircraft Carriers: A History of Carrier Aviation and Its Influence on World Events. NIP
Stille, Mark (2005). Imperial Japanese Navy Aircraft Carriers 1921–1945. New Vanguard. Osprey Publishing.
Tully, Anthony P. (2006). "IJN Hiyo: Tabular Record of Movement". Combinedfleet.com. 2011.
Tully, Anthony P. (1999). "IJN Junyo: Tabular Record of Movement". Combinedfleet.com. 2011.


ONI schematics of Junyo

On globalsecurity.org
On navypedia.org
On historyofwar.org
combinedfleet.com additional photos
On ww2db.com
Hiyo on combinedfleet.com
On pwencycl.kgbudge.com

The model's corner

Tamiya's WL series 1:700 Junyo
Tamiya's WL series 1:700 Junyo

The class kits on scalemates

IJN ww2 IJN Hiyo

Hiyo was commissioned on 31 July 1942, under Captain Akitomo Beppu, assigned to the Second Carrier Division, 1st Air Fleet after the losses in Midway, flagship of Rear Admiral Kakuji Kakuta from 12 August. After some training she arrived at Truk to join Jun'yō on 9 October for Guadalcanal operations with the 3rd Fleet.

On the night of 16 October they launched their air groups on American transports off Lunga Point, from 180 nautical miles north of Lunga. At 05:15 the 12A6M Zeros and 18 B5Ns reached their objective and surprised to USN destroyers shelling IJA supply dumps, at 07:20. USS Aaron Ward was targeted without effect, while a B5N was shot down, another making a crash landing. Jun'yō's eight B5Ns attacked USS Lardner and were hunted down by USMC Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters at 07:32, shooting down three, two later crash-damaging and later three D3A after missing USS Lardner. Zeros shot down one (13 claimed).

Her generator room however took fire on 21 October and she was reduced to 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph), RADM Kakuta making IJN Jun'yō his flagship while Hiyo returned to Truk for repairs, tansferring to her sister 3 Zeros, 1 D3A, 5 B5Ns to compensate losses., the remaining flying to Rabaul and later to New Britain's airfield on 23 October, attacking Guadalcanal on the 24. Buin, New Guinea, on 1 November and attacked American ships off Lunga Point on 11 November. Escorted by 18 Zeros from IJN Hiyō and 204th Naval Air Group her nine D3As slightly damaged three cargo ships, loosing 4, plus another crash landed. Zeros shot down also four out of six Wildcats, losing two.

IJN Hiyō left Truk in early December, rejoined by her air group on the way to Kure, refitted 26 February-4 March 1943, having additional AA as well and additional radar. After training in the Inland Sea she returned to Truk on 22 March, with an air group detached from Hiyō for Operation I-Go on the Solomon Islands and New Guinea. On 7 April her air group formed the third wave at Guadalcanal, escorted by 24 Zeros and 6 from Zuihō. They rampaged the Sealark Channel an claimed three US aircraft for one Zero, three "val". Eventually USS Aaron Ward was sunk as the the oil tanker Kanawha, minesweeper HMNZS Moa and other damaged.

She took part in the attacks on Oro Bay, New Guinea on 11 April, with 9 Zeros escorting D3As. One claimed, for one "Val". 17 Zeros a day later covered three waves on Port Moresby, with nine victories claimed for no loss. On 14 April, Milne Bay was attacked, also in New Guinea with a grand total of 75 Zeros and her own pilots claimed three for no loss whileht eD3As claimed two transports. They were back to Truk on 18 April.

As Attu Island was retaken by the USN on 11 May, the IJN staff sent the Second Carrier Division from Truk, three battleships, two heavy cruisers, via Japan on 25 May. Attu fell before they evern departed. Rear Admiral Munetaka Sakamaki ordred Hiyō from Yokosuka on 7 June, to join Junyō to Truk but the latter was torpedoed by the Gato-class submersible USS Trigger off Miyakejima. She had her starboard bow and boiler room off but was able to return to Japan while her fighters went on to Truk, arriving on 15 July, rassigned to IJN Ryūhō along with RADM Sakamaki and staff.

Repairs in Yokosuka went on until 15 September and Captain Tamotsu Furukawa took command on 1 September, after which she trained for two months until her air group was reconstituted in Singapore: 24 Zeros, 18 D3As, 9 B5Ns off Singapore on 3 December, assigned as an aircraft ferry from then on. On 9 December she departed for Truk, making a fuisr delivery run on 22 December. Next she landed more in Saipan, dismounted and stored in the hangars. Her air group was sent meanwhile in Kavieng and Rabaul, claiming 80 victories for 12 losses.

Back to Japan on 1 January 1944, she was overhauled. Captain Toshiyuki Yokoi took command from 15 February and she was reunited with her air group on 2 March and the carrier force was being had restructurated, with a single air group assigned to an entire carrier division due to the lack of pilots. The 652nd Naval Air Group was assigned to the Second Carrier Division (Hiyō, Jun'yō, Ryūhō), last to be rebuilt with 30 A6M3 and 13 A6M5 Zeros, four D3As and eventually a total of 81 fighters, 36 dive bombers and 27 torpedo bombers. After training in the Inland Sea, until 11 May, she headed for Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, closer to the oil wells in Borneo and to defend Palau and the western Carolines. Problem was American submarines were were very active in the area.

Battle of the Philippine Sea

The fleet en route to Guimaras Island (central Philippines) started carrier operation practice on 13 June 1944 when Vice-Admiral Jisaburō Ozawa received news or the US attack on the Mariana Islands, and after refuelling the fleet was at sea again. Spotting Task Force 58 (18 June) Ozawa launched his air strikes, including from the 652nd Naval Air Group (81 Zeros, 27 D3As, 9 Yokosuka D4Y "Judy", 18 Nakajima B6N "Jill" torpedo bombers) from his three carriers, the first wav being in flight at 09:30. Misdirected, they failed to find the Americans although one squadron eventually found an American task group but most were lost to the CAP for no damage inflicted.

The second air strike started at 11:00, in company of extra planes from Shōkaku and Zuikaku. Also misdirected, they made no damage and landed for some at Rota and Guam to refuel, the remainder trying to find back the carriers. Though, some found USS Wasp and Bunker Hill but lost five D4Ys to AA, spotted by Radar. The other from Guam was mauled down by 41 Grumman F6F Hellcats in interception. A single fighter, 8 dive bombers made it back with 49 other aircraft.

Turning north-west to regroup and refuel at a distance the US Task Forces eventually found the Japanese fleet retiring, prompting VADM Marc Mitscher to ordered an air strike. IJN Hiyō was soon spotted, targeted, and hit by two bombs, one crashing on the bridge, decapitated command, and a torpedo by a Grumman TBF Avenger from USS Belleau Wood which hit her starboard engine room. Fires started but were mastered and IJN Hiyō was able to go on at slow speed while two hours later, unchecked gasoline vapors cuased a very powerful explosion, knocked out all power out, and having uncontrolled fires destroying the ship, before she was evacuated and sank, stern first. Fortunately 1,200 men were rescued by her escorting destroyers, while 247 went with her to the bottom.

Junyo in Sasebo, 26 Sept. 1945

IJN ww2 IJN Jun'yō

Aft flight deck view

Jun'yō was commissioned on 3 May 1942, assigned to the Fourth Carrier Division, 1st Air Fleet with Ryūjō under Rear Admiral Kakuji Kakuta. She was tasked for Operation AL, an attack planned on the Aleutian Islands as a warnigng point before the Kurile Islands, just as Midway was nder siege. On 3 June, she launched 9 Zeros and 12 D3As to attack Dutch Harbor (Unalaska Island) but further operations were cancelled due to bad weather, the Zeros claming a single PBY Catalina when back. A second airstrike wa slaunched on US destroyers just spotted by aviation, but they were never found again.

Another airstrike totallin 15 Zeros, 11 D3As, and 6 B5Ns bombed Dutch Harbor but they were intercepted by 8 Curtiss P-40 fighters, claiming 2 Zeros, 3 D3As while conceding 2. There was also an air attack on Junyo, but which failed to do any damage. A Martin B-26 Marauder and another PBY were shot down by the CAP, a Boeing B-17 by the Japanese AA. Due to the results of Midway, Junyo was redesignated a Kokubokan, now under Captain Okada Tametsugu command from July. She was in Truk on 9 October with her sister Hiyō in the Second Carrier Division, intended for Guadalcanal operations with the 3rd Fleet.

On the night of 16 October, the two carriers were ordered to attack the American transports off Lunga Point, Guadalcanal and they moved south to their launching point 180 miles (290 km) north of Lunga. At 05:15 each ship launched nine each A6M Zeros and B5Ns (one of Jun'yō's B5Ns was forced to turn back with mechanical problems) which reached the target and discovered two destroyers bombarding Japanese supply dumps on Guadalcanal around 07:20.

IJN Hiyō's aircraft tried to sink but mostly near-missed USS Aaron Ward, but the latter still short fown one of her attacking B5N and damaged another (lost at sea). Jun'yō's eight B5Ns attacked USS Lardner but were decimated by F4F Wildcats, lossing three B5Ns, two more crash landing for one claimed Wildcat, but one Zero lost. Hiyō was reduced to 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph) and transferred three Zeros, one D3A and five B5Ns to her sister ship while RADM Kakuji Kakuta transferred his flag aboard Jun'yō for the 2nd division.

Japanese bomb explodes near USS Enterprise, Battle of Santa Cruz Islands, 26 October 1942

In late October 1942, Jun'yō was at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands: She had 18 Zeros, 18 D3As and 9 B5Ns and at 05:00 on the 26th, launched 14 Zeros and 6 few D3As to Henderson Field, falsely reported in Japanese hands: They tried to land and were greeted on arrival by AA fire and taking off F4F Wildcats: All were shot down. At 09:30, Jun'yō launched another air strike which found and attacked USS Enterprise as well as the the battleship USS South Dakota and the light cruiser USS San Juan. Only the latter two were hit, but with little damage.

A B5N passed in front of USS northampton at Santa Cruz.

She lost three "Vals" and a single "Kate", when met by Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers, the latter showing to be capable fighters when lightened by their bombs and low on gasoline. RADM Kakuta then ordered a third air strike at 14:15, with six remaining B5Ns just preceived from the damaged IJN Shōkaku, plus nine "Vals" from both carriers. Six B5Ns and six D3As escorted by six Zeros fell on USS Hornet, badly damaged earlier, and one torpedo hit from a Shōkaku's "Kate" increased her list, added to more seams created by near-misses to have her abandoned before she was finished off by two dive bombers hits.

By mid-November 1942, Jun'yō escorted a convoy to Guadalcana which led to the first 3-day long Naval Battle of Guadalcanal operating by then 27 A6M3 Zeros, 12 D3A2s and 9 B5N2s and havig six Zeros in her Combat Air Patrol (CAP) in the air when SBDs from USS Enterprise arrived, followed by an air strike from Henderson Field which sunk seven transports, the remaining four badly damaged. USS Enterprise ws eventually spotted, leading Jun'yō to launch an air strike, but they failed to locate the carrier.

December 1942-January 1943 saw her covering more convoys to Wewak, New Guinea and she stayd in Truk on 20 January, the covered the evacuation from Guadalcanal in February. That month she was overhauled in Japan and returned to Truk on 22 March, this tme with her sister IJN Hiyō.[ Her air group was left to Rabaul (2 April) as she sailed to participated to Operation I-Go in the Solomon Islands and New Guinea.

Jun'yō's air group claimed 16 American aircraft for 7 A6Ms, 2 D3As as well as sinking USS Aaron Ward. Her air group was sent to Buin in Papua New Guinea on 2 July, to operate on Rendova Island (30 June), claming 37 US planes shot down for 9. The group was disbanded on 1 September and she was back in Japan by late July, ferrying aircraft to Sumatra (mid-August), troops and supplied to the Carolines (September-October 1943).

On 5 November 1943 while underway to Truk she was ambushed off Bungo Suidō by USS Halibut. One of the four torpedoes launched hit her aft, causing four dead but concussion but damage was light, no flooding but her rudder damaged. She was repaired and refitted until 29 February 1944 in Kure while her air group was reconstituted at Singapore. She went there to recuperate 24 Zeros, 18 D3As and 9 B5Ns, transferred to Truk and Kavieng in December, then Rabaul (25 January 1944). From there, her Zeros claimed 40 Allied aircraft, 30 probable, traded for most of the air group being shot down and rare survivors left on Truk on 20 February, the units disbanded.

With a restructured air groups assigned to carrier division and no longer a sole aircraft carrier, she share wih her sister ship Hiyō and Ryūhō the 652nd Naval Air Group (2nd Carrier Division) from 1st March. In all, it comprised in common 30 Model 21 Zeros, 13 Model 52 Zeros (A6M2 and 5), four D3A2 "Val" from 1st April, a meagre portion of the planned 81 fighters, 36 dive bombers and 27 torpedo bombers. She training in the Inland Sea with her new air group until 11 May, and sailed for Tawi-Tawi, Philippines on a new base closer to oilfields of Borneo.

Junyo, Aft view
Junyo, Aft view

They were expected an attack on the Palau and western Carolines but there was no airfield suitable for pilot training while the area was infested by US submarines. The whole situation resolved at th cataclysmic Battle of the Philippine Sea:

While underway to the Guimares Island, central Philippines, on 13 June, for carrier operations, VADM Jisaburō Ozawa learned about an attack on the Mariana Islands and CarDiv 2 sortied in the Philippine Sea, spotting TF 58 on 18 June, turning south to maintain distance while launching air strikes. The 652nd Naval Air Group was now strong of 81 Zeros, 27 D3As, 9 Yokosuka D4Y "Judy", 18 Nakajima B6N "Jill" divided among the three ships.

Masaichi_Kondo The first air strike comprised 26 A6M2 Zeros (loaded with bombs), 16 A6M5 Zeros in escort, 7 B6Ns, taking off at 09:30, but misdirected. Still, 12 kept searching and eventually found TF 38 but a B6N and five A6M2s were shot down by their CAP. The second air strike (27 Vals, 9 Judys, 2 Jills, 26 Zeros) took off at 11:00 with 18 A6Ms/B6Ns from Shōkaku and Zuikaku and also misdirected, finding nothing. They later reached Rota and Guam to refuel. Underway some spotted the essex-class USS Wasp and Bunker Hill but whe attacking, where wiped out by AA, spotted by Radar. The rest, also radar-directed were anihilated by 41 F6F Hellcats. In all, 49 survived the ondlaught, including for CarDiv2 a single A6M5, one D4Y, seven D3As.

Veering northwest to regroup and refuel they were eventually catched by the US air striked and targeted. IJN Jun'yō was soon a framed by several near-misses from dive bombers and eventually hit by two bombs near her island. Flight operations were suspended while the small 652nd Naval Air Group's CAP claimed 7 attackers, 4 probable, but loosing 11 Zeros, 3 more ditching. What was left of their air group was disbanded on 10 July and the remaining personnel reassigned to Air Group 653. This was the end for carrier operations in CarDiv 2.

Emerging from Kure, IJN Jun'yō stayed in the Inland Sea, training without aircraft, until 27 October to taxiing men and materiel to Borneo. On 3 November, she was ambushed by USS Pintado near Makung, but she was saved of by the prompt decision of the captain of IJN Akikaze, her escorting destroyer which deliberately intercepted the running torpedoes. She sank with no survivors. Later, Jun'yō was ambushed again by USS Barb and Jallao, but they missed.

On 25 November, while underway to Manila via Makung, to meet IJN Haruna and the destroyers Suzutsuki, Fuyutsuki, and Maki, she carried 200 survivors from IJN Musashi and was attacked by USS Sea Devil, Plaice and Redfish on 9 December 1944, at the first hours. Three torpedoes hit her belt, flooding several compartments, killing 19 men and so she took a 10°–12° list to starboard, still having enough engine power to reached Sasebo for repairs.

moored at Sasebo, autumn 1945
Junyo moored at Sasebo, autumn 1945

But they were abandoned after little work has been done in March 1945: Lack of materials, men led to this decision and she was moved to Ebisu Bay on 1st April and camouflaged from 23 April, now a "guard ship" from 20 June. Her armament was stripped off on 5 August. The Allies eventually arrived after the ceasefire on 2 September and she surrendered. A technical team evaluated her condition on 8 October and estimated her a "constructive total loss" se she was stricken on 30 November, scrapped on 1 June 1946-1 August 1947.

Same, 19 October 1945

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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