Derfflinger class

German Empire (1913-14) Battlecruisers S.M.S. Derfflinger, Lützow, Hindenburg
The last German Battlecruisers, Derfflinger, Lützow and eventually Hindenburg, were all operational during WWI. They were the pinnacle of this development in continental Europe, innovating in two ways: 30 cm main guns all in centerline turrets, and a flush-deck hull, among others. As the Seydlitz and Moltke clas they were planned as mixed battlecruisers to deal with regular battleships. With Tirpitz's staunch support, they were defined in the fourth and final Naval Law as three dreadnoughts, for which Design work on SMS Derfflinger herselfstarted in October 1910. They would end slightly different, especially the last, SMS Hindenburg, eventually launched later on a modified design.

SMS Hindenburg, colorized by irootoko Jr

It resulted in a ship even further on the path of "fast battleships" rather than battlecruisers. It happen at a time admiral Jackie fisher advocated for his "Baltic battlecruisers", very light and extremely fast, with super-heavy guns. A stark contrast, until a logical technical rapprochement with super-dreadnoughts. HMS Hood was perhaps the closest to what the Germans were building or planning at that point. Only the first two would see intense actions, Hindenburg being completed too late to be engaged in any significant actions as she was commissioned on 10 May 1917, to be scuttled like the others in June 1919, after a career of just two years. The next, the Mackensen class for the first time sported 38 cm guns, greater speed and protection, and really were the first german "fast battleships".

Development history

Their origin is found in the fourth (final Naval Law) passed in 1912. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz was keen to mobilize the press and his connections to mount a public outcry, over the British acting the way they did at Agadir (After the first Moroccan Crisis of 1905–06, France and Germany agreed on 9 February 1909 the former would retain political control, but the two would avoid tepping on each other's economic interests in the country. Germany's move later tested the relationship between Britain and France, enforcing compensation claims to accept effective French control of Morocco. In short the Germans sent a gunboat (SMS Panther) in Agadir, replaced by the cruiser SMS Berlin. The British reacted by sending battleships to Morocco, and this was fully supported by France as part of the entente cordiale.

The crisis of 1911 suceeded to pressure the Reichstag to secured more funds to the Navy and in that fourth Naval Law added three new dreadnoughts, two light cruisers, as well as recruiting 15,000 more personal for the Navy. The three "capital ships", still undefined, were reprecised by Tirpitz as battlecruisers, but still with this caracteristic duality, making them intermediate between battleships and battlecruisers in the British sense. They became the Derfflinger, Lützow, and Hindenburg. Design work started in October 1910, and went on until June 1911. It was soon decided to give SMS Hindenburg a slightly modified design and the completion of the design work was delayed. It was done between May and October 1912.

The navy department asked engineers to submit proposals to remedy problems found on the preceding battlecruiser like the Moltke class and Seydlitz, notably over propulsion, but moeover the main armament, which was still weak on paper compared to British battlecruisers. The four shaft arrangement was reduced to three as in battleships, as this would allow to use a cruising diesel engine for the central shaft and significantly improve their range. It would aslo eased refuelling operations, and reduce the crew needed in their machinery. The second point was perhaps more urgent, as it was about the use of a larger artillery than the usual 28-cm (11 in) used upt to that point (over arguments of standardization, development time, long range and quick firing), to 30.5 cm (12 in), to be at last able to compete with British designs armed with 15-in guns. But this was also caused by the confirmation the latest British battleships also had a main belt armor 300 mm thick (12 in).

Due to the dual nature of German battlecruisers, supposed to fight in batte line if need be, their armament needed to be able to defeat this protection. The turrets being larger, it was decided to reduced the overall weight by using less turrets, just four instead of five, and drop the echelon arrangement, which was not optimal, for an axial (centerline) arrangement, maximizing the arc of fire.

Moreover, two were forward and two aft, so to avoid the problems of previous admiship turrets stuck between funnels and superstructures. The superfiring solution seemed also obvious, but with a twist for the aft turret. Weight increases eventually was only 36 tons to the overall displacement. Tirpitz however, again, at first argued against this increase in gun caliber, but he was overruled, notably by the Kaiser himself.

The design of the hull also evolved in time, and engineers wanted to do the lightetst, yest strongest possible hull at the same time. It seems contradictory, but the new construction technique employed to save weight was to drop transverse steel frames entirely, and relying entirely on longitudinal ones (made strnger in the process). This enabled to retain the necessary structural strength at a lower weight and also easing a new hull design, still brand new for capital ships at the time: Dropping the forecastle entirely and create a flush-deck hull. The latter presented advantages, saving weight again notably, but it also made internal compatimentaion a bit more complicated. It coould also bee seen as a reaction to the two-stepped hull of the previous Seydlitz. The ASW protection was not very different than prevous designs, with outer hull spaces between the hull wall and torpedo bulkhead filled with coal, raising considerably the range in wartime.

On 1st September 1910, the design board adopted officially the German 30.5 cm (already developed for the Helgoland class back in 1908, but with a new improved moint and reload system). They were to be mounted in four twin turrets with a specific new design, mounted on the centerline. Overall the armor layout repeated the Seydlitz's protection, adjusted for the flush deck hull. The German reaction to Agadir trigerred a new fear in the British medias, forcing the British Parliament to vote for more ships. Kaiser Wilhelm II in recation, wanted to reduced build time to two years each from keel laying to completion, and no longer three years, imposing drastic readjustments. This of course proved unfeasible, since both armor and armament could supply them on schedule anyway. In fact completion time was about two years and six month for the lead ship, but far more for the others, due to the war breaking out: Three for Lützow, and even four for Hindenburg, launched in August 1915 despite being laid down in October 1913.


Derfflinger general design scheme on Janes 1919

Derfflinger was initially ordered as an addition, under the provisional name "K", but the other two were supposed to replace older ships as per usual. Lützow was ordered as Ersatz Kaiserin Augusta replacing the old protected cruiser SMS Kaiserin Augusta while the contract for SMS Hindenburg was named Ersatz Hertha, replacing the protected cruiser SMS Hertha. SMS Derfflinger was named after Georg von Derfflinger, a Brandenburg-Prussia field marshal distinguished during the 30 years war in the 17th centry. The contract was awarded to Blohm & Voss in Hamburg, under construction number 213. She was also the least expensive at a cost 56 million gold marks, which is rare for a lead vessel. Laid down on 30 March 1912, she was ready for launch on 14 June 1913, but during the ceremony one wooden sledge upon which the hull rested got stuck jammed so she refused to slide. In fact it took until 12 July, almost a month later to have her released and enter the water. Completion therefore was delayed, and she only was commissioned on 1 September 1914, with the war just a few days old.

SMS Lützow was named after Ludwig Adolf Wilhelm von Lützow, a napoleonic era Prussian Notable that created the Freikorps. The contract of Ersatz Kaiserin Augusta was awarered to the Schichau dockyard in Danzig, under construction number 885. Cost was 58 million gold marks. Her keel was laid down on 15 May 1912, not long after her sisyter ship, and she was launched on 29 November 1913, so actually her completion was made during wartime, with massive shortages of personal and skilled labor, recources being rdirected elsewhere. Trials and post-fixes took time so she was only commissioned on 8 August 1915, almost one year after the war.

SMS Hindenburg, had to be named otherwise, but she was renamed to honor Germany's statesman at the time, Paul von Hindenburg, as a recoignition gesture by the Kaiser, despite the fact her arguably would have more leverage than the Kaiser himself in time. As the final ship of the class, her delayed construction, awarded at the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven (construction number 34) allowed engineers to refine the design and make significant changes (see later). She was also the costliest of all three at 59 million gold marks. She was laid down 1 October 1913, launched on 1 August 1915 (a week before the commission of Lützow) and eventually commissioned on 10 May 1917. By that time, the maritime phase of the war was basically over and the Kaiserliches Marine, after an half-success at Jutland, condemned to inaction, to the dismay of Hindenburg's crews.

Design of the Derfflinger class

Hull & construction

Armor cross section of SMS Derfflinger

SMS Derfflinger and Lützow measured 210 m (690 ft) long at the waterline, and 40 cm longer (3 in) overall. They had a beam of 29 m (95 ft 2 in), and a draft of between 9.20 m (30 ft 2 in) forward, up to 9.57 m (31 ft 5 in) aft. They were were designed to displace 26,600 tonnes (26,200 long tons) standard load, then 31,200 tonnes (30,700 long tons) fully loaded, at combat weight. Their hulls were constructed from longitudinal steel frames only as stated before, with the outer hull plates riveted over this structure. The usual practice was to cross vertical and longitudinal frames. SMS Derfflinger's below the waterline was subdivided into sixteen watertight compartments. This was revised on SMS Lützow with an extra seventeenth compartment. All three had a double bottom running for 65% of the total hull length. Although a decrease comared to Seydlitz, (75% of the hull), this was deemed sufficient enough.

At sea, all three ships had a metacentric height of 2.60 m (8 ft 6 in), meaning they had good stability and predictable roll. They were widely regarded as excellent sea boats, with gentle motion, although their low flush deck hull made for low freeboard and they were "wet" at the casemate deck. Being beamy ships, they also lost up to 65% speed when hard over, heeled up to 11 degrees, a greater figure than any preceding German battlecruiser. This trigerred a rebuilt and anti-roll tanks were fitted to SMS Derfflinger at her first refit.

General design

They general appearance was really different than any battlecruiser which preceded them, and they could be dubbed "2nd generation", the fist one, all with forecastles and 28 cm guns being the Von Der Tann, Moltke, Goeben and Seydlitz. Having 30 cm guns was really a noverlty, as well as being all centerline, as the flush deck, and the superstructures grouped in the center of the ship as a result. The turret N°3 was widely separated from N°4, with a vents structure in between, communicating to the lower decks. As previous ships, the bow was doubled underwater by an icebreaking bow. There were two pole masts in front and aft of respective funnels, and supporting small lookout posts, larger for the mainmast. After refits, these were rebuilt as solid tripods with a large fire control post, after what was done on SMS Hindenburg. They had two small bridges, a captain bridge forward of the main conning tower, and an admiral bridge placed on a platform at the foot of the mainmast. The Derfflinger class also had four projectors placed on separate platforms around the funnels.

Standard crew comprised by default 44 officers and 1,068 men, but when used as flagship for the I Scouting Group, they had accomodation to house 14 officers and 62 men in addition. The Derfflinger class also carried the usual service small craft fleet, grouped in between funnel amidship and served by two cranes: One picket boat, three barges, two launches, two yawls, two dinghies. The steam launched wcould be used to searhead a landing party, but they were not given fitting to operate a small field gun or dismountable onboard salute gun. The 8,8 cm were used as such.

Armour protection

Conning tower design, Derfflinger class

All three Derfflinger-class were basically protected by a repeated scheme inherited from the Moltke class and Seydlitz. Krupp cemented steel armor was used everywhere, based on a longitudinal framing for the hull. Here are the detailed figures:

-Main armor belt 300 mm (12 in) alongside the central citadel (between N°1 and N°4 barbettes)
-Outer belt 120 mm (4.7 in) forward, 100 mm (3.9 in) aft.
-Tapered down to 30 mm (1.2 in) at the bow.
-Torpedo bulkhead 45 mm (1.8 in), 4m behind the main belt.
-Main armored deck 30 mm on average
-Deck over sensible areas 80 mm (3.1 in) - Ammo magazines and steering.
-Forward conning tower 300 mm thick walls, 130 mm (5.1 in) roof.
-Aft conning tower 200 mm (7.9 in) walls, 50 mm (2 in) roof.
-Main battery turrets front & sides 270 mm (11 in), roofs 110 mm (4.3 in).
-Secondary guns casemates 150 mm.
-Secondary guns shields 70 mm (2.8 in).

The three ships also carried protective nets stored along their side, until 1916 at least. The were retired later.

Powerplant & Performances

Athiough planned for SMS Derfflinger the centerline shaft diesel engine first planned, was not yet ready for use. A plan was setup as an interim measure, and the planned three-shaft system was abandoned. They reverted to four-shafts. They had two sets of marine-type turbines driving each two 3-bladed propeller screws 3.90 m (12 ft 10 in) in diameter. Lützow differed by having 4 m (13 ft 1 in) propellers, just as on SMS Hindenburg. Each set comprised a low-pressure turbine reserved for cruising and the inner shafts, and high-pressure machines driving the outer shafts. Steam was provided by 14 coal-fired admiralty-type twin boilers (one feeding face at each extremity) but also eight oil-fired equally double-ended boilers. In addition, electrical power was provided by two turbo-electric generators driven in turn by two diesel-electric generators for a grand total of 1,660 kilowatts -for 220 volts.

As designed, their machinery was supposed to deliver 62,138 shaft horsepower (46,336 kW) at 280 rpm calculated. Top speed on paper was 26.5 knots (49.1 km/h; 30.5 mph). Trials were less optimistic: SMS Derfflinger managed a much greater output of 75,586 shp (56,364 kW) but top speed remained sub-par, at 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph) only. Lützow managed even better at 79,880 shp (59,570 kW) and top speed reached 26.4 knots (48.9 km/h; 30.4 mph). Both had two sets of rudders.

SMS Derfflinger carried at normal load, in peacetime 3,500 t (3,400 long tons) of coal, 1,000 t (980 long tons) of oil, and was able at a cruising speed of 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph) to reach 5,600 nautical miles (10,400 km; 6,400 mi), still a far cry of what was hoped if they had fitted with a diesel. SMS Lützow on her side coukd carry 3,700 t (3,600 long tons) of coal, 1,000 tons of oil and same range.


Forward main turrets

Eight 30.5 cm SK L/50

The Derfflinger class had height 30.5 cm (12 in) SK L/50 guns in four twin gun turrets. Two forward in a superfiring pair, two aft in similar arrangement but with N°3 further apart. They were given Drh.L C/1912 mounts. These turrets were traversed by electric power but the guns were elevated hydraulically. Here are the main caracteristics: Although they were also tested to fired the 405.9 kg (894.8 lb) high explosive shell, it was not provided, except for coastal bombardment missions. The shells were loaded with two RP C/12 propellant charges, the main with 91 kg (201 lb) a brass cartridge and a silk bag that weighed 34.5 kg (76 lb) fore charge. Propellant magazines were located underneath shell roomsin forward turrets and N°3, but it was reversed for the N°4 turret.

1916 modifications: The turrets were upgraded for their mounts, allowing an elevation increase 16°, raising the range to 20,400 m (22,300 yd). The 25 semi-AP shells provided to each gun was for use against targets limuted armor protection targets such as cruisers and destroyers.

Fourteen 15 cm (5.9 in) SK L/45 gun

Seocndary artillery was located in the battery deck, making the central superstructure in the center of the ship. This made for a shorter armour lenght to protect. All these guns were in casemates, five on either side in recesses with around 150° traverse, two forward of the superstrucure, firing in chase, and two after, in retreat, with better arc of fire, so seven per side. On Derrfinger, two were deleted later when she was fitted with anti-roll tanks as extra room was needed.
Essential points: These 45.3 kg (99.8 lb) HE shells were loaded with a single 13.7 kg (31.2 lb) RPC/12 propellant charge, with brass cartridge. In 1916, an upgrade allowed them to fire at 20°, raising the range at 16,800 m (18,400 yd).

Eight 8.8 cm (3.5 in) SK L/45 guns

Definitely the standard for German capital ships in WWI, these guns were considered better than the standard British Vickers 3-in in some areas. On the Derfflinger class, they were provided with two different configuraton for antiship and AA fire:
Four were placed in the forward superstructure, four in the aft one, all protected by curved, enveloping light shields (to protect from splinters). In 1916 however they were removed, and only four mdified FLAK models were retained, and these Flak L/45 anti-aircraft guns emplaced around the forward funnel for for Lützow around the rear funnel, had an maximal elevation of 70°, reworked MPL C/13 mounting for better speed and elevation, better optics, larger choice of shells, with the standard 9 kg (19.8 lb) HE model. The FLAK 8,8 cm had an effective ceiling of 9,150 m (30,019 ft 8 in) indeed at max range and was accurate.

Four 50-60cm Torpedo Tubes

SMS Derfflinger was given at the origin, four 50 cm tubes located underwater in the bow, stern, and two admiship. Lützow and Hindenburg were upgraded with new and much more powerful 60 cm tubes. -The 50 cm torpedoes of the G7 type were the stanfdard of the time across the Kaiseliches Marine, 7.02 m (276 in) long with a 195 kg (430 lb) Hexanite warhead, range of 4,000 m (4,370 yd) at 37 knots setup speed, and 9,300 m (10,170 yd) at 27 knots setup.
-The 60 cm torpedoes of the H8 type were 8 m long, carrying a 210 kg (463 lb) Hexanite warhead, having a range of 6,000 m (6,550 yd) at 36 knots and even 14,000 m (15,310 yd) at 30 knots. Both Lützow and Defflinger used their tubes at Jutland.

Derfflinger in 1915, old author's illustration

Derfflinger specifications

Dimensions210,40 x 29 x 9,20 m
Displacement26,500t, 31,200t FL
Propulsion4 shafts 2 Parsons turbines, 14 Schultze-Thornycroft boilers, 62,130 hp
Speed26.5 knots (49.3 km/h; 30.6 mph)
Range 5,600 nmi (11,400 km; 6,400 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
Armament4x2 305mm, 12x150mm, 12x 88mm, 4 TT 450mm* (2 sides, bow, stern).
ArmorBattery 150, citadel 250, turrets 270, belt 300, blockhaus 350, barbettes 260 mm

The last German Battlecruiser, SMS Hindenburg


The Derfflinger (colorized photo).

Hindenburg was slightly longer than her sister ships at 212.50 m (697 ft 2 in) at the waterline and 212.80 m (698 ft 2 in) overall. She also displaced slightly more, at 26,947 tonnes (26,521 long tons) standard and 31,500 tonnes (31,000 long tons) fully laden. Like Lützow she had 17 underwater compartments fo ASW protection. Her power plant was rated at 71,015 shp (52,956 kW) at 290 rpm, for a top speed of 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph). On trials she reached 94,467 shp (70,444 kW) and 26.6 knots (49.3 km/h; 30.6 mph).

She also stored mre than her sister-ships, 3,700 tons of coal, as well as 1,200 t (1,200 long tons) of oil; Her range at 14 knots was rated at 6,100 nautical miles (11,300 km; 7,000 mi). Her main guns were upgraded, having the new Drh.L C/1913 mounts allowing for a slightly faster reload and elevation. For protection, thickness of the turret roofs was increased to 150 mm (5.9 in) but the rest was identical.

But the main change was the installation of a brand new fire control direction tower with telemeter (by default, she had two of these, installed on their respective conning towers fore and aft). The FCS top was supported by a massive tripod, in opposition of the usual style of simple pole masts. The British had the time were markedly superior in this regards, with advanced telemetry in large spotting tops, linked with ballistic computers. They were only deserved by the quality of shells, many of which hit but failed to detonate, as seen at Jutland. The main feature of SMS Hindenburg was repeated on her earlier sister ships in 1917-18.

Derfflinger in 1915, old author's illustration

Hindenburg specifications

Dimensions212,8 x 29 x 9,4 m
Displacement26,960t, 31,500t FL
Propulsion4 screws, 4 Parsons turbines, 18 Schultze-Thornycroft boilers, 71 000 hp
Speed27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph)
Range 6,100 nmi (11,300 km; 7,000 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph)
ArmorSame but turret roofs 15 cm (5.9 in)

Links & resources


John Gardiner Conway's all the world fighting ships 1921-1947.
Bennett, Geoffrey (2005). Naval Battles of the First World War. Pen & Sword
Grießmer, Axel (1999). Die Linienschiffe der Kaiserlichen Marine: 1906–1918, Bernard & Graefe Verlag.
Gröner, Erich (1990). German Warships: 1815–1945. Tome I. Annapolis
Herwig, Holger (1998). "Luxury" Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918. Humanity Books.
Staff, Gary (2006). German Battlecruisers: 1914–1918. Osprey Books
Tarrant, V. E. (2001) [1995]. Jutland: The German Perspective. Cassell Military Paperbacks.
Breyer, Siegfried (1997). Die Kaiserliche Marine und ihre Großen Kreuzer. Podzun-Pallas Verlag.
Campbell, N. J. M. (1978). Battle Cruisers. Warship Special. 1. Conways
Dodson, Aidan (2016). The Kaiser's Battlefleet: German Capital Ships 1871–1918. Seaforth Publishing.
Dodson, Aidan; Cant, Serena (2020). Spoils of War: The Fate of Enemy Fleets after the Two World Wars. Barnsley
Staff, Gary (2014). German Battlecruisers of World War One: Their Design, Construction and Operations. Barnsley


Germany 30.5 cm/50 (12") SK L/50".
German 15 cm/45 (5.9") SK L/45". same
German 8.8 cm/45 (3.46") SK L/45, 8.8 cm/45 (3.46"), same
German Torpedoes Pre-World War II, same
About the scuttling - IWM Derfflinger class on wikipedia


Grosse Kreuzer Hindenburg By willembrock Hindenburg salvaged 1930

The modeller's corner


Painting of the Lützow and Derfflinger at Jutland, May, 31, 1916 Painting of the Lützow and Derfflinger at Jutland, May, 31, 1916
First published 19 May 2016, first redacted 1995, rewritted December 2021.
Kaiserliches Marine
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SMS Derfflinger

Built at Blohm & Voss and launched in difficult conditions (The wooden sledges jammed, the ship was launched a second time on 12 July 1913), SMS Derfflinger had a crew composed of dockyard workers at first, conducting her for fitting out in Kiel by early 1914. In July, 27th, the fleet was placed on a state of heightened alert with Derfflinger being feverishly completed. It was feared notably an attack from the Russian Baltic Fleet in the inverted style of the Russo-Japanese War, but this proved futile. At last, SMS Derfflinger was commissioned on 1 September and sailed out for her sea trials. By late October she was assigned to the I Scouting Group but unseen at first during trials, she developed turbines issues and had to be dockyard until 16 November. She was ready on 20 November, out at sea with the light cruisers SMS Stralsund and Strassburg plus the Vth Torpedoboat Flotilla, veturing some 80 nautical miles northwest of Heligoland without spotting anything and make it back.

Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby

Bombardment of Whitby

SMS Derfflinger participation to the raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby was performed by the entire I Scouting Group, after the success of the raid on Yarmouth. Admiral von Ingenohl wanted still to have a portion of the Grand Fleet detached and sent into a trap. This forced was under orders of Rear Admiral Franz von Hipper, flagship Seydlitz, and Derfflinger was second in line, followed by Moltke, Von der Tann, and Blücher, four light cruisers, two squadrons of torpedo boats, and the Hochseeflotte departing afterwards to provide distant cover. Meanwhile British intel had Vice Admiral David Beatty's scrambling his four battlecruisers to intercept them. Admiral Ingenohl, informed of this ordered to retreat, Hipper still unaware and proceeding with the bombardment, with Derfflinger and Von der Tann on Scarborough and Whitby, before retreating eastward as planned. Later, confusion allowed the German light cruisers to slip away while Hipper now knew the location of the British battlecruisers and wheeled to the northeast, escaping.

Battle of Dogger Bank

Dogger Bank

In early January 1915 British ships were spotted in the Dogger Bank area, Admiral Ingenohl being reluctant to send his forces since I Scouting Group was deprived from Von der Tann, in maintenance. But Konteradmiral Richard Eckermann decided otherwise and ordered Hipper to go, on 23 January. His flagship was Seydlitz, followed by Moltke, Derfflinger, and Blücher. British intel again foiled these plans, and Beatty's 1st Battlecruiser Squadron sailed, at the same time as Rear Admiral Archibald Moore's 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron and William Goodenough's 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron, to meet Reginald Tyrwhitt's Harwich Force north of the Dogger Bank.

After the duel between Kolberg and Aurora, Hipper turned his battlecruisers towards while soon spotting a number of ship, and without precision, Hipper decided to retreat, at a slow limited by the armored cruiser Blücher, caught soon by British Battlecruisers and sunk, but not before Hipper turned to face Beatty, concentrating on Lion from 16,500 metres (18,000 yd). New Zealand engaged Blücher, Sydlitz was crippled and Moltke left alone, but SMS Derfflinger was hit once, with minor damage, two armor plates forced inward and coal bunkers flooded. With Seydlitz badly damaged and Blücher crippled, the chase ended when Beatty was signaled U-boats in the cicinity, allowing Hipper to retreat.

Raid on Yarmouth and Lowestoft

Derfflinger at Lowestoft

SMS Derfflinger also took part in the raid on Yarmouth and Lowestoft on 24–25 April 1916. The I scouting group was commanded this time by Konteradmiral Friedrich Boedicker. SMS Derfflinger this time operated with her sister ship SMS Lützow, just commissioned, and the seasones Moltke, Seydlitz and Von der Tann, sailing with a screening force of six light cruisers and two torpedo boat flotillas, while High Seas Fleet (Admiral Reinhard Scheer) sailed later, at 13:40 as distant support. The British Admiralty was alerted again by Room 40 and the Grand Fleet was at sea at 15:50.

At 15:38, Seydlitz hit a mine and had to retreat, the flag being passed onto via the Lützow torpedo boat V28, and cruisers turned south towards Norderney avoiding the minefield. On 25 April before noon, the battlecruisers approached Lowestoft, with Rostock, Elbing, covering the southern flank. They spotted Commodore Tyrwhitt's Harwich Force. Boedicker went on nevertheless, and rampage the city, until retreating northwards at 05:20, in degrading visibility for the next city, Lowestoft, which was spared much damage. On the return trip, Bodicker stumbled upon the Harwich Force, which fled south, but reports of British submarines ended the chase.

Battle of Jutland

Derfflinger Firing a full salvo

Soon after, Scheer planned a sortie, waiting for Seydlitz to be repaired. On 28 May, repairs over, SMS Seydlitz was back to I Scouting Group which spent the night on the Jade on 30 May and then steamed towards the Skagerrak at 16 knots, SMS Derfflinger being second in line after the flagship Lützow, Seydlitz being behind. The II Scouting Group (light cruisers Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Pillau, Elbing, 30 torpedo boats) provided the surrounding screen.

The High Seas Fleet left the Jade just 1h30 later, again to be posted as distant cover, with 16 dreadnoughts. The details of the battle of jutland can be seen in detail here. Hipper's batteline engaged soon the 1st and 2nd Battlecruiser Squadrons at 14,000 metres (15,000 yd) and due to poor communication to coordinated targets, Derfflinger was left alone for ten minutes, and concentrated with increasing accuracy on HMS Lion, the flagship. Soon HMS Indefatigable exploded, hit by Von der Tann but the four Queen Elizabeth-class battleships emerged from the mist, and fired first at Von der Tann and Moltke. Seydlitz engaged Queen Mary, which was soon crippled and later exploded.

However at around 18:09 and at 18:19, SMS Derfflinger was hit by 15 in shells from either Barham or Valiant, as well as 18:55, the latter destroying her the bow and creating flooding. After 19:00, Lützow's commander ordered the while line to fire on newly found light British cruisers, and they sunk HMS Defence. At 19:24 Beatty's remaining battlecruisers spotted Lützow and Derfflinger and openend fire again, concentrating for eight minutes on Lützow, but the latter and Derfflinger replied well, Derfflinger firing he final and fatal salvo at Invincible, which magazine forward detonated.

By 19:30 the High Seas Fleet came into fray as Scheer, considered folding up at dark fell, stumbled upon the Grand Fleet and could not disengage so easily. Derfflinger and the other battlecruisers changed twice direction which led them pointing towards the center of the British fleet, creating a deadly "T". Derfflinger, Seydlitz, Moltke, Von der Tann high speed "death run" masked attacking destroers which suceeded on disrupting the British formation. Soon after, the German battlecruisers turned in retreat, Derfflinger and the other having tme to repair their damage when possible. At 21:09, they were spotted again by the British and a formidable engagement saw at less than 7,800 metres Derfflinger hit several times, destroying notably her last operational gun turret while Lion and Princess Royal were also hit.

After Admiral Mauve turned his ships the British did not pursue and the battle ended at 03:55, Hipper reported to Admiral Scheer his fleet was crippled and no longer operational. SMS Derfflinger for her part had all but one turret knocked outn, after being hit 17 times, mostly by 14 and 15 inches shells, plus nine times by secondary guns. She fired 385 main guns shells and 235 rounds for her secondaries, and she also fired a torpedo. She also deplored 157 killed, 26 wounded, the highest toll of any battleship present to be not destroyed at Jutland on the German side. Her drydock repairs would last until 15 October, but for her stalwart resistance at Jutland, the British soon nicknamed her "Iron Dog". With "shell magnet" and others, from that day, German Battlecruisers gained an ominous reputation, mostly due to their original design choices.

Later operations

SMS Derfflinger in 1918, note her new tripod mast

Derfflinger made battle readiness training (Baltic Sea) until the end of 1916 but had little to do as the U-boat campaign had preiority. The German surface fleet meanwhile was tasked of defensive missions. However, Derfflinger intervened during the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight (November 1917) when dispatched to assist hard pressed German light cruisers (II Scouting Group) arriving too late. On 20 April 1918, covered a minelaying operation off Terschelling and soon attention shifted towards supply convoys between Britain and Norway. In October and December 1918 two such convoys were destroyed. The next would be heavily escorted with the Grand fleet. Hipper planned a new operation, launched on 23 April 1918, and after Moltke lost her inner starboard propeller, the German fleet missed the convoy. SMS Derfflinger was also mobilized at the very end of the war to participate to the "death ride" from Wilhelmshaven, later cancelled due to desertion en masse of war-weary sailors. Derfflinger and Von der Tann had for example hundreds deserting when crossing the locks separating Wilhelmshaven's inner harbor and roadstead.

Underway at Scapa Flow, 1919

Scuttled, capsized, in June 1919.

On 24 October 1918, this was over. After the capitulation, Derfflinger followed the rest of the fleet in captivity in Scapa Flow. On the morning of 21 June, as ordered by Reuter, scuttling preparation were made, opening valves and removing the lockings, detonating charges at 11:20, leaving her to sink at 14:45. Raised in 1939 she was left off the island of Risa until 1946, still upside down, then sent to Faslane Port to be broken up in 1948.

SMS Lützow

SMS Lutzow illustration as depicted in Janes

SMS Lützow was originally ordered as Ersatz Kaiserin Augusta, replacing as per usage, the former SMS Kaiserin Augusta. Built at Schichau-Werke, Danzig (more accustomed to smaller Torpedo Boats & destroyers) laid down in May 1912, launched 29 November 1913, she was commissioned on 8 August 1915, starting sea trials before heading to Kiel on 23 August for final adjustments and post-trial fixes. The torpedo boats G192, G194, and G196 shielded her from possible hostile submarines in the area. Final fitting out done and armament installed, she departed on 13 September for further armament trials, including torpedo firing tests (15 September) followed by gunnery tests on 6 October. It was soon detected her port low-pressure turbine had broken gears, so repairs took place in Kiel until late January 1916, followed by further trials and the whle preparation process ended on 19 February 1916, delaying from eight month her entry into service ! - SMS Lützow was eventually assigned to I Scouting Group, on 20 March, notably with her sister ship and other battlecruisers of the Hochseeflotte. She had missed three major engagements to that point.

Her first -and only- captain was Victor Harder. On 24 April, she departed with Seydlitz and Moltke for a brief foray into the North Sea, at the eastern end of the Amrun Bank, where British destroyers had been reported and followed by a second sweep two days later. A British submarine ambushed, but missed Lützow underway. Konteradmiral Friedrich Boedicker, I Scouting Group, raised his flag on Lützow from 29 March until 11 April as his usual flagship was in maintenance. On 21–22 April, she joined in anorther sortie into the North Sea, for nothing.

Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft

Before Jutland, Lützow' first major operation was this raid, on 24–25 April. The Scouting Group was under orders of Boedicker. Lützow was third in line, followed by Moltke, and Von der Tann. As described above, British Room 40 informed the admirakty that despatched in advanced Beatty's battlecruisers and prepared the Grand Fleet to depart in turn from Scapa Flow, hoping to ambush the battlecruisers on their return trip. Avoiding Dutch observers on Terschelling the fleet was underway when flagship Seydlitz struck a mine and torpedo boat V28 took back admiral Boedicker to Lützow, the new flagship for this operation.

The bombardment of Lowestoft on 25 April took place whereas two German cruisers fought Reginald Tyrwhitt's Harwich Force. Poor visibility spared Yarmouth, and on their way back crossed the Harwich Force again so Lützow opened fire like the rest of the line at 12,000 m (13,000 yards). The battle was soon over as the British fled and the Germands made their way home.

Battle of Jutland

On 31 May 1916, I Scouting Group departed the Jade estuary with SMS Lützow now promoted as Hipper's flagship in the lead, followed by Derfflinger, Seydlitz, Moltke, and Von der Tann. As explained above and detailed in the battle's page, at 16:00, Hipper's battlecruisers fought their direct opponents from Vice Admiral David Beatty's 1st Battlecruiser Squadron. The signal "Distribution of fire from left" was hoisted on Lützow for all ships to followed. Lützow was in fact the first to open fire (the battle of jutland's opening shots), at 15,000 yards (14,000 m). HMS Lion and Princess Royal concentrated soon on Lützow, hoping to cripple the flagship and desorganize the German line.

Meanwnhile Lützow engaged HMS Lion. Her gunners overshoot at 16,800 yards (15,400 m), firing semi-armor-piercing (SAP) shells unlike the others, to tracers could be seen and followed by all, useful in the bad visbility. The others indeed used only AP shells. British rangefinders misread the range and overshoot as well. HMS Lion fired at 18,500 yards (16,900 m) but during three minutes, Lützow fired four more salvos, and hit their mark on the last one at 16:51, followed by a second hit a minute later, while 8 minutes later, Lion scored her first hit on Lützow, hitting (but bouncing apparently) her forecastle. Lützow at last dealt a tremendous blow as one shell penetrated the roof of Lion's center "Q" turret. This detonated ammunitions stored inside, but flooding prevented explosion by prompt action of commander—Major Francis Harvey, which had the magazine flooded.

Meanwhile, this looked not good for Beatty: Indefatigable was sunk by Von der Tann and Lützow went on pounding Lion, but with moderate damage. Her gunnery officer, Günther Paschen, later regretted using SAP shells, thinking using AP rounds instead would have probably destroyed Lion, Beatty's flagship and quickly end the contest as clear-cut German victory. Lützow fired 31 salvos at Lion so far for just six hits (telling volumes on accuracy at the time) and at least had HMS Lion shearing out of line temporarily. With haze, gunners believed they engaged Princess Royal whereas it was still HMS Lion. HMS Princess Royal however, immediately behind, scored two hits on Lützow. The first exploded between the forward turrets, the second on the belt. At 17:24 Lion was hit three times more in thirty seconds, her gunners being far more accurate at that stage.

Beatty ordered a turn just when the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships (5th BS) entered the fray, and opened fire, to the dismay of Hipper that was until then the winner of the engagement. Queen Mary was sunk, while opposing destroyers made torpedo attacks. HMS Nestor and Nicator targeted, but missed Lützow. At 17:34, Lützow launched her own broadside tube torpedo on the distant HMS Tiger, but without success. She also scored another hit on Lion, then three, and a fire broke out in the aft secondary battery of Beatty's flagship.

Hipp er was now engaged at 18:00 against both the remaining British battlecruisers and Queen Elizabeth-class battleships and 15 in (380 mm) shells were certainly a more serious threat for his hybrd battlecruisers. HMS Queen Elizabeths engaged and soon found its mark, hitting his flagship Lützow. She was hit again at 18:25 and 18:30, 18:45 and soon had both of her wireless transmitters damaged, Hipper seroting to searchlight messages afterwards.

After 19:00, he ordered his line a 16-point turn northeast to close with the approaching III Battle Squadron and assist the hard-pressed SMS Wiesbaden. During the cruisers screen engagement, HMS Onslow and Acasta approached Lützow, and launched a volley of torpedoes but missed. Onslow was hit thrice by her 15 cm guns and withdrawed. HMS Acasta however made another run, launched but missed again, and was soon engulfed by Lützow and Derfflinger's combinded 15 cm barrage. Shi was hit twice and fled. At 19:15, Hipper's lead ship spotted and engaged the armored cruiser Defence and at 19:16, Kapitän zur See (KzS) Harder ordered to fire despite Hipper's hesitations about the nature of the ship. The other German battlecruisers and battleships joined in the melee; Lützow fired five broadsides in rapid succession. In the span of less than five minutes, Defence was struck by several heavy-caliber shells from the German ships. One salvo penetrated her ammunition magazines followed by a massive explosion.

Lion scored two more hits on Lützow, starting a serious fire, followed by them being spotted and fired upon by the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron. HMS Invincible scored 8 hits on Lützow concentrated in her bow and, causing massive flooding. Lützow and Derfflinger on her and at 19:33, Lützow's third salvo entered her center turret, probably igniting the magazine, followed by a tremendous serie of explosion wiping out the ship. However Lützow was still hard-pressed, taking fire while listing badly by the bow, "ploughing" heavily.

At 19:30, the High Seas Fleet at last encountered the Grand Fleet and soon Scheer ordered Hipper to make his famous "death run" towards the British line. However it was declined by Lützow which lost speed and could not keep up. She tried to withdraw southwest but at 20:00, flooding reached the magazine for the forward turret and the crew frantically tried to evacuate as many shells and propellant charges elsewehere. At 19:50, Kommodore Andreas Michelsen (SMS Rostock) dispatched I Half-Flotilla's G39 came to assist Hipper and take his staff aboard, to transfer him on another battlecruiser. V45 and G37 also laid a smoke screen but at 20:15 Lützow was hit by four 15-in shells. One made it though her forward superfiring turret, knocking it down, detonating a propellant. The second disabled the electric training gear of the rearmost turret, now hand-cracked for traverse. Hipper aboard G39 still tried to save I Scouting Group but command was now exerced by KzS Johannes Hartog. Lützow fired her last shot at 20:45, now obscured by smoke.

The end of Lützow

Nightfall saw Lützow steaming at 15 knots trying to return hime. By 22:13 the rest of I Scouting Group lost sight of her. Scheer hoped the foggy darkness would allo her to evade detection, but meawhile flooding appeared out of control, water reaching her forward deck, and floosing her forecastle above the main armored deck. At midnight, many thought she still could make it harbor, whereas she was now making 7 knots. At 00:45, the bow listing was such she plowed at 3 knots, only to reduce pressure on the rear bulkhead with forward main pumps's control rods jammed.

By 01:00, the pumps were overwhelmed as Water now invaded the forward generator compartments. Light went off and the crew resorted to candlelight to continue trying save the ship. At 01:30 water flooded the forward boiler room and almost all of compartments in the forward section, up to the conning tower level were now underwater. Waves crashed above her bridge, leaped the base of the mast. Shell holes in the forecastle also created more leaks and the desperate attempts by the crew to patch the shell holes inhibited progress. At some point it was ordered to steam backwards, soon abandoned as the bow was submerged so much (17 meters) the propellers started to peep over the water.

At 2:20 she had taken some 8,000 tons of seawater and capsizing was no longer avoidable. To spare his crew at this point, KzS Harder gave the order to abandon ship. Torpedo boats G37, G38, G40, and V45 in escort came to take onboard the crew, though six men were still trapped in an air pocket in the bow. At 02:45 Lützow's bridge itself was underwater, and from G38, Harder asked to scuttled her, firing two torpedoes. At 02:47, SMS Lützow, flagship of Hipper at Jutand disappeared approx. 60 km (37 mi) NW of Horns Reef. During the battle she fired an estimated 380 main battery shells, 400 rounds secondaryes and two torpedoes. She was hit 24 times and suffered 115 killed, 50 wounded. In 2015, her wreck was rediscovered by accident by HMS Echo while laying a tide gauge. So far, no ceremony or plaque has been made but she has the status of war grave.

SMS Hindenburg

Built at the the Kaiserliche Werft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven, SMS Hindenburg was the third and last of the Derfflinger class. She was ordered as replacement for SMS Hertha (Victoria Luise class cruisers), her keel laid down on 30 June 1913 at Kaiserliche Werft, Wilhelmshaven, and launched on 1 August 1915. Construction priorities of wartime delayed her completion so much she was only completed on 10 May 1917. British naval intelligence believed this was due to cannibalization to repair Derfflinger after Jutland, but it mostly was due to labor shortages and all priority given to submarine warfare by this point. For the same reasons, the Mackasen class was also suspended, as well as the last two sister ships of the Bayern class.

SMS Hindenburg was the last German battlecruiser, with very short career of two years. Only Fully operational by 20 October 1917, so after five months after fitting out of sea trials, armament trials, and fixes, training, but at this point the situation for the Hochseeflotte was of readiness in case of a large scale operation from the Grand Fleet. There was no operation planned in the north sea, to the point more assets were freed to unlock the situation in the Baltic, with success. However too precious even for this theater, SMS Hindenburg was kept in port, venturing at sea with the rest of the fleet for exercizes.

On 17 November 1917 however, SMS Hindenburg and Moltke, departed with the II Scouting Group as distant support for German minesweepers trying to block some areas to RN incursions, when British cruisers fell on them, soon joined with the battlecruisers HMS Repulse, Courageous, and Glorious, the latest commissioned. But by the time Hindenburg and Moltke arrived this was already too late. On 23 November, SMS Hindenburg became flagship of I Scouting Group, replacing the older Seydlitz.

Convoys to Norway

In late 1917, light German forces attacked British convoys to Norway. On 17 October, SMS Brummer and Bremse intercepted one of these, and sank nine of the twelve cargo ships en route, plus two escorting destroyers, HMS Mary Rose and Strongbow. On 12 December, four German destroyers again ambushed a second British convoy of five freighters escorted by two British destroyers and all were sunk plus one destroyers, the other returing badly damaged. This caused a scandal at the parliament and the British admiralty decided to bolster the protection of the next convoy with capital ships.

Admiral David Beatty now in charge of the Grand Fleet detached battleships for the next one, and Hipper saw this as an opportunity to revive the old tactic since the start of the war: Drawing a portion of the Grand Fleet to be isolated and destroyed peacemeal, reducing its overall superiority. Franz von Hipper, now Vice Admiral, planned the operation with of course the battlecruisers of I Scouting Group and their light cruisers and destroyers screen as vanguard force, and the Hochseeflotte in support, ready to pounce on the chasing British dreadnought battleship squadron.

At 05:00 on 23 April 1918, Hindenburg led the battle line from the Schillig roadstead. Hipper onboard ordered wireless transmissions to be near silent and taking a route out of reach from foreign observers. Unfortunately for them, the British admiralty still had the code books and Room 40 was not long to intercept a few messages. At 06:10 the battlecruisers were circa 60 km southwest of Bergen, when SMS Moltke lost her inner starboard propeller, causing by vibrations her entire engine gears disintigrating.

In the explosion which followed, debris from the broken machinery also damaged several boilers, tearing a hole in the hull and causing flooding, in addition to her machinery stopped dead. The crew tried to repair what they could, and the ship was later able to steam at a snail pace of 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) and she was left behind, to be towed by the detached battleship SMS Oldenburg.

Hipper went on northward and at 14:00 arrived in sight of the convoy route, crossing it but seeing nothing. Unbeknown to him, Room 40 had alerted the admiralty and the convoy schedule was changed, departing a day later. The same would happen in WW2 at several occasions after Enigma was broken. At 14:10, Hipper had no choice but to return home, veering southward. At 18:37, the fleet was back in the maze of defensive minefields placed in defence of the German coast and bases.

The death ride

On 11 August 1918, Hipper was promoted to Admiral, given overall command of the entire High Seas Fleet. Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter also replaced him at the head of I Scouting Group, with Hindenburg as his flagship. But nothing happened in 1918, as the entire fleet was stuck in harbor, much enraging the sailors that were highly criticized for their inaction whereas German was crippled by the British blockade, and the submarine warfare not giving the expected results. After the Americans entered the fray indeed, the US Navy participated now in the atlantic convoy and US camital ships were even detached in reinforcement to the Grand Fleet.

Born of despair, Hipper in September started to think about a "death ride" for the whole High Seas Fleet. The idea was to make a sortie and seek engagement, whatever the result. The goal was to give German a better bargaining position at the negociation table as defeat seemed inevitable. The plan was refined in October and Admiral Reinhard Scheer was charged of the detailed operations, with nothing more than a full attack and causing maximium damage to the Royal Navy, being confident enough since the results of the Battle of Jutland.

Scheer planned two simultaneous attacks by light cruisers and destroyers off Flanders and on shipping in the Thames estuary acting as a bait. The four battlecruisers would be sent in support the Thames attack. After after this, the Hochseeflotte was to concentrate off the Dutch coast, ready to meet the Grand Fleet that would have been sent inevitably. For this, the fleet was to be assembled first in Wilhelmshaven on 23 October 1918.

However by that stage of the war, discontent from war-weary sailors reached a peak. The decision to sent Lenin to Russia to trigerr the revoluition had backfired and bolshevism was now growingly popular among sailors, with elements that started to politicize entire crew sections. This all developed "under the rug" in 1918 and reached boiling point. At Whilehlshaven, disgruntled sailors decided to desert en masse, notably for Von der Tann and Derfflinger as they went through the harbour locks.

On 24 October 1918, even though, Scheer ordered to sail from Wilhelmshaven, but the crews disobeyed in most ships, on strike. It reached even the no-return point in the night of 18-29 October, sailors with outright mutiny on several battleships. Officers were placed under lock and key and molested. Those of III Battle Squadron refused to weigh anchors and sabotage were committed on board Thüringen and Helgoland. With all these ominous reports incoming Scheer rescinded the operation, which was later cancelled for good and the squadrons were dispersed to avoid "contagion".

The 1919 internment and scuttling

The last chapter for Hindenburg, which never fired her guns in anger so far, was rather sad. Under the Armistice preliminary terms, the Allies ordered the fleet was to be conducted ti Scapa Flow, the main base for the Grend Fleet and kept here under custody, pending the result of negociations. SMS Hindenburg, as flagship of the scouting squadron and modern capital ship was concerned and on 21 November 1918, departed along three other battlecruisers, 14 capital ships, seven light cruisers, and 50 destroyers. Admiral Adolf von Trotha briefed Reuter which commanded the fleet about instructions in case the entente would try to seize the ship, of scuttling. The fleet spotted first HMS Cardiff, which led them to assembled entente fleet, a combined British, American and French armada of more than 370 vessels.

Interned in Scotland, news were rare and only came through supplies with letters from home. Negociations at Versailles went on, and Reuter was given a copy of The Times statung the Armistice was to expire at noon, on 21 June 1919, the signature deadline for German negociators. Her believed that after this, hios fleet would be saied by the British and possibly donatedto all belligerents. As instructed he started to plan the scuttling, and on the morning of 21 June, the British fleet left Scapa Flow for training maneuvers, leaving Reuter the chance her waited for, transmitting at 11:20 the order to scuttled the ships, performed by loyal skeleton crews (troublesome elements had been sent back to Germany a while ago). SMS Hindenburg was the last to sink, at 17:00, and deliberately on an even keel, not only to allow an easier evacuation by the crew but also flying proudly the Kaiserlichesmarine pennant, in view of everyone. She would be raised on 23 July 1930 after several attempts, scrapped at Rosyth between 1930 and 1932, her bell saved and now on display at the Bundesmarine HQ since 1959.

Hindenburg at Scapa Flow
Hindenburg steaming to and in Scapa Flow.

SMS Hindenburg scuttled, still straight. This enabled a torough examination by Royal Engineers later.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)

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