Vought OS2U Kingfisher (1938)

US Navy USN Scout Floatplane (1938), 1,519 built

The standard ww2 USN observation floatplane

The Vought OS2U Kingfisher became the staple of the USN’s battleships and cruisers catapulted spotters/recce models, in the shape of a rugged and dependable floatplane. The Kingfisher lacks the aura of the fighters of that time, but they played a vital role when radar technology was in its infancy, and went on even the latter improved during WW2. The OS2U-3 became the Number one artillery spotter plane for battleships, its main task, while also performing long range reconnaissance and recognition of ships previously spotted on radar.

But they also carried personal, recovered downed planes or crews, and even hunted down submersibles. 1,519 were built, which also served in the Royal Navy, Royal Australian Air Force and even the Soviet Navy, and went on well into the cold war under other flags. Its direct competitor, the Curtiss SO3C Seamew, was never as popular.

OS2N-1_on_cat_of_USS_Missouri_BB-63_in_summer_1944

Design development

The long lineage of USN seaplanes started in 1913 with the Benoist, and went on with Boeing, Curtiss or Douglas until catapults became mandatory onboard US ships, from battleships to cruisers. The Curtiss SOC Seagull (1934) was the last model in service in the majority of USN warships as a standard. Before that, Vought had provided the Navy with another dependable biplane, the O2U/O3U corsair. But as soon as the Seagull was introduced, the Navy started to search for a modern, ideally cantilever monoplane observation, spotter and reconnaissance floatplane. In the late 1930s, Rex B. Beisel, an engineer from Vought, was ordered by the direction to anticipate this need and starting the design of such observation monoplane. It was designed as a multitask aircraft, with more focus on range and visibility than speed. Beisel incorporated many innovations in its design in the hope to impress the USN commission, and planned for example an assembly with spot welding, a process developed in common by his company and Naval Aircraft Factory, in order to generate a smoother fuselage, that can resisted buckling and lower drag. Also innovative in this design were high-lift spoilers the unique arrangement of deflector plate flaps to cut the speed, and drooping ailerons, located on the trailing edge of the wing. They were deployed to increase the wing camber and generate additional sustentation, sparing the engine, when catapulted.

PW_R-985_engines_for_Vought_OS2Us_1940
R-985 engines from Pratt & Whitney being mounted on fuselage cells at the Vought-Sikorsky factory, 1940.

Rex Beisel completed the prototype Vought Model VS.310 which first flew in 1938 under the Navy designation XOS2U-1. It depended at the time from a dependable 450 hp radial Pratt & Whitney R-985-4 'Wasp Junior'. The same also propelled the de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver, Grumman G-21 Goose, Vultee BT-13 Valiant and in 1946, the Sikorsky H-5. The prototype was provisioned to carry a single .30-caliber Browning M1919 machine gun firing between the engine cylinder heads, an a radio operator manned .30-caliber on a flexible Scarff ring mount at the rear plus underwing pods to carry two 100 lb bombs/325 lb depth charges. The design was also interesting as he devised a simple plugin system to remove quickly the floats and convert his plane with a fixed wheeltrain. So wile package was found well-thought by the USN which approved a pre-serie of 54 planes called 'OS2U-1' in 1939, but with a more refined engine, the 48 version of the P&W Wasp Junior. The U-2 was later produced in 1940 with minor alteration and large production. But the bulk of it was represented by the U-3 (1941)

Design characteristics

Kingfisher-OS2U-Variants
Kingfisher-OS2U-Variants (the blueprints.com)

The main objectives of the design were to have a relatively versatile long-range plane that can defend itself and be sufficiently rugged. For observation, although it was a cantilever monoplane (low wing), there was a generous cockpit with a large canopy providing an excellent visibility to both crewmen, the pilot in front of the wings, and the observer/radio/gunner facing rear. There was another seat in between to carry personal if needed.

Specifications:

Length: 33 ft 7.2 in (10.241 m)
Wingspan: 35 ft 10.7 in (10.940 m)
Height: 14 ft 8 in (4.47 m)
Wing area: 261.9 sq ft (24.33 m2)
Airfoil: root: NACA 23015; tip: NACA 23009
Empty weight: 3,335 lb (1,513 kg)
Gross weight: 4,980 lb (2,259 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 6,000 lb (2,722 kg)

Technical sheet
Technical sheet (the blueprints.com)

Engine & Performances

For all its career, the Kingfisher was given the dependable but not very powerful Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior. The most common production version as seen on the U-3 was the AN-2, which succeeded the R-985-50. It was a nine-cylinder, single stage, air-cooled piston engine, with an ouptut at 450 hp (340 kW) for take-off, reduced to 400 hp (298 kW) at 5,000 ft (1,524 m). It drove a sing 2-bladed Hamilton Standard constant-speed propeller.

Performances

Maximum speed: 171 mph (275 km/h, 149 kn) at 5,000 ft (1,524 m)
Cruise speed: 152 mph (245 km/h, 132 kn) with 75% power at 6,000 ft (1,829 m)
Landing speed: 55 mph (48 kn; 89 km/h)
Service ceiling: 18,200 ft (5,500 m)
Rate of climb: 960 ft/min (4.9 m/s) at 4,000 ft (1,219 m)
Wing loading: 19 lb/sq ft (93 kg/m2)
Power/mass: 0.08 hp/lb (0.13 kW/kg)
Fuel capacity: 144 US gal (120 imp gal; 545 l), integral wing tank
Range: 789 nm (908 miles or 1,461 km) at 75% power and 6,000 ft (1,829 m)

Aviation cadet training at Naval Air Base Corpus Christi, Texas august 1942
Aviation cadet training at Naval Air Base Corpus Christi, Texas august 1942

Armament and features

Since the U-1, the Kingfisher had a fixed, forward firing .30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine gun in the nose, between cylinders, and with a 500 rounds belt. There was also a single, navy specs .30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine gun fed with 600 rounds in belts, on a flexible mount manned by the observer. However it was replaced ofter by a twin mount for a better defense. nevertheless which that power and the massive floats, the OS2U had little chances to win a duel with any fighter. There is no record of any 'kill' by a Kingfisher anyway during WW2.
The plane proved to be not only an observation and spotter, but it was also sometimes used for offensive missions, carrying 650 lb (295 kg) of bombs or depth charges under the wings, providing an extra ASW capability to cruisers and battleships. As a slow target, it would have little chance to service the AA battery of most warships of the time. There are many occurences however during ww2 when these planes strafed land objectives, but no reported submarine kill.

OS2N-1 at Naval Aircraft Factory
OS2N-1 at Naval Aircraft Factory (NAS) with its wheeltrain, 1941

Variants

OS2U-1

Initial preserie production, 54 planes with the Pratt & Whiney R-985-48 Wasp Junior

OS2U-2

First serial production, with minor equipment changes and the Pratt & Whitney R-985-50 (158 built).

OS2U-3

Main wartime production: Self-sealing fuel tanks, pilot armour, two .30 cal (7.62 mm) guns (dorsal, nose mounted), 325 lb (147 kg) depth charges/45 kg bombs, and the R-985-AN2 engine (1006 built). Equipped nearly all Battleships after 1941, and most cruisers of the USN, until 1945. The British obtained 100 of these, called Kingfisher I.

OS2U-4

An evolution tested in 1942 with narrow-chord, high-aspect ratio wings and full-span flaps, tested but not adopted by the USN. Two prototypes only.

OS2N-1

This was the NAF (Naval Aircraft Factory) Navy owned manufacturer version, which delivered 300 U-3 in total in 1942-45. They were propelled alternatively with the Pratt & Whitney R-985 AN-2 or the AN-8 engines.

The kingfisher in action

OS2U-3 on USS Missouri, 1944
OS2U-3 on USS Missouri, 1944

Adopted as first standard onboard battleships and cruisers, as a catapult-launched scout plane, the Kingfisher soldiered on until 1945 with the US Navy and proved to be dependable and rugged. Pilots liked it, eve, knowing it slow speed and limited manoeuvrability. The Curtiss SO3C Seamew, its rival had half its production and was supplied when the Kingfisher could not be obtained. It equipped mostly cruisers and was also more massively used in lend-lease. In short, the USN preferred the Kingfisher by far. The Kingfisher was supposed to replace the Curtiss SOC Seagull, but the latter served much longer than planned as the SO3C Seamew had a weak engine and passed as a complete failure. The Curtiss SC Seahawk however slowly replaced it from October 1944.

The Curtiss Seahawk
The Curtiss Seahawk, which started to replace the Kingfisher in late 1944.

It would be too long to report their "battle records" as their main task was not glamorous, consisting of reconnaissance above all. Their main task, even after the adoption of radar, was to go beyond the latter's range (often limited to 30-50 km), recognising in detail the composition of an enemy fleet and report it by radio. Until the the radar operator only had a "blob" under his eyes, not very useful to a fleet commander. When an engagement commenced, Kingfishers were used to report artillery splashes close to their target and send corrections. This was at least in theory, because it was a dangerous job. Some IJN Cruisers in particular used to store floatplane fighters to deal with these, not counting carrier aviation or AA. Thus, in 1943 as gunnery radars became more accurate, this role was mostly dropped.

The first 54 Kingfishers started operations in August 1940, 6 were in Pearl Harbor by the end of the year. The bulk of 158 OS2U-2s were attached to flight training, Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida, and 53 equipped the Inshore Patrol Squadrons based at NAS Jacksonville in Florida. In 1942, nine Inshore Patrol Squadrons were established using the Naval Aircraft Factory OS2N-1s. During the island hopping campaign the AA was less present and they could do their fire correction for shore bombardments, until the end of the war. Instead, Kingfishers were used for patrolling large areas and carrying personal and supplies in some case. Another mission was air-sea rescue. Some pilots were high-profile celebrities, like WW I ace Eddie Rickenbacker which flew one during his service in the Pacific from November 1942.
This is one case in particular that deserves mention, to underline the ruggedness of the Kingfisher:
-Lieutenant John A. Burns' on 30 April 1944 rescued and taxied airmen in Truk Lagoon, seven in all, brought to the submarine Tang. In all her rescued 10 survivors on two trips, carried on the wings. Her was awarded the Navy Cross (below).


The Australian Kingfisher I: Their 18 planed came frem a batch initially ordered by the Dutch East Indies, diverted to Australia in 1942 after the fall of Java. They were used for training at first but by 1943, equipped No. 107 Squadron RAAF for convoy escort. The unit was disbanded in October 1945 but one was kept to participate in the Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition in 1947–48 (many from other navies also participated).

Exports and post-war career

In addition to the USN, the United States Marine Corps operated a few planes (mostly for tests), and the United States Coast Guard obtained 40 aircraft. Australia obtained some of the 100 Kingfisher I, affected to the Royal Australian Air Force No. 107 Squadron RAAF. Other countries in south america obtained the floatplane ad started operating it in 1942: Chile (15, retired 1957), Cuba (4, until 1959), the Dominican Republic (3), the Mexican navy (6, with 201 Squadron), Netherlands (24 delivered after 1945), the Soviet Naval Aviation, just 2 aircraft used on the Murmansk (ex-USS Milwaukee, transferred by lend-lease), the Uruguayan Navy (6 under Lend Lease, also in 1942).


Cuban OS2U-3, now at the revolution museum in Havana. They served until 1959.

Surviving aircraft

In the USN, the Kingfisher was phased out in 1949-50 from all surface ships as radar improvements made it obsolete. They were mainly kept for liaison and training. They survived however for much longer in the Coast Guard, and few were lost. So many survived the 1950s in good conditions and were maintained in flying condition to this day.
In Australia: OS2U-3 in Whale World, Albany pending restoration, former KNIL transferred to the RAAF in 1942, now at Pioneer Aero Ardmore New Zealand. Chile single OS2U-3 at the Museo Nacional Aeronáutico y del Espacio de Chile, Santiago.

Cuba: OS2U-3 in wheeltrain configuration, Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución), Havana, Cuba.
New Zealand: OS2U-3 serial 5985 at Pioneer Aero, Auckland, New Zealand undergoing restoration (see above), and another.
United States: One displayed inside the aircraft pavilion adjacent to the USS Alabama in Mobile. Another id displayed at the Boeing Aviation Hangar, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, National Air and Space Museum (Dulles International Airport) Washington DC. Another exposed by the North Carolina Battleship Commission, one at the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola, Florida and some in storage at the Yanks Air Museum, Chino, California, pending restoration as well.

Video

https://youtu.be/I6TL7YIktD0
No video unfortunately, but some 12 min. of footage in timely music. see also

Src, read more

//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vought_OS2U_Kingfisher
//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Vought_OS2U_Kingfisher
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_seaplanes_and_amphibious_aircraft#United_States
//blitzkrieg1939-45.foroactivo.com/t164-vought-os2u-kingfisher
//en.topwar.ru/96864-vout-sikorskiy-os2u-kingfisher-zimorodok-s-amerikanskih-linkorov.html
//www.fiddlersgreen.net/models/aircraft/Vought-Kingfisher.html
//www.historynet.com/workhorse-of-the-fleet.htm
//airpages.ru/us/os2u.html
//www.navsource.org/archives/01/57k1.htm
//war-book.ru/os2u-kingfisher-razvedchik-firmy-vought/
//aeropedia.com.au/content/vought-sikorsky-kingfisher/
//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Vought_OS2U_Kingfisher


Preserved plane of USS North Carolina today

The models corner:

-Kitty Hawk VOUGHT OS2U KINGFISHER 1/32 Link
-AZ models
-Revell monogram 1/48 OS2U-3
-Lindberg
-Riich Models RS20003 – Model Kit OS2U Kingfisher with Launcher
The prototype XOS2U
The prototype XOS2U (1938). Notice the rear canopy curve, later simplified for production and hooks under the main floats. The Kingfisher was equipped with the same engine, and its iterations with no performance increase all along its career.

OS2U-1 on BB36, October 1940
OS2U-1 with fixed wheeltrain in training, BB36 USS Pennsylvania, October 1940


Vought Os2U-1 Kingfisher onboard USS Tennessee at the time of Pearl Harbor in December 1941


OS2U-2 with a fixed wheeltrain carriage on USS Tangier's group, Pearl Harbor, December 1941

OS2U-2 Sitka
This OS2U-2 flew with Naval Air Station Sitka (Alaska) in 1941

OS2U-2 in 1941
OS2U-2 in 1941


Standard livery OS2U-2 in 1942

Vought OS2U-1
Vought OS2U-1 of the first Inshore Patrol Squadron based at NAS Jacksonville, Florida, 1941

OS2U-2 of VO7, 1942
OS2U-2 of VO7, 1942


OS2U-2 with fixed wheeltrain carriage, RN far east observation unit, 1944


OS2U-3 of Lt. J.G. John A Burns, which rescued nine downed pilots from Truk Lagoon in April 1944

Vought OS3U-3 of an unknown USN unit
Vought OS3U-3 of an unknown USN unit


Vought OS2U-3 on USS Texas, Iwo Jima, February 1945


Kingfisher Mark I of 765 Sqn. Naval Air Service, FAA 1942

The first Kingfisher of the RAAF
The first Kingfisher of the RAAF, A 48-I, in 1942


Kingfisher MkI of 703 Nval Air Sqn. AMC HMS Cilicia, 1943

OS2U-3 in Soviet service with the Northern fleet
OS2U-3 in Soviet service with the Northern fleet, cruiser Murmansk, 1945.

Chilean Navy OS2U-3 deployed in the Antarctic Mission in 1947
Chilean Navy OS2U-3 deployed in the Antarctic Mission in 1947

Gallery


OS2U-2 at NAS Jax ramp June 1942


OS2U-3 recovered by USS Baltimore (CA-68) off Truk, 18 February1944


Preparing to launch an OS2U from USS Mobile (CL-63) in October 1943


Vought OS2U Kingfisher of VO-1 recovered by USS Arizona 6 September 1941


Vought OS2U-2 at NAS Pensacola c1943


OS2U-2

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
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USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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