French Armoured Cruiser Dupuy de Lôme (1890)

Armoured Cruiser

The cruiser Dupuy de Lôme was not only the first French armoured cruiser, but also one of the most revolutionary of her time. She was named after French engineer Dupuy de Lôme, a visionary that -among others- created the first steam battleship, seagoing ironclad, and submarine. The cruiser was also the product of the French Jeune Ecole naval think tank ("young school") that professed the use of armoured cruisers and torpedo boats instead of battleships.

About the namesake, Henri Dupuy de Lôme

Dupuy de Lôme Breton Henri Dupuy de Lôme (born 1885) was probably the most influential naval engineer of his era. He was a French naval architect, son of a naval officer, and from a region that always prided itself to have been the cradle of French sailors. De Lôme went to England in 1842, making a thorough study of iron shipbuilding and steam navigation and writing a report. He started work at the arsenal in Toulon at a time the only French Naval steamships were paddle ships used for liaison and as "estafettes" (dispatch vessels).

It was totally unsuitable to larger ships, and the line of battle was still populated by tall ships, three and four deckers and frigates, like a century before. However there was still little confidence in the screw, just developed (British SS Archimede, 1838). But he also later carefully studied the SS Great Britain (1843) in construction, that married comfortable dimensions, an iron hull and large steam engines with one screw. This convinced him that a large steam-powered warship was feasible, using the same principles. He adressed a report in 1845 to the minister of Marine about a Frigate, screw-driven and with an iron hull and a belt of thick armour.

His colleagues of the Génie Maritime (naval engineering) pushed this idea and this was rewarded eventually in 1847, as the Napoléon was ordered. Launched in 1850, the first screw ship-of-the-line ever built was proven in the following Crimean war. The concept immediately triggered a flurry of conversions or fresh construction of steam ships-of-the-line in France and UK, including the largest steamship of the line of that time, HMS Duke of Wellington.



Later on, he built La Gloire, essentially the result of his earlier report, with growing industrial capabilities and Dupuy de Lôme has been appointed Directeur du Matériel and pretty much had his hands free on this project. Contruction of the Gloire was already known in the Royal Navy, that started to work in a much larger ship which became the HMS Warrior, first iron-hull steam-driven sea going ironclad. He will also later created the Solférino, (Magenta class) the only two-decked broadside ironclad battleships ever built.

If this was not enough, De Lôme also embarked in the construction of Navigable balloons which could be used by the Navy for long range reconnaissance. Before he passed out, he also worked on an pioneering electric submarine, Le Plongeur, in 1863 which used a compressed-air engine, powering a reciprocating engine and armed with a spar explosive.
Le Plongeur
Le Plongeur


Dupuy-de-lôme

For some, the first armoured cruiser

This cruiser had been dubbed by some authors as the world's first armoured cruiser, a Young School concept essentialy intended to attack enemy merchant ships, those of the British Empire. In this commerce-raiding strategy she was supposed to deal with protected cruisers that made the possible escort of these ships, or were to be encountered, while being fast enough to distance battleships. By her strong protection she was indeed quite superior to the "protected" type. She was also agile in the way she fired, using heavy armament of quick-firing guns all mounted in gun turrets. That was in stark contrast to the pivot guns and barbettes of her opponents at the time.

A 6500 tonnes cruiser with a pronounced tumblehome (the slope was supposed to deal with horizontal fire, by presneted artificially increased thickness) and a very long sprur, ram bow, unarmoured. The hull section was well-rounded, which gave the ship a long, slow roll and unstable gunnery platform. Dupuy de Lôme was also given two large military masts housing light QF guns to deal with torpedo boats.

The Cruiser Dupuy de Lôme - Brassey's annual

She was propelled by triple-expansion steam engines of the vertical type (centre shaft) and horizontal type (outboard shafts). They drove 4.2 to 4.4 metres (13 ft 9 in) diameter propellers. Steam came from 11 Amirauté fire-tube boilers, rated for 14,000 metric horsepower (10,000 kW). Design top speed was 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph).

But on sea trials in April 1895 only 13,186 metric horsepower (9,698 kW) were obtained, so maximum speed was 19.73 knots (36.54 km/h; 22.70 mph). 1,080 tonnes (1,060 long tons; 1,190 short tons) of coal were carried, which gave a 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 12.5 knots.

Archives - Blueprint

Dupuy de Lôme was armed with two types of main artillery and three types of secondary guns plus torpedo tubes: Two Canon de 194 mm Modèle 1887/40 guns. But they were nbot found for and aft but on broadsides amidship. Instead, six Canon de 164 mm Modèle 1887/45 guns, each in single gun turrets were found at the bow and stern.

Complementary, for close defence, they received ten 47-millimetre (1.9 in) and four 37-millimetre (1.5 in) Hotchkiss guns distributed in the superstructures and military masts. The four 450-millimetre (17.7 in) pivoting torpedo tubes were mounted on each broadside above water, bow and stern.

Cross section Dupuy de Lome

But the most important part in the design was the 100 millimetres (3.9 in) of steel armour protecting the sides, starting 1.38 metres (4 ft 6 in) below the waterline, up to the weather deck. The curved protective deck was 30 millimetres (1.2 in) while the boiler and engine rooms, and the magazines had a splinter deck 8 millimetres (0.31 in) thick, with spaces that could be filled with coal. There was also a watertight internal cofferdam filled with cellulose from behind the waterline, to one meter above it.

The hull was also divided into 13 watertight transverse bulkheads, and more above the protective deck. On the superstructures, the conning tower was 125 mm (4.9 in) thick and the turrets 100 mm.

Drwing of the Dupuy de Lôme

The Dupuy de Lôme in service

Completion the ship was delayed by almost two years because of boilers issues, first a boiler exploded, then several boilers were found structurally unsound and the yard obtained to have them all replaced by the manufacturer. Also, many of the armour plates were not properly hardened and proved defective. She was commissioned eventually in 1895, assigned to the Northern Squadron (Escadre du Nord) in Brest.

Her first official visite was to represent France at the opening of the Kiel canal. She visited several foreign ports, escorted the Russian Imperial yacht, and carried the President of France, Félix Faure, to Russia in 1897, but her roll was noted as too strong. She received Bilge keels during a short refit. She represented France also at Spithead during Queen Victoria's funeral in 1901.

In 1902 she was taken in hands in drydock for a lengthy reconstruction. The cruiser has new machines installed in 1905, 20 new Guyot–du-Temple water-tube boilers, served by three funnels. This propelled her to 18.27 knots (33.84 km/h; 21.02 mph) from 12,887 metric horsepower (9,478 kW).

The two military masts were replaced by simple masts and armament was modified. This overhaul dragged on until 1906, and at that time the Young School theories has been out of favor and the cruiser was regarded as obsolete.

In addition, the ship's plates were rusting while the entire water distribution system had to be changed. This was judged uneconomical and she was placed into reserve.



The Dupuy de Lôme was re-commissioned only for a short time to serve in Morocco. Eventually the Peruvian Government approached France and negociations started. The cruiser should have been sold to Peru in 1912 for the price of three million francs. Indeed this has been trigerred by a rumor that the Italian cruiser Umbria was to be sold to Ecuador.

But she was finally never paid for entirely. What happened was the French repaired the ship (that the Peruvians promised to refund) and after the first installment of the signed price, she was officially renamed Commandante Aguirre and transferred to the Peruvian Navy.

However the rumors proved to be false as the Ecuadorians never obtained the Umbria, which was sold to Haiti instead. The Peruvian government lost interest in the purchase and never paid the remainder. The cruiser was therefore taken back by the French Navy in 1917 as they needed ships for the Mediterranean.

She had been left in reserve until 1914, almost without maintenance, and was not really engaged in operations but served as a harbor guard ship.

Postcard

The cruiser was to be resold after the war to a Belgian trade company called Lloyd Royal Belge (LRB) to serve as cargo under the name of Peruvier, after a new radical overhaul. She was indeed converted into a freighter by Chantiers de la Gironde near Bordeaux, France, after the armament was deposed, the yard removed all the armour without compromising the structural integrity.

During her maiden voyage in 1920 en route to Rio de Janeiro from Cardiff she carried 5,000 tonnes (4,900 long tons) of coal but the ship's engines broke down mid-way (they already has been repaired at Falmouth before the trip).

She had to be towed to Las Palmas, then Pernambuco. There, it was discovered that part of her coal cargo has been burning for days. Thus deformed the hold and hull. She was deemed uneconomical to repair and the company decided to resold her to a Flushing (Antwerp) broker and she was scrapped in 1923.


Actual livery of the cruiser before refit. Black hull, copper acetoarceniat green under the waterline, canvas beige for the superstructure. It was painted standard overall grey afterwards and the hull was probably repainted in modern red.

Dupyu de Lome camo
dupuydelome1916
An hypothetic livery inspired by a low-quality, grainy photo of the ship (above). It could well be the shadow of some elements, there is no other photo actually showing the ship wih any camouflage at all. French ships during ww1 were rarely camouflaged.
Both are author's illustrations

Dupy de Lôme specifications

Dimensions114 x 15.7 x 7.07 m (374 x 51 x 23 ft)
Displacement6,301 tonnes (6,201 long tons)
Crew521
Propulsion3 screws, TE engines, 11 Amirauté boilers, 13,000 ihp
Speed20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), Range 4,000 nmi (7,400 km; 4,600 mi)
Armament2 x 194, 6 x 164, 4 x 65, 10 x 47 mm, 4 x 37, 4 TT SM 457 mm
Armor30 mm Deck, Belt 100 mm, CT 125 mm, Turrets 100 mm.
Read More Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1860-1906
on wikipedia.org
On navypedia.org/
HD photo on dennilfloss.blogspot.com
combrig-models.com - 3d views

Naval History

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WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

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WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

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GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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