Grumman J2F (1936)

US Navy, 584 built

Ungainly but popular, the "Duck"

The Grumman J2F Duck (G-15) was a single-engine amphibious biplane used by the USN, Marines, Coast Guard and Air Force from 1937 to the 1950 in air-sea rescue notably by South America but also long after by many independent civilian operators. With its ungainly appearance due to the large float mounted under but blended with its fuselage, this biplane was sturdy, relaible and had the range needed to perform its mission. Despite a relatively low production (by WW2 standards) of 580 copies, the J2F found many uses and was beloved by its pilots, despite its slowness. Cinema immortalized it also notably in "murphy's war" (1971).


(Future) Columbian J2F-6 at WAA surplus sales in Concord, Califonria, November 10 1946

Design development of the "Duck"

Gumman JF (1933)

The J2F was indeed an improved version of the earlier JF Duck (1933). It improved on the basic design, gaining notably a longer float and more-powerful engine from 700 to 900 horsepower, also gaining better performances. The origin of the JF, a peacetime model of wich few were made, went back to a Navy specification for a single-engine amphibious multirole biplane, than can be deployed by ships or land bases. Grumman, by then still a yound constructor trying to work with the Navy after being for years a simple supplier and sub-contractor, answered it by showing a prototype called the XJF-1, powered by a 700 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1535-62 engine. Identified BuNo 9218, this model was tested at Gumman, making its maiden flight on 24 April 1933, and then went on making official USN tests at Langley. The Navy like most of its caracteristics but asked for some revisions, leading to the pre-production model JF-1. This model was fitted with the more modern, but still rated 700 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-62 Twin Wasp engine. 27 were ordered and built (BuNos 9434-9455, 9523-9527). They were tested at Norfolk NAS, delivered from May 1934.

These early production model was setup to mount a rear machine gun and single bomb rack under each wing for 100 lb (45.4 kg) bomb or depth charges. The ceterpiece of the design was this caracteristic main float designed by Grumman (Model "A") and quite unique in which it integrated the retractable main landing gear. This was the samr design by Leroy Grumman for Grover Loening's early amphibious biplanes, aso adopted for the FF fighter. That way, this model was a pure amphibian, while still keeping some aerodynanism. The USN deployed its JF Ducks as general/utility amphibians. They performed a large variety of missions such as for photographic reconnaissance, target-towing, scouting and rescue at sea. The "blended float" was indeed quite unique, but single central float for floatplanes was not. Many monoplane models were fitted as such as it presented many advantages, notably less drag than a two-floats version, and was more stable.

The JF-1 was tested during its final service introduction in 1935. From there, Grumman was asked to improve the model JF-2, this time, for the coast guard, which was also interested by the design. Thise service wanted about the same as the Navy, better performances. The new Variant designed for the United States Coast Guard was powered by the more powerful 750 hp Wright R-1820-102 Cyclone engine. 15 were delivered to the Coast Guard (BuNo 0266, 00371-00372, 01647, USCG V141-V155). The last ireation was the JF-3, basically identical to the JF-2 but with some navy specifics, but only five were built of this model (BuNos 9835-9839). Indeed at the time, Grumman was working already on a much improved version, soon showed to the navy, based on its XJ-2F prototype. The ultimate JF was the Grumman G-20 in 1936, and armed version of the JF-2 sold to Argentina, with eight ordered. This made for a grand total of 48 Grumman JFs.

Design history of the J2F (1936)

Columbian J2F-6 in the 1950s
Columbian J2F-6 in the 1950s

The J2F-1 (G15) was already a production version, which like the JF-2 was given the same engine but several modifications: Deletion of the inter-aileron strut between the wings, and less noticeable, a slightly longer rear fuselage and longer float, plus joining fillet beneath the fuselage and float. In fact the "blending" was only apparent, the fuselage could be entirely removed with ease so as the fuselage underbelly could be accessed for maintenance. This initial pre-production was powered by the improved R-1820-20 engines, and 29 were built for the USN. , produced in 1937.

For the other peculiars of the design, the Grumman J2F shared the same caracteristics as the JF: It was an equal-span single-bay biplane. It was given a large monocoque central float housing the retractable main landing gear. It also had strut-mounted stabilizer floats beneath the lower wing. It carried a crew of two in tandem cockpits, forward pilot, rear observer/gunner, but below it there was enough room for a radio operator, whch could double as observer thans to the lower windows. This spaced between the upper fuselage float also could house two passengers or a stretcher, a vital caracteristic for laison and rescue duties.

The later versions were much more powerful and sometimes carried up to five men, crammed inside this space as they could, or even laying on the lower wings, hanging the struts. The only (relative) criticism was its narrow-tracked landing gear repeated on the F4F Wildcat and hand-cranked. This was a choice of reliability and weight but distracted the pilot during his final approach, but the landing gear proved extremely robust and perfectly suited to very hard landing on aircraft carriers. The J2F was used indeed in many aircraft carriers in the following years. The same landing gear allowed it to kad on improvized tracks made by the seabees in the pacific as well or even simple perpared fields.

Grumman_J2F-1
Grumman J2F-1

From there, the USMC also was given its own slightly revised version, called the J2F-2, which was given nose and dorsal guns, plus underwing bomb racks. Only 21 were built, only marginally better than the previous JF-2 but with the much uprated Wright Cyclone engine delivered 790 hp (589 kW), enabling better performances overall. The last sub-variant was the JF-2A of which nine were tailored to serve with the United States Virgin Islands, an advanced outpost in the eastern Carribean, facing the Atlantic.

The much improved J2F-3/4

The next logical step, as the Pratt & Whitney R-1820-20 engine reached the peak of its gradual improvements, was to swap on a massively improved radial model, promising much greater performances: The 850 hp R-1820-26 engine for which the whole forward fuselage section was entirely remodelled. In conformity to this policy of gradual improvements, the Navy ordered only twenty of these new J2F-3, for which the entire forward setion has been revised. This led to the design of the next iteration, powered by a sligtly better engine, the R-1820-30. It was modified solely as target tug, with target towing equipment. Only 32 were built of this model. 20 were also used from 1939 by the Navy as executive transports with "VIP" interior fittings, with the main advantage of being amphibians compared to usual laison and staff planes.

J2F-4_Surplus_at_Ontario_Chino_May_22_1946
J2F-4 Surplus at Ontario, Chino, May 22 1946

Mass production starts: J2F-5/6

The J2F-5 was designed with a better engine, indeed it was a J2F-2 powered by a 1,050 hp R-1820-54 engine. In all, 144 were built. They were used in many roles. However as war was looming it was decided to switch this production to another manufacturer, to lift the burden on Grumman's main facility in order to concentrate of new models and ramping up production of its vital F4F. So next, this J2F-5 was modified to be produced to Columbia Aircraft Corp of New York. They assumed 330 copies for the US Navy and Coast Guard. They were all delivered as J2F-6s (a designation normally integrating Columbia's letter, but not applied to avoid confusion). In all, Columbia Aircraft would deliver the same plane, but uprated to the 1,050 hp R-1820-64 engine. Its main feature was a long-chord cowling fitted with underwing bomb racks. It was provisioned also for target towing. The end of production arrived in 1945, the Navy in between swapping to monoplanes, and notably the new Vought Kingfisher. The last models already in production as the ordred was cancelled with Japan surrendering were declared "surplus", leading to a reaffectation: These became the OA-12 Air-sea rescue conversions made for the United States Army Air Forces (and later OA-12A) in 1948. That way, this biplane was one of these model apparently never caught up with innovation. Many other surplus planes lingered in the Coast Guard for many more years or ended on the export market.

Exports of the "Duck"


USAAF OA-12 used for SAR, 1948


J2F-6 of MV-08, Mexican Air Force 1952

Argentina, to be more precise, the Argentine Naval Aviation received four G-15s (J2F-4s) in 1939 in addition to eight Grumman G-20s (JF-2) in 1937, all used during WW2. From 1946–1947, 32 surplus US Navy J2F-4, J2F-5s, J2F-6s were also prurchased and served until 1958 when the last was retired.

-The Colombian Navy also benefited from these surplus sales and acquired three examples from 1948. -The Mexican Navy received also three J2F-6s in 1950, operated also in the 1950s. -The Peruvian Navy acquired just one J2F (5 or 6), operated in 1961-1964. Fortunately many also survived in the US and now are in flight condition and exhibited or in private and public museums and collections: A J2F-4 (airworthy) at the Mid America Flight Museum (Mount Pleasant, Texas) and Comanche Warbirds Inc. in Houston, a J2F-6 (airworthy) at Fantasy of Flight, Polk City FL (plus one more in restoration), another airworthy J2F-6 at the Erickson Aircraft Collection, Madras, Oregon and an on static display at the National Naval Aviation Museum (Pensacola), National Museum of the United States Air Force (Dayton), EAA Aviation Museum in Oshkosh. Also a single OA-12 is in storage with the Skyfire Corporation in Wilmington (Delaware). For its precedessor, the FJ-2, it is not known.

Combat records

Grumman_J2F-1_Utility_Plane_out_of-lift
J2F-1 brought out of a lift

Despite its low production, the J2F was used extensively by all four branches of the service, U.S. Navy, Marines, Army Air Forces, and Coast Guard. Its general purpose nature and truly amphibious capabilities meant it could perform indeed a very large variety of missions but as a fighter. It was mostly used as utility/light transport, mapping, scouting/observation, photographic surveys, reconnaissance, air-sea rescue, target tug but also ASW patrol. This makes difficult to cite al units using it and all theaters of operations. It was mostly used in the pacific and took a prominent role in inter-island supply and staff transport.

The Grumman J2F had its origins in the earlier Grumman JF, which had been put forward as one of the first aircraft in the new “utility” type designation. Based on a design by the engineer Grover Loening, the JF featured an innovative deep main float which provided space for two passengers as well as the crew, and hand-cranked landing gear that meant it could operate from land or sea – making it truly amphibious. However, the design could be improved upon and when changes were introduced in a new model, this was designated the J2F.

The J2F tail-hook allowed it to operate from carriers and it was part of the regular squadrons of many of these, notably the Independence class (CVLs), just one alongside Hellcats and Avengers. It was also used as a flying ambulance, with provision for a stretcher added in hull.

Grumman_J2F-6_Duck_Candy_Clipper
J2F-6 Duck "Candy Clipper"

But it also had fittings for smoke generators, laying some curtains to hide destroyers for example. It was also used as a target tower, bringing some vital training to AA gunners of the fleet throughout the war. But in general, J2Fs were scattered far and wide, assigned to land-based units for the most: Such were the squadron ‘hacks’, used really as jacks of all trades. J2Fs also performed many anti-submarine missions, carrying depth charges under wings. Just like the Catalina they also performed many search and rescue missions (SAR), picking up downed aviators, especially around Guadalcanal (Many from the Cactus Air Force were indeed saved that way). The arguably most famous “Candy Clipper” flew as part of the Bamboo Fleet during the battle for Bataan, carrying many supply fights in particular medical supplies, food and confectionary during the battle.

For the anecdote, J2Fs US Patrol Wing 10 planes were in the Philippines when the Japanese invasion commenced and were all destroyed at Mariveles Naval Section Base on 5 January 1942, the only surviving was concealed at Cabcaben airfield during the Battle of Bataan. Its engine was repaired and this J2F-4 took off after midnight on 9 April 1942 with five passengers plus pilot, last to leave Bataan before surrender. He notably carried Carlos P. Romulo, a Philippine diplomat & politician (celebrity in general) later recalling it in "I Saw the Fall of the Philippines", receiving the Pulitzer Prize.

O3U-3_Corsair__ducks-bg-on_USS_Yorktown_1937
O3U-3 Corsair and J2F Ducks in the backgrounds preparing to take off from USS Yorktown, 1937

The J2F was also use din the Atlantic, mostly for ASW patrols, such as those from the Fleet Air Photographic Unit Atlantic-3 in 1941, before the US were even at war. They were used during the "neutrality patrols" that year. Memorablia pop culture: A J2F Duck was prominently featured in 1971"s movie film Murphy's War, including a long rough water takeoff scene and aerobatic flying. The actual airplane was at the time at the National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio, painted to represent a rescue OA-12 from a MAC, allegedly sunk at the start of the movie. Another Grumman Duck was featured in the 1970s TV serie Baa Baa Black Sheep about Marine fighter squadron VMF-214 and Greg "Pappy" Boyington.

J2F at the Kermit weeks, USA
J2F at the Kermit weeks, USA

Src/Read more about the Grumman J2F:

Jordan, Corey C. "Grumman's Ascendency: Chapter Two." Retrieved 22 July 2011.
Allen, Francis J. "A Duck Without Feathers". Air Enthusiast, Issue 23, March 1984 Pilot Press
"Specifications of American Airplanes". Aviation, Volume 36, No. 4, April 1937
Lezon, Ricardo Martin & Stitt, Robert M. "Eyes of the Fleet: Seaplanes in Argentine Navy Service, Part 2"
Thruelsen, Richard. The Grumman Story. New York: Praeger Publishers
Treadwell, Terry. Ironworks: Grumman's Fighting Aeroplanes. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishers
Ginter, Steve (2009). Grumman JF/J2F Duck. Naval Fighters. Nº84 (First ed.). Ginter Books.
Nuñez Padin, Jorge Félix (2002). Grumman G.15, G.20 & J2F Duck. Serie Aeronaval (in Spanish). Nº15.
pacificeagles.net
aviation-history
JF wiki
J2F wiki

The Models Corner:



Book: Grumman J2F Duck model kit - Naval Fighters
Grumman J2F3 Duck 1/72 model kit - Valom
Grumman J2F Duck model kit 1/72 - Merit
Full list on scalemates.
Gallery:

J2F-2A in the Virgins Islands, 1940 (VMS-3)


J2F-5 in Guadalcana, late 1942


J2F-5 Atlantic photographic unit 3


J2F-6 of the Coast Guard, 1944


J2F-6 in the Pacific in late 1943

Photos

Columbia_J2F-6_At_WAA_surplus_sales_Concord_CA_November10-1946
Columbia_J2F-6_At_WAA_surplus_sales_Concord_CA_November10-1946

Columbia_J2F-6_Frank_Tallman_Reno_National_Air_Race_September_1970.jpg
Columbia_J2F-6_Frank_Tallman_Reno_National_Air_Race_September_1970

Columbia_XJL-1_and_Grumman_J2F_c1946
Columbia_XJL-1_and_Grumman_J2F_c1946

Columbia-built_J2F-6_Duck_USMC_Valle_AZ
Columbia-built_J2F-6_Duck_USMC_Valle_AZ

Grumman_J2F-6_Duck_in_flight_on_31_December_1943
Grumman_J2F-6_Duck_in_flight_on_31_December_1943

J2F-4_Duck_landing_on_USS_Charger_2_August_1942
J2F-4_Duck_landing_on_USS_Charger_2_August_1942

J2F_Duck_at_Segi_Point_airfield_1943
J2F_Duck_at_Segi_Point_airfield_1943

J2F_Duck_USN_at_RNAS_Hatston_1942
J2F_Duck_USN_at_RNAS_Hatston_1942

J2F_VJ-1_Oahu_early1940s
J2F_VJ-1_Oahu_early1940s

J2F-1_on_elevator_of_USS_Yorktown_(CV-5)_in_1937
J2F-1_on_elevator_of_USS_Yorktown_(CV-5)_in_1937

J2F-3_NAS_Jax_16Jan194

J2F-3 NAS Jax 16 January 1940


J2F-4oak2MJ7


J2F-4 surplus flight

J2F-5_1942_NAN11-61
J2F-5 1942 NAN11 61

J2F-6_Sausalito_Oct_54_CommodoreSeaplaneBase
J2F-6 Sausalito Oct 54 Commodore Seaplane Base

Naval History

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Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
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Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
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USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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