Curtiss SOC Seagull (1934)

USN Observation Biplane 1935-1940 (322 built)

Curtiss' standard observation plane

During the last five years preceding the war, a transitional Observation biplane was carried by most USN warships, from battleships to cruisers, just being replaced by more modern models such as the Douglas Kingfisher. Between limited squadrons per ship (2-3), and a few aircraft carriers (for the wheeltrain/hook version), only 322 were made, the bulk by Curtiss and the remainder by the State-owned Naval Aircraft Factory (NAF) from Philadelphia. Production ceased in 1938, but the model itself was being retired... but came back to soldier on until 1945. More than a simple footnote, this was Curtiss' answer to the Navy for a dependable, rugged, long range cruiser observation aircraft and it did the job, until its planned replacement, the Curtiss SO3C Seamew, faied miserably and was soon sidelined. So by force, the venerable SOC biplane came back alongside the Kingfisher as the main observation workhorse of the USN.


Curtiss SOC-1 floatplane in flight

About Curtiss and the US Navy


The Curtiss (NAF) TS-1 fighter and trainer, here onboard USS Langley in the 1920s.

Unlike Grumman, which was a "pure player" providing only the USN, Glenn Curtiss was a household name in US Aviation, pioneering models from 1909, until producing massive quantities in WWI. The legendary Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" became the most produced US aircraft, even worldwide, with 6,300 delivered from 1915 up to the late 1920s, and still around in civilian service in the late 1930s. Soon, Curtiss found a juicy market with the needs of the US Navy.

It lobbied to provide both planes and training for USN pilots, starting with 144 Model F trainer flying boat and hiring B. Douglas Thomas (from Sopwith) as designer for the Model J trainer, leading to the JN-4, the "N" standing for the Navy. The JN-4 "Canuck" was built in Canada and five manufacturers to deliver more models of the Model L (1916), Model N (560), HS-2L flying boat in 1917, designed by Philip Porte (Felixtowe) (1178), the improved JN-6H in 1918 (1035), the Twin JN, the Model R (290) and S, and experimented with the Wanamaker Triplane, the GS, and HA. Its last model was the floatplane fighter intended for ships of the Navy, the Curtiss 18T triplane of 1918. The immense numbers of JN-4s formed generations of pilots, including Amelia Earhart and many future aces and future officers of the USN and USAAC.

In the 1920s to stay sharp and keep attention of the medias after the cancellation of military orders, Curtiss targeted performances and competition, caring for aeodynamics like no other company at that time. Curtiss Racers became world famous and like Supermarine, the company embarked in the bandwagon of floatplane racer, competing (and winning) at the prestigious Deutsche de la Meurthe and Schneider Cups in Europe, and an almost uncontested challenger of air races at home.


Marines OC-2 in flight, 1929. These became the stars of many films, including King Kong.

Making everything to stay in media lights, Glenn Curtiss managed to secure more orders, but not initially from the Navy: Its Curtiss CT Twin engine biplane torpedo bomber (1921) failed, but the US Army Air Corps adopted its P-1 Hawk. It was compared to Boeing, preferring sleek shapes allowed by inline engines and liquid cooling, contrary to Boeings's radials. It was succeeded by the P6 Hawk in 1930. It also even produced a bomber, the Curtiss B-2 Condor, and for the Navy, the Curtiss Twin JN, Curtiss F5L and Curtiss TS used for example on USS langley. But the lineage leading to the SOC started with the Curtiss Falcon (1925) a mass-produced observation biplane also used by the USN which adopted the F8C-1 and F8C-3 Falcon as shipboard fighter from 1927 and up to 1928. Later they became the OC-1 and OC-2 used by the US Marine Corps as observation/light bomber model. The F8C-4 Helldiver was its famous later variant used from 1931 by the Marine Corps, later O2C-1 used by VN-10RD9, VN-11RD9, and VN-12RD9 and remaining in service until 1936.


Curtiss XSO2C floatplane in Anacostia

Origins of the SOC program

The Curtiss SOC emerged from a program in 1933 intendd to procure a new, more specialized observation planes to the USN. It was to be primarily a replacement for the OC-2 of the Navy, and prospects started in 1932 already. The idea was a task separation by ship: Scouts operated from cruisers and observation aircraft from battleships. However it soon appeared having both types performed by a single model had advantages. In 1933, curtiss presented its initial proposal, XO3C-1, supposed to be an observation/spotted plane -so for battleships.

The prototype XO3C was tried on the ground and modified in 1934, making its maiden flight in April. At that stage it was a single bay biplane operating either from its single main central float plus underwings stabilizer floats, or wheels, but needed adaptation. The XO3C-1 was originally designed as a pure amphibian, with twin wheels built into the central float. Curtiss however dropped the idea as overcomplicated. It was designed by Alexander Solla specifically to answer the Navy specifications for a convertible biplane, equipped either with floats or a wheeltrain. The floatplane version was to be able to withstand the stress of being catapulted, and retreived at sea by all weather. Speed was less important than range, which needed to be at least 500 nautical miles, with a service ceiling of around 15,000 feets.

The XO3C was eventually ordered for production by the United States Navy and the first pre-production model tested was called XO3C-1 (Curtiss Model 71 was its factory designation). This final prototype aircraft was powered by the latest aialable engine, the 550 hp (410 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-12 air-cooled engine. The single prototype built was redesignated XSOC-1 on 23 March 1935 and production was started. It first entered service the same year, later in 1935. The Navy passed a first order for 135 SOC-1 models, followed by 40 SOC-2 models for landing operations (with wheeltrain carriage and hook), and 83 SOC-3s. Soon, Naval Aircraft Factory often producing Curtiss models was contacted and declined the model as the SON-1.


Naval Aicraft Factory NAF SON-1, 1939

Design of the Curtiss SOC

The name "seagull" was only adopted from 1941 for easier identification like most USN and USAF models; The definitive production version called SOC-1 was given the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-18 engine (single-row, nine-cylinder), enclosed in NACA cowling after wind tunnel tests. As requested by the Navy, it had an interchangeable float and wheeled undercarriage. In Total, 135 were ordered.

The Curtiss SOC was a conventional biplane, with dihedral wings, with a slight V, and classic "N" style metal struts, four between the wings and uselage. The tailwings were implanted close to the fuselage top aft, forming a "X" tail. The forward fuselage was all-metal in duralumin, while the aft part as customary was made of metal framing covered by fabric as were the wings and tail. It was a quite advanced for the time with its fully enclosed cockpit plus full-span slots and flaps on the top wing. The novelty of this enclosed cockpit, covering its two seats, the pilot and observer could be slided open

Both the pilot and observers were armed: There was one fixed forward firing Browning 0.30 in (7.62 mm) M2 AN machine gun for the pilot in the fuselage, with syncronization system, plus another Browning M2 AN, flexible mounted, rear-firing 0.30 in machine gun at the rear for the observer.

In 1935 this was juged adequate as a close defence. The Curtiss seagull was however able to carry a small bomb load if needed for strafing attacks: In all 650 lb (295 kg) of bombs, under the wings. It was a light plane at 1,700 kgs (3800 Ibs) unloaded, taking the best of its 600 bhp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-18, relatively agile, but strongly built. It was slow, at 143 kn (165 mph, 266 km/h) top speed, cruising under 116 knots (133 mph/214 kph) and its rate of climb was not stellar at 915 ft/min (4.65 m/s). It was outperformed at any rate by the Kingfisher, almost doubling all characteristics.

curtiss SOC Caracteristics

Dimensions:9.56 x 10.97 m x 4.50 m (33 x 41 x 13 ft)
Wing area: 342 sq ft (31.8 m2)
Airfoil: NACA 0010 - NACA 2212
Weight: Light3,788 lb (1,718 kg)
Weight: Max take-off5,437 lb (2,466 kg)
Propulsion:P&W R-1340-18 600 hp (450 kW)
Performances:Top speed: 48.6 kn (55.9 mph, 90.0 km/h)
Cruise speed: 116 kn (133 mph, 214 km/h)
Service ceiling: 14,900 ft (4,500 m)
Rate of climb: 915 ft/min (4.65 m/s)
Range: 587 nmi (675 mi, 1,086 km) at 5,000 ft (1,500 m)
Armament - MGs2x 0.3 cal
Armament - Bombs650 lb (295 kg)

Production & variants

Service


Curtiss SOC catapulted from USS San Francisco

The first USN ship operating the Curtiss SOC was the light cruiser USS Marblehead, of the Omaha class in November 1935. The SOC in 1938 had replaced all its predecessor in the fleet whereas Production ended. It equipped in early 1936 VS-5B, VS-6B, VS-9S, VS-10S, VS-11S and VS-12S already, allocated to individual battleships and cruisers in small numbers, hence the limited production.

In 1938, replacement was on its way, but ultimately the admiralty wanted a universal model, which happened to be wartime Vought OS2U Kingfisher, but on battleships. Indeed, cruisers were to be given the next Curtiss model of the third generation: The SO3C Seamew. However the new monoplane was wuofully underpowered, experiencing very poor performances and other issues. The program was delayed until 1942 and eventually the order was curtailed and instead, the SOC Seagull went on soldiering, providing gunfire observation and scouting missions for cruisers for most of early WW2.

The denomination "SOC" was the result of the merging of scouting and observation duties, but its name "seagull" was not active before 1941: Indeed tne USN started to adopt popular names for aircraft to complement their usual designations and make it easier to use. Both the Curtiss Model 18 and Model 25, converted MF flying boats, were also called that way. As floatplane, the SOC was catapulted, made its mission, and came back returning to land on ideally a smooth watery surface, which was artificially created as the mothership made a turn against to break waves, creating a sheltered side. As the flotplane closed on its own power, the crane was traverse above, the pilot hooked the winch to as to be lifted back onto the deck. Depending on the facilities onboard some ships, they could be housed and serviced, maintained inside a hangar, although usually it was kept over the catapult ready to fire, wrapped in a tarpaulin.

The remaining SOC were gradually replaced by OS2U Kingfisher and they were not retired to be scrapped but rather converted as trainers, used in this quality until 1945. However as the Curtiss SO3C Seamew was eventually rejected, some of these trainers went back to service by late 1943 and were used until 1945 on frontline in the Pacific and Atlantic. This unusual situation underlines how much the Curtiss Seamew was an unmitigated disaster, which, combined with the also controversial Helldiver ended the company's old favor with the USN. The seagull however started to be replaced in 1944 by the SC-1 Seahawk, this time a successful Curtiss plane.

Details operations are of course mostly linked to the career and fate of their carrier ships, but they represent a good sample of their use on all theaters of WW2. Photographic evidence gives clues about the presence of them on each ship, with some planes retred and then back again (with the Seamew in between). The Seagull for example proved instrumental when directing artillery for shore bombardments in Operation Torch, invasion of Sicily and Salerno. Slow, the Curtiss SOC proved however highly vulnerable to enemy fighters. Over Normandy for example, Spitfires were used instead for observation.

It should be added that the Seagull became also one of the main observation plane onboard USN aircraft carrier, in its wheeled version. As per photo evidence, it served from USS Langley (AV-3) from 1937, USS Long Island (CVE-1), the first USN escort carrier in 1941, also equipped with depth charges, probably also throughout 1942 and on USS Cabot (CVL-28), a fast carrier until the end of the war. Those from USS Santee (CVE-29), Task Group 23.1, inugaurated ASW hunter-killer group tactics in the North Atlantic.


The fact the Seagull could fold wings was a crucial advantage.

The Seagull roamed indeed the North Atlantic from USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37) and the great north escort routes, as well as Murmansk. They were operated during the "quasi-war" during the time in between neutrality patrols and the Pearl Harbor attack, trying to spot and signal U-Boat to the HQ. At the latter, they were also present, in both wheeltrain and float version. Those of USS Houston operated in the Dutch East Indies in 1942 and they were ordered to fly to shore as the cruiser was later sunk at Java Sea. They also operated from USS Chester and Northampton during the raid on Marshall Islands in February 1942, saw the Coral Sea, battle of Midway (28 Seagulls from VCS-4, VCS-5 and VCS-6), invasion of Gaudalcanal, Tulagi. They flew by night, searching and spotting the Tokyo Express. They also took part in raid on Wake Island in October 1943 from USS Minneapolis (CA-36).

USS Wichita used Seagulls during the ill-fated PQ-17 escort in June-July 1942, famously scattered after Tirpitz was reported, leading to disaster. In July 1942, those from Indianapolis and St Louis patrolled to find the Japanese at Kiska in the Aleutians. They were also present during the Komandorski Islands battle (USS Salt Lake City). Others operated off Savo Island. But their most famous contribution was during Operation Torch by November 1942 from USS Philadelphia and USS Savannah, the latter being used to strafe and bomb opportunity targets and slow down Vichy French reinforcements. One even used a modified depth charge to destroy a shore artillery battery !

During the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, they proved easy preys and most were shot down by Italian Regianne RE 2001s and Fw 190s. They also guided shore bombardment during Operation Avalanche (Salerno) most shot down by German Bf 109s. VCS-7 was based in UK by June 1944 but they were swapped by spitfires for D-Day, and went back to their routine afterwards.

After they was no used for them in Europe, apart the landing in Provence in Auguts, operating at least from USS Brooklyn (CL-40), they went on fighting in the pacific: The battle of the Philippine Sea, notably as improvized air-sea rescue aircraft, spotters during the invasion of Guam, and the battle of Leyte from USS Saint Louis (CL-49), USS Portland (CA-33), or USS Montpelier during the invasion of Balikpapan in July 1945, or even USS San Francisco (CA-38) over south Korea in September 1945. In 1947 they took part in the Antarctic expedition from USS Currituck. That was quite a career for a USN plane, from 1935 to 1947. The last were not exported but scrapped. None survived in any museum or collection unfortunately for us to see today.

Read More

Sites

The XO3C-1 prototype
Curtiss On ww1-planes.com
On Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
Nice cutaway on conceptbunny.com
on historyofwar.org
On mil factory
On aerocorner
On the seagull (wk)
More photos
Some extra footage
On wayback machine, pilot's stories
On Larkin's book content
On cruiserscouts.com
On history.navy.mil

Books

Steve Ginter - Naval Fighters Nr. 89
The Curtiss SOC Seagull, Aircraft Profile (Red) Non. 194 William T. Larkins
USN SOC-3 Seagull Part 1 VO-1, VO-2, VO-3, VO-4, VCS-9, VMS-2, Yellow-Wings Decals 1:72
Bowers, Peter M. Curtiss Aircraft, 1907-1947. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1979.
Donald, David. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Orbis Publishing Limited, 1997.
Green, William. War Planes of the Second World War, Volume Six: Floatplanes. London: Macdonald & Co.
Larkins, William T. Battleship and Cruiser Aircraft of the United States Navy. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Books
Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to American Aircraft of World War II. London: Chancellor Press
Munson, Kenneth. US Warbirds, From World War 1 to Vietnam. New York: New Orchard, 1985.
Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London: Putnam & Company Ltd.

The model kits corner



SOC-3 Hasegawa 1:72 On scalemates
More on this site
Minicraft Hasegawa 1:72, Hasegawa/Hales 1:72, Comet 1:72, Wings Models, Inc 1:48 WM48012, Torch November 1942 Forgotten Operations DP Casper decals 1:72, Lone Star 1/48, Vac Wings 1:48, USN Seagull (SOC-3) 1/200 For Trumpeter Arizona - Admiralty Model Works 1:200

Gallery

Illustrations


Curtiss XSOC-1, 1934


Curtiss SOC-1 Seagull, VCS-5, USS Salt Lake City 1943


Curtiss SOC-1 Seagull, VCS-4, USS Indianapolis 1942


Naval Aicraft Factory SON-1, USS Mississippi, 1939


SOC-1 VCS-5, USS Louisville 1939


SOC-1 VCS-6, USS Minneapolis 1943


SOC-3 of the USMC, VMS-2, NAS San Diego 1939


SOC-3A of VS-201 onboard CVE-1 USS Long Island 1941-42

Photos


SOC-1 onboard an unidentified aicraft carrier, 1943 - Coll. Ray Wagner


SOC-3 from USS Oakland Aurport Lagoon, June 1939


SOC-1 oboard USS Concord


SOC-1 from CS-13 onboard USS Louisville


SOC-1 in July 1943, USS Tuscaloosa


SOC-4 Seagull of the US Coast Guard


SOC-1 in flight




SOC-3A onboard USSS Long Island in Dec. 1941

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
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⚑ 1898 Fleets
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La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
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Parseval class sloops (1876)
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Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
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Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
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Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
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Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
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Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
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Tripoli (1886)
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Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
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Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
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HMS Shannon (1875)
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Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
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Destructor class (1886)
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US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
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Indiana class (1893)
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Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
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Atlanta class (1884)
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Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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