Fairey IIIF (1927)

RNAS/FAA 1917-42: 964 built all types combined.

The Fairey III: A two world wars veteran

The biplane formula seemed to the interwar engineers the only one really fitting aeronautics at large, for all its advantages. So much so that some in 1938 still believed the monoplanes were a mere "fad" and everybody would come back to the biplane. But some aircraft had in addition to sticking to this classic formula a combination of assets which really made them "immortal", with a longevity ver rare in a such a fast-moving industry. This of course only applied to certain types for which speed and agility were not paramount. Such was the case for the Fairey III. Developed in 1917, it made the near-impossible feat to be still active... in 1942. How was it possible ? This post is just about that.

This two-bay biplane powered by a powerful 260 hp (190 kW) Sunbeam Maori engine was indeed fitted with folding wings and had many other well-thought features. This made Fairey a household name in the Royal Navy, later spawning the Fairey Seal and ultimately, the Swordfish and its successors. But the Fairey III was never abandoned and constantly upgraded in the interwar years, so much so it was still frontline in the early 1930s when in 1927 was introduced the IIIF, the ultimate version. Due to its age, it was often relegated to distant stations along the British colonial Empire. Eventually it was declared obsolete in 1940, second line, and target tug until 1941, two solid years into the second world war, adding a second world war to its WWI records.

Initial development (1917)


Fairey N°9 on HMS Slinger, catapult trials in 1918.

The first prototype of the Fairey III, N°10 floatplane, was designed and built in 1917 by Fairey Aviation from the smaller N°9 to meet the Admiralty Specification N.2(a). It called for a carrier-based seaplane for the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS), the ancestor of the fleet air arm during WWI. The prototype called F.128 by the manufacturer made its first successful tests, flying first rom the Port Victoria seaplane station (Isle of Grain, Kent) on 14 September 1917. It soon secured the admiralty order. Its simple formula made it soon an immortal classic. For the design, we will concentrate however on the very last (and most prolific) version, the IIIF of 1927. So here is the evolution of the Fairey III.

Fairey IIIA/B (1917)


Fairey Campania, related to the Fairey III HMAS Australia in 1918

Following tests with floats and with a conventional wheeled undercarriage the adoption of this model led to two production orders, both powered by the same Maori engine: The IIIB and IIIA (with floats and without): 50 and 60 respectively were ordered. The Fairey IIIA (with undercarriage) was in fact intended to operate from HMS Furious, Argus, Hermes (then just started) as well as future british aircraft carriers. The IIIA was fitted with a wheeled or skid undercarriage and hook. The IIIB was essentially a floatplane bomber, designed with a larger span, going from 46 ft 2 in (14.19 m) to 62 ft 9 in (19.13 m) for the upper wings in order to take off more easily. It had a payload capacity of three 230 lb (105 kg) bombs. If the whole IIIA order was delivered, the IIIB order was curtailed to 28 as a the new Fairey IIIC was in between proposed to the Navy.

Fairey IIIC (1918)

This model reverted to short equal-span wings like the IIIA but was powered by the much more powerful and reliable 375 hp (280 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII engine. The IIIC three-seat patrol bomber seaplane had also a modified fin, wing and rudder, which all had a larger area, and larger floats compared to the IIIA. It carried essentially the same bombload as well. A new order of 36 was placed, but only 30 delived in 1918. 6 in fact of the IIIBs were also completed as IIICs, so making a final count of 36. This was basically a "universal" model able to be equipped with floats or undercarriage, the possible sustentation loss compensated for the floatplane by the better engine.

The IIIC entered service in November 1918, just at the end of the war, but seven were deployed to Arkhangelsk in 1919 in support to the white Russians, operated from the seaplane tender HMS Pegasus (North Russian Expeditionary Force). They made numerous sorties in adverse conditions, bombing and strafing attacks against the Bolshevik inland. They also attacked shipping and railways or other objectives, dropping each time 300 kgs of ordnance and using their machine guns.

Fairey IIID (1920)

Fairey_F_III-D_n17_Santa_Cruz-PortNavy
Portuguese Fairey IIID N°17, Santa Cruz Port Sqn. preserved.

The IIID, an improved IIIC had provision for a third crewmember for the first time. It was also "universal", fitted with either floats or with a wheeled undercarriage to operate from land or aircraft cariers. The prototype first flew in August 1920. It was powered by the new Rolls-Royce Eagle, with a wooden, fabric-covered fuselage and wooden, two-blade, fixed-pitch propeller. The serie went on for most of the 1920s and the initial serie was given the Rolls Royce, the later serie in 1925-26 being fitted with the Napier Lion. In between, export models were equipped differently. This for Australia and Portugal were from the early serie.



The Fleet Air Arm received its early models until 1924 and swapped onto the Napier version. In addition to a great crew with a pilot, observer and gunner, making the model more versatile, its wings could still be folded parallel to the fuselage, facilitating storage on any ship. The Royal Navy's floatplane IIIDs when carrier-borne, were launched using a trolley from the deck, and later land on the water recovered by crane. But it was also catapult-launched and equipped many cruisers in the interwar years.

Needless to say, this versatility was extremely appreciated by the Navy, explaining its ongoing production and use until the end of the 1920s. Fairey still worked on an improved model and built a single experimental IIID with metal wings and floats. All in all, Fairey delivered 207 IIIDs. Most went to the Fleet Air Arm but some also were purchased by the RAF, and the remaining 20 exported. This was the company's first big export success.

The RCN for example purchased One Fairey IIIC aircraft and one IIIF for evaluation, Chile and Australia roduction models, Egypt (single IIIF in 1939), Greec (Both Hellenic Air Force and Hellenic Navy IIIF were still active in 1941), Ieland (The Irish Air Corps had a single IIIF MkII in 1928, crashed 1934), Netherlands operated the IIID, New Zealand (RNZAF: Two IIIF MkIIIMs 1928, one 1933, one remaining 1940), Portugal (seen), and Sweden (The Svenska marine used a few IIID for naval recce). Even USSR purchased one for evaluation.

Fairey-IIID

Fairey IIID - L'Illustration 1926

The IIID was used by Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm from 1924, operating from shore bases and aircraft carriers. It was replaced from 1930 by the next IIIF. The RAF only used four at its Cape Flight (south africa) carrying out long distance flight in formation from Cairo to Cape Town and back, in 1926. It was the first RAF long range formation and first RAF flight to South Africa. Some IIIDs were also present in Shanghai during the Chinese rebellion in 1927.


Goble seaplane in 1924 - A10-3 Flown by Wing Commander Goble and Flight Lieutenant Mcintyre on a survey flight around Australia.

The Portuguese Navy acquired 11 aircraft and Australia received six IIIDs, the first delivered in August 1921. In 1924 one of these, designated ANA.3 and flown by Stanley Goble (future Air Vice Marshal) and Ivor McIntyre won the Britannia Trophy awarded by the Royal Aero Club since they were the first circumnavigating Australia, in a mere 44 days. The RAN retained its IIID until 1928.

Fairey_IIID_Igor_de_Loyola
Fairey III, Igor de Loyola flight

Portugal ordered its first IIIDs in 1921. But the first was modified on its own specs, called the F.400. It soon would place the small portuguese navy on world's news. It was a special long-range variant fitted with an upper wing extended to 61 feet. Also called the "Fairey Transatlantic" by Fairey and later officially "Luzitania", it attempted a flight on 30 March 1922 across the South Atlantic. It stopped at Las Palmas, São Vicente, Cape Verde but was lost while making a refuelling stop on the Saint Peter and Paul Rocks. Initially it was designed to demonstrate the new aerial navigation system devised by navigator Gago Coutinho. The journey however was finished on two standard aircraft and the crew completed eventually the first aerial crossing of the South Atlantic. It lasted 72 days from Lisbon and back. "Santa Cruz", the third airplane used for this attempt is now is currently displayed at the Museu de Marinha, in Portugal.

Fairey IIIF (1927)


Fairey IIIF of the New Zealand Patrol Air Force

The last, most prolific, and most enduring of all fairey III models was the IIIF. The "lost number" (E) was essentially a partially metallic version, never adopted. The new F version was designed to meet a new Air Ministry Specification, 19/24. It called for a three-seat spotter and reconnaissance aircraft (with attack abilities) for the Fleet Air Arm. It was doubled by a two-seat general purpose aircraft for the RAF as well. The IIIF prototype first flew on 20 April 1926. Essentially it had a more streamlined inline, liquid-cooled engine and its fuselage was of mixed construction, with metal on the upper part and structure, wooden construction and canvas, but similar wings to the IIID. The production went on for many years, with late sub-variants fitted with an all-metal fuselage and wings and a grand total of over 350 IIIFs. They were operated by the Fleet Air Arm and even became the most widely type, deployed on all ships of the Royal Navy, only beaten in the interwar years by the Hawker Hart family, its success equivalent for the RAF. At last the Fairey IIIF was further developed into the Fairey Gordon and Fairey Seal.

The prototype had a Napier Lion W-12 piston engine. The next production variant called Fairey IIIF Mk.I was powered by the upgraded Napier Lion "VA" W-12 piston engine and of composite construction, with 55 delivered in 1928-29.

The next Mk.II received the more powerful Napier Lion XIA W-12 and 33 were delivered in 1929. The Mk.III received the Napier Lion XIA engine and was the first constructed with fabric-covered all-metal structure. This became by far the largest production, with 291 built until 1932. The Mk.IV was a tailored two-seat general purpose biplane produced for the RAF in composite or all-metal construction -late production- and powered by a Napier Lion XIA W-12 engine (243 delivered to the RAF). The Fairey IIIF Mk.V was the initial development name of the Fairey Gordon and the Mk.VI, the Fairey Seal. The ultimate variant developed was the "Queen" IIIF Radio-controlled gunnery training aircraft of which 3 were delivered in 1938.

The IIIF started its catapult tests in the Fleet Air Arm from 1927. It was exported to the Royal New Zealand Air Force in 1928. The RAF IIIF served in Egypt, Sudan, Aden and Jordan, operated from from land based or in as floatplane, and reverted to one or another role, which proved useful. Its equivalent for the far east was the Westland Wapiti (Iraq and India). Colonial policing and long distance flights went on for this model all along the 1930s. The RAF IIIF also replaced the old Airco DH.9A as Day-only Bomber. Hal Far Malta retained its IIIF floatplanes for maritime patrol (202 Squadron) until 1936. IIIF floatplanes also served on cruisers and battleships, and on decks on the HMS Furious, Eagle, Courageous, Glorious and Hermes. The last frontline RAF squadron (202 Squadron of Malta), only swapped it from August 1935 for the Supermarine Scapa. But the last using it frontline was the Fleet Air Arm squadron 822 Squadron, until late 1936. The IIIF was gradually relegated to second line roles, notably training and was ultimately declared obsolete in 1940. The remaining ones were still in use as target tugs until 1941. And so the Fairey III gaped two world wars...

Design of the Fairey IIIF


3-view plan of the IIIF

General construction and evolution

The last was also the most prolific and enduring version ande final model. It was designed to meet Air Ministry Specification 19/24, and was designed as a single-bay two-seat model, at first intended for the Royal Air Force. Fairey's prototype first flew on 20 April 1926, showing a more streamlined engine installation and a fuselage built with modern techniques, mixed metal framing and wooden construction. The wings still retained the shape of thos used by the Fairey IIID, but also used mixed construction to make themm sturdier. Later production (see later) saw this going to an all-metal fuselage and metal structure for the wings.

This evolution was gradual:
The original two-seater could be converted into a three-seater for reconnaissance and artillery spotting for the Navy. It was powered by a Napier Lion W-12 piston engine.

The Mk.I was the first production version, a 3-seater spotter-reconnaissance biplane. It had the same Napier Lion VA W-12 and composite wood/metal construction. In all 55 were built.

The Mk.II was upgraded, powered by a Napier Lion XIA W-12 piston engine but construction stayed the same (33 built).

The Mk.III was provided the same Napier Lion XIA, with a fabric-covered all-metal structure. This was the largest production, with 291 delivered.

The Mk.IV had a few alteration and XIA engine, but some were delivered in composite construction (243 built).

As said above, this IIIF was modified with new engines, keeping the asame basic structure, to produced the Seal and Gordon.


Fairey Gordon

Fairey Seal

Engine: The legenday Napier Lion



The Napier Lion was an inline W12 derived from the 12 cylinders created by Napier back in 1917, called in a "broad arrow" configuration: Three banks of four cylinders sharing a common crankcase. Very advanced for the time, the Triple-Four was also light, using aluminium casting and alliage metal parts. Designed by Arthur Rowledge it was renamed Lion and completed in 1917, starting to equiped a variery of models in 1918. It became capable of delivering 450 horsepower (340 kW) from 24 litres, more than the Liberty L-12 (producing 400 hp), making it the most powerful aircraft engine of the entente at that time.

It was equipped with a turbocharger from 1922 and Napier from 1925 dropped all its other activities and concentrated on the most prolific British aero engine of the time, fitted on 160 different aircraft types and many more applications, around the world. In 1927 appeared the VIIB powering with its 875 bhp (652 kW) Schneider cup racing floatplanes. But the production standard of the RAF from 1928 was the XIA, producing 580 bhp (430 kW) at 2,585 rpm, for a 6:1 ratio. It was still potent in 1936 although the technology greatly improved.

Armament

The Fairey IIIF was primarily a reconnaissance and spotter aircraft, using radio. The pilot had at its disposition two fixed 0.3 cal. Vickers air-cooled machine-guns, firing forward through two recesses in the sizes of the fuselage nose. They used an interrupter mechanism as firing though the propeller arc. The second crewman was seated center, generally tasked of the radio, and the third one was seated backwards, tasked of the defensive machine gun, generally a Lewis. The airframe of the late production model was sturdy enough to carry several bombs under wings, up to 650 Ibs (for example three 50 Kgs under each underwing for 300 Kgs. total). No tests were made to carry a torpedo however. The model was mostly used for patrols in far outposts of the colonial empire, reconnaissance onboard aircraft carriers or spotter onboad battleships and cruisers in the 1930s.

Specifications IIIF Mark 3

Dimensions:9.56 x 10.97 m x 4.50 m (33 x 41 x 13 ft)
Wing area: 342 sq ft (31.8 m2)
Airfoil: NACA 0010 - NACA 2212
Weight: Light3,788 lb (1,718 kg)
Weight: Max take-off5,437 lb (2,466 kg)
Propulsion:P&W R-1340-18 600 hp (450 kW)
Performances:Top speed: 48.6 kn (55.9 mph, 90.0 km/h)
Cruise speed: 116 kn (133 mph, 214 km/h)
Service ceiling: 14,900 ft (4,500 m)
Rate of climb: 915 ft/min (4.65 m/s)
Range: 587 nmi (675 mi, 1,086 km) at 5,000 ft (1,500 m)
Armament - MGs2x 0.3 cal
Armament - Bombs650 lb (295 kg)

Links and resources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairey_III
http://wp.scn.ru/en/ww15/h/284/9/0#4
https://www.sas1946.com/main/index.php?topic=58765.0
http://aviadejavu.ru/Site/Crafts/Craft20165.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairey_Aviation_Company
http://greek-war-equipment.blogspot.com/2011/12/1929-1941-fairey-iiif.html

Grant, James Ritchie. "Anti-Clockwise: Australia the Wrong Way". Air Enthusiast, No. 82 1999
Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force. Tonbridge, UK: Air Britain 1980
Isaacs, Keith. "The Fairey IIID In Australia". Air Enthusiast, No. 24, April–June 1984.
Jackson, A.J. British Civil Aircraft since 1919: Vol 2. Putnam, 1973.
Jarrett, Philip. "Database: Fairey IIIF". Aeroplane, November 2011 Kelsey Publishing Group
Jarrett, Philip. "Fairey IIIF: Part 1 & 2". Aeroplane Monthly 1994 London:IPC
Lezon, Ricardo Martin & Stitt, Robert M. (January–February 2004). "Eyes of the Fleet: Seaplanes in Argentine Navy Service, Part 2"
Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914. London:Putnam, 1994.
Nuñez Padin, Jorge Felix (July 1998). "Les Fairey IIIF de l'aviation navale argentine"
Avions: Toute l'aéronautique et son histoire. No. 64.
Taylor, H.A. Fairey Aircraft since 1915. London:Putnam, 1988.
Thetford, Owen. British Naval Aircraft since 1912. London:Putnam 1978.
Thetford, Owen. "Fairey IIIF and Gordon in Service: Part 1". Aeroplane Monthly 1994
Vevis, Gérassimos & Karatzas, Alexandre (June 1999). "Les Hydravions Fairey IIIF grecs"

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Gallery

Author's illustrations: Types and liveries


Chilean Navy, 1927. The Chilean Air Force also used it.


Fairey IIIF with land carriage, HMS Furious 1929


Onboard HMS York during a state visit, USA, 1930


IIIF assigned to HMS Valiant, 1932


IIIF on HMS Courageous 1932


IIIF with a Home Fleet NAS, 1932


IIIF of the RN in 1937


With the Hellenic Navy, 1938. In May 1941, they were still active


With the Argentinian Navy, Cruiser La Argentina, 1942. The last operational. Argentina Purchased six IIIF MkIIIM (Special) powered by 450 hp (336 kW) Lorraine Dietrich Ed12 engine in 1928. They entered service in 1929. The remaining aircraft were re-engined with Armstrong Siddeley Panthers in 1935, with the last aircraft being retired in 1942.

Additional photos



Fairey IIID S1103-1104, Cape-Cairo Flight


Fairey IIIF floatplane in operations


Fairey IIIFs over Aden


Fairey IIIFs of 47 Squadron on the Blue Nile at Khartoum before departing for a series of exploratory flights over Southern Sudan on 8 July 1930


Fairey Factory in Hayes


Fairey III onboard HMS Furious


Fairey IIIF of the Chilean navy catapulted

Argentinian Navy Fairey IIIF
Argentinian Navy Fairey IIIF


FaireyIIIF landing on HMS Furious


Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
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De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
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A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

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Curieux class sloops (1860)
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Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
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Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
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Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
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Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
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GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
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Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
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Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
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Italia class (1885)
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Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
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Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
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Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
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Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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