British Fleet Air Arm & Coastal Command (1919-1945)

The heritage of RNAS

Fairey Campania

Felixtowe F2A

Sopwith Cuckoo

Short 184

The Royal Naval Air Service pioneered the use of naval aviaiton like no other nation on earth. The diversity was remarkable, so much so that companies such as Felixtowe also provided planes to the USN for Atlantic patrols. The RNAS also pioneered air observation and gunnery corrections/artillery spotting, as well as naval defense by systematically use fighters and utility aircrafts launched from platforms, installed on top of RN capital ship's main turrets. The RNAS also pioneered onboard aviation, thanks to the wide use of seaplane carriers and the first aircraft carriers such as HMS Campania, Furious and Argus See the WW1 seaplane/aircraft carriers post.

HMS Campania, the first aircraft/seaplane carrier hybrid

The RNAS (1914-1918)

The birth of the British naval flying corps (later RNAS) started in 1909, with the construction of an airship, and in 1911 the Royal Navy graduated its first aeroplane pilots, at the Royal Aero Club flying ground (Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey). It was created and managed by pioneer aviator George Bertram Cockburn. In May 1912, both the naval and army aviations were combined into the Royal Flying Corps (RFC). The Naval Wing in July 1914 was under the Air Department of the Admiralty and renamed the "Royal Naval Air Service" (RNAS). In August 1914, the RNAS operated more planes and models than the RFC, and its roled evolved rapidly. In addition to fleet reconnaissance and coastal patrols it was tasked, as technolog progressed to enemy enemy coastal objectoves as well as defending Britain at sea from air raids and deployed for inland operations on the Western Front, notably in flanders. In April 1918 the RNAS managed some 67,000 officers and men plus 2,949 aircraft, 103 airships and 126 coastal stations. It was merged with the RFC to create the Royal Air Force.

This great chapter of the RNAS saw masses of trained pilots on the venerable Avro 503 (designed in 1914, produced until 1932 to above 8,500 planes), the Beardmore WB.III naval fighter, the Blacburn Kangaroo RNAS torpedo bomber of 1918-19, the Felixtowe seaplanes like the mass-produced Felixstowe F.5, the Short 184 reconnaissance seaplane, or many Sopwith models, either naval fighters or floatplanes mostly deployed from turret-based platforms.

Complete List of WW1 RNAS models

Short N.2A – seaplane (1910s)
Short N.2B – seaplane (1910s)
Felixstowe F.1 – biplane fighter reconnaissance flying boat (1910s)
Avro Type D – two-seat biplane floatplane (1911)
Lakes Waterbird – floatplane (1911)
Lakes Seabird – floatplane (1912)
Lakes Waterhen – floatplane (1912)
Short S.80 – twin-float seaplane (1913)
Short S.81 – reconnaissance seaplane (1913)
Lakes Hydro-monoplane – floatplane (1913)
Sopwith Bat Boat — flying boat (1913)
Short Admiralty Type 827 – reconnaissance/bomber floatplane (1914)
Short Admiralty Type 830 – reconnaissance/bomber floatplane (1914)
Sopwith Tabloid – biplane floatplane variant, winner of first Schneider Race (1914)
Short S.74 – seaplane (1914)
Short Admiralty Type 74 (1914)
Short Admiralty Type 166 – seaplane (1914)
Hamble River H.L.1 Seaplane – floatplane (1914)
White and Thompson No. 3 two-seat pusher flying boat (1914)
Wright Pusher Seaplane – floatplane (1914)
AD Flying Boat – two-seat patrol/reconnaissance flying boat (1915)
AD Type 1000 – biplane floatplane torpedo-bomber floatplane (1915)
Blackburn Twin Blackburn – two-seat zeppelin interceptor floatplane (1915)
Blackburn Type L – twin-float seaplane (1915)
Short Type 184 – torpedo-bomber floatplane (1915)
Sopwith Baby – biplane floatplane developed from Tabloid (1915)
Wright Seaplane – floatplane (1915)
Short Type 310 – torpedo-bomber floatplane (1916)
Wight Baby – single-seat seaplane (1916)
Wight Converted Seaplane – bomber floatplane (1916)
Felixstowe Porte Baby – biplane patrol flying boat (1916)
Norman Thompson N.T.4 – twin-engined flying boat (1916)
AD Navyplane – two-seat patrol/reconnaissance floatplane (1916)
Mann Egerton Type B – seaplane (1916)
Fairey N.10 – two-seat patrol seaplane (1917)
Fairey Campania – spotter/reconnaissance floatplane (1917)
Fairey Hamble Baby – single-seat biplane scout floatplane (1917)
Felixstowe F.2 – biplane reconnaissance flying boat (1917)
Felixstowe F.3 – biplane anti-submarine patrol flying-boat (1917)
Sage Type 4 – seaplane patrol aircraft/trainer (1917)
Norman Thompson N.T.2B – two-seat biplane training flying boat (1917)
Norman Thompson N.1B – prototype armed patrol flying boat (1917)
Supermarine Baby – fighter flying boat (1917)
Fairey IIIA – spotter/reconnaissance aircraft (1918)
Fairey N.9 – two-seat experimental seaplane (1918)
Felixstowe F.4 Fury – long-range triplane patrol flying boat (1918–1919)
Felixstowe F.5 – biplane reconnaissance flying boat (1918)
Martinsyde F6 – transport floatplane conversion (1918)
Norman Thompson N.2C – twin-engined flying boat (1918)
Phoenix Cork – reconnaissance flying boat (1918)
Vickers Valentia – transport flying boat (1918)

Development of interwar British Naval aviation

The Fleet Air Arm

On 1st April 1924, the Fleet Air Arm was created as a specialized branch of the Royal Air Force, covering RAF squadrons operated from aircraft carriers and the fleet, battleships and cruisers. This coincided with the commissioning of HMS Hermes, the world's first tailored aircraft carrier. Soon, Fairey IIID operated off Hermes, making the first trials proving naval aviation really as a future. During the interwar, the FAA gained a considerable number of addition planes or all models, land based, seaplanes/floatplanes, and carrier-based, as more carriers entered service: Eagle in 1925, Courageous and Glorious in 1927, Ark Royal in 1937 and in between the modernization of HMS Argus, and HMS Furious, then HMS Ark Royal was commissioned while the first armoured aircraft carriers were studied.

On 24 May 1939, the Fleet Air Arm was placed entirely under Admiralty control, now independent of the RAF, under the "Inskip Award" (Minister for Co-ordination of Defence overseeing the re-armament program). It became on paper the Air Branch of the Royal Navy. In September 1939, the Fleet Air Arm comprised 20 squadrons with 232 frontline aircraft and 191 trainers. Of course the war unleashed British air industry and in 1945 the Fleet Air Arm comprised no less than an astounding 59 aircraft carriers, 3,700 aircraft, and a staff of 72,000 officers and men plus 56 Naval air stations.

All types were operated, from carrier-based fighters, torpedo bombers and reconnaissance models, but also many seaplanes/floatplanes such as the iconic Sunderland or the lend-lease Catalina, but the newly created Coastal Command, a branch of the RAF helping the Navy, gained the use of long-range bombers, either reformed RAF models or lend-lease B-17 and B-24s for example. When the battle of Britain started, the stituation was so bad for the RAF which had only a little above 800 fighter pilots. This service natrally turned to the "fortunate child", the Royal Navy and asked the Admiralty for help. Fleet Air Arm crews were divered into the RAF Fighter Command and fighter squadrons. Entire units such as the 804 and 808 Naval Air Squadrons also played a part in the homeland air defence. A dockyard was even provided for defence operated Sea Gladiators.

Fairey III
The Fairey IIIF (1927)

From Home waters to the Atlantic Ocean, the FAA waged a merciless war against Axis shipping and submarines, inside the RAF Coastal Command which thanks to its links with the RAF operated large patrol bombers, forbidden to the FAA. The FAA also operated flying boats but large land-based fighter-bombers were part of the coastal command. As the aircraft carrier became the new capital ship the FAA soon gained considerable attraction. The top scoring fighter ace among British naval fighters was Commander Stanley Orr (Royal Marine) credited with 17 victories, followed by Ronald Cuthbert Hay (13 victories). Royal Marines AA pilots soon gained an elitist reputation, in large part due to their superior recrutement and training. The FAA illustrated itself at the Battle of Taranto (Italian Pearl Harbour), the hunt and sinking of the Bismarck, Channel Dash attacks (the only ones that took place), Operation Tungsten and following against Tirpitz (which succeed evendtually) and Operation Meridian against Sumatra in the far east.

Naval Air cover translated in various attempts to provide and air defence to convoys, both against submarines (much easier to detect from the sky) and spotting long-range planes: It should be recalled that the presence of aircraft in these convoys did not meet the concern of the Luftwaffe (except in the Mediterranean and Arctic, and to a lesser extent measure against the appearances of the big FW-200 Kurier or Ju-290 which signaled the convoys), than to spot U-Bootes more easily. Even the most harmless plane like the famous "Stringbag" (the Fairey Swordfish), became the most formidable bird of prey for submersibles which in clear weather were easily spotted, even when diving at 30 meters, before being catch up by all the convoy had as escorts.

Fairey Swordsfish
Fairey Swordfish over the Ark Royal. Despite its age the slow and venerable "string bag" became a legend during WW2, disabling the Bismarck and sinking the Italian fleet (which inspired Pearl harbor) among others.

Torpedo Bombers

Sopwith Cuckoo
Along with the Blackburn Kangaroo, the Sopwith Cuckoo (1919) was the first carrier-borne British torpedo plane. It was still operating for training and in colonial areas in 1930.

The planes of Fairey, like the Fairey III floatplane succeeded by the Fairey Seal (1930), only retired in 1943 and ancestor of the famous Fairey Swordfish, the emblematic British carrier-borne torpedo biplane. Only 91 Seal were ever built, later retired and versed to instruction, compared to the Swordfish's 2391 (1,699 by Blackburn);

Fairey Swordfish
Nicknamed "stringbag", the venerable biplane of the Royal Navy gained an almost legendary status because of its exploits, like the fateful hit in the KMS Bismarck's rudder or the attack of Taranto. They were used until 1945, carrying rockets, bombs, fitted with floats, land or carrier-based.

Blackburn Ripon
Ripon flying off the deck of an unidentified carrier in 1929. After Fairey, Blackburn was the other specialist supplier of torpedo-bombers for the fleet air arm. The Ripon was a 1925-designed interwar biplane torpedo bomber

Blackburn Baffin (1934)

Blackburn Shark
Blackburn Sharks flying over HMS Glorious in the 1930s. The Shark first flew 24 August 1933, not long before the Swordfish, and was produced to about 269 until 1939, in service during WW2 and after in the Portuguese Navy. Three seats, propelled by an Armstrong Siddeley Tiger VI 14 cylinder radial, 760 hp (567 kW) it was barely faster than the "string bag" at 150 mph/242 km/h but still reliable and robust. This plane carried usually two torpedo models, the 18-inch (460 mm) Mark VIII torpedo or Mark X torpedo, loaded with enough torpex to cause maximum damage.

Naval Fighters

Martket and Seafire Operation Torch Nov 42
Grumann Martlet and Supermarine Seafire taking off from HMS FORMIDABLE during Operation Torch, November 1942.

Fairey Flycatcher (1923): Already saw for the Furious. One of the first dedicated FAA fighter, 196 were built, and they served until 1934. It started service with No. 402 Flight Fleet Air Arm and served on all interwar carriers also with the 403, 406 Flight and 801 Squadron. The typical air group of HMS Courageous comprised 16 of them, alongside the Ripon and it was adored by pilots, fast, agile and easy to fly. Another not well-known fighter which was evaluated by the FAA was the Parnall Plover (1922) used in small quantities by the RAF.

Hawker Nimrod (1931):
Legendary designer Sydney Camm made a carrier-based version of the excellent Hawker Hart which first flew in 1931 and was adopted in 1933. Only 92 were built, which served in 11 squadrons and units, replaced by the Sea Gladiator in 1939. Propelled by a Rolls-Royce Kestrel VFP inline piston engine, 525 hp it could carry four small 9kg bombs. It was also used by the Royal Danish Navy Aviation in 1940.

Gloster Sea Gladiator (1934):
The last and perhaps one of all-time best biplane fighter ever designed, the legendary Gladiator was also in service with the FAA. Introduced from 1937, used from land bases, but also a modified Mk II was developed as the Sea Gladiator for the Fleet Air Arm with an arrestor hook, catapult attachment points, strengthened airframe plus an underbelly dinghy lifeboat. Only 98 aircraft were built or converted and 54 were still in service during the war. They operated in the Mediterranean in 1940-41.

Wartime carrier-borne aviation

Blackburn Skua (1938):
Blackburn Skua 800 Sqn HMS Ark Royal
The Skua was one of the first modern FAA planes, ordered by specifications as a low-wing monoplane, all-metal, with retractable undercarriage and enclosed cockpit. The Skua was introduced from November 1938 and used by 27 squadrons. It was relatively slow and was used as a multirole fighter, but in 1941 it was no longer kept in front line service but relegated in secondary duties. dependable, it will be used until 1945. Production was limited to 196 planes.

Blackburn Roc (1939):
Blackburn Roc
Introduced in 1939 but developed from 1938, the Roc was derived from the Skua designed by George Edward Petty, but characterized by the use of the Boulton-Paul quad-turret which proved useless in practice for a fighter although the Roc was used during Operation Dynamo and Operation Ariel and shot down a number of German bombers over Belgium during the Western campaign. The Roc was also use to strafe German bases on the coast, like those of the 801 Naval Air Squadron that devastated a German E-Boat base. It was produced to only 136 planes but used by 27 squadrons until 1943.

Fairey Fulmar (1940):
Fairey Fulmar
A navalized version of the P.4/34 Battle of the same manufacturer, this two-seat multipurpose plane was equipped with a Rolls-Royce engine, at first for reconnaissance and fleet defence fighter. The production version was equipped with the new supercharged RR Merlin VIII engine, tailored for it, and performances were way better than the Battle. 600 were built in all until 1943 and it was replaced by the Firefly. They flew first with the HMS Illustrious and their feats included spotting the Bismarck, Malta convoys, raids over Petsamo, and they equipped in time twenty squadrons and eight carriers.

Hawker sea Hurricane (1939):
Hawker Sea Hurricane
Developed from the regular Hurricane which was introduced from 1937, the FAA adopted the Sea Hurricane, which sported an array of modifications but they also served as catapult-launched convoy escorts (CAMS ships). The Sea Hurricane became operational in mid-1941 from HMS Furious. It was then operated until 1944 scoring an impressive kill-to-loss ratio, gained mostly during the defense of Malta convoys, and in the Atlantic Ocean against Condors and other German planes. On 26 May 1944, some of HMS Nairana claimed three Ju 290 in one sortie. To save space, some Royal Navy aircraft carriers carried their reserve Sea Hurricanes dismantled, slung up on the hangar bulkheads and deckhead for reassembly when needed.

Grumann Martlet (1941)
Martlet Mk.II HMS Formidable Oran December 1942

The lend-lease version in British service of the legendary Wildcat was known as Martlet Mk.I and following. Initially, the Mark I were the former 81 model G-36A ordered by the French in 1939 to equip their new Joffre-class aircraft carriers then in construction. With the fall of France the order was diverted to UK instead (as well as Belgian orders), after being modified for British use by Blackburn. Already before it was done, the Fleet Air Arm ordered a second version (Mark II) about 100 delivered from August 1941 to the 3 Illustrious class carriers in priority to replace the old Skua, Roc and Gladiators. The Mark III were former Greek ordered models also diverted in April 1941, but they only served from land-base (no folding wings). The Martlet Mark IV were the first properly British ordered models, with 220 delivered, followed in 1943-44 by 312 FM-1/2s or Martlet V and VI.

Supermarine Seafire (1941)
Supermarine Seafire Mk.II

Probably the best and best-known British RNAS Fighter, the adaptation of the Spitfire (designed by a company that already created seaplanes for the RNAS) into a carrier-borne version started after ww2 started when it was obvious that neither the Skua/Roc or Gladiators were up to the task against the Luftwaffe. The Sea Hurricane showed the way forward. On 29 February 1940, the Admiralty requested a batch of 50 folding-wings versions, later canceled by Winston Churchill, which privileged the Fulmar instead. As a stopgap later the Grumman Martlet (Wildcats) would enter service in 1941. At last, a total of 48 Spitfire Mk Vb were converted late 1941. They were followed by 118 improved Seafire Mk Ibs, and the first front line unit which operateed the model was 807 Squadron in June 1942.

The very last versions were the Seafire F Mk 47 and FR Mk 47 which were also the last built Spitfire of any model in 1949. Over 2,640 were built and they also served with the French Navy and RCAN. It should be noted that Supermarine devised a carrier-based replacement for the Seafire, called Seafang in 1946, which was only produced to 18 planes and evaluated but rejected. It was called later the "spritfire too far" and paralled the Spiteful. The days of piston-engines were over.

Brewster Buffalo (1942): Only from land bases as the B-339E Buffalo Mk.I but it's not impossible some were ferried by carriers at some point. They were delivered by crates and assembled locally. Fairey Firefly (1943) Fairey Firefly Note that the Firefly first flew in December 1941, but was not introduced before 1943. 1700 were built, and they were supposed to replace the Fairey Fulmar, which they resembled. They were 3-seats multipurpose planes that were powerful and agile enough to be used as fighters, powered by a Rolls-Royce Griffon IIB liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,730 hp (Mk.I), 316 mph (275 kn, 509 km/h). Other versions followed with the same engine evolution as the seafire, and performances followed. It was replaced by the Fairey Gannet and also used by the RAN in many operations. The first squadron to operate it carrier-based was in July 1944, 1770 NAS (HMS Indefatigable).

Grumman Gannet/Hellcat (1944)
The British Fleet Air Arm ordered 1,263 modified F6F hellcats under the Lend-Lease Act, named as Grumman Gannet Mark I, but later "Hellcat" was adopted for simplicity on the Pacific theater. It was followed by the Hellcat F Mk.II and the F6F-5N Hellcat NF Mk.II. They saw action off Norway, in the Mediterranean and in the Far East, and was successful, the 1844 Naval Air Squadron (HMS Indomitable) claiming 32 kills alone.

FAA Corsair Mk.I 1943
Vought Corsair (1943): Probably the best fighter-bomber of the fleet air arm in 1944, the first batch was purchased in November 1943. These were 95 Vought F4U-1s "Corsair I". The pilots had a mitigated opinion about it. They loved its speed, power and ruggedness, but hated its landing characteristics. Also the limited hangar deck height caused them to used them from land bases in many cases. In time, British pilots started to use a medium left-hand turn for landings that was adopted later by USN pilots. They also modified the Corsair, fitting it with a bulged canopy, raising the pilot by 18cm, wiring shut the cowl flaps across the top of the engine compartment and diverted oil and hydraulic fluid spray around the sides of the fuselage. The Corsair served well until the mid-1950s. In total 18 FAA squadrons operated it, mainly on the Pacific.

De Havilland Sea Mosquito (1945):
The Sea mosquito was born from a specification N.15/44 for a navalised version to be used as torpedo bomber. It was based on the Mosquito FB.VI, with folding wings, arrester hook, thimble nose radome, four-bladed propellers Merlin 25 engines and reinforced landing gear. First tests occurred on HMS Indefatigable, 25 March 1944. 50 TR.33s were built only at Leavesden. They first flew on 10 November 1945 and the Sea Mosquito TR Mk 37 appeared later with an ASV Mk XIII radar replacing the AN/APS-6.

Blackburn TF Mark IV
Blackburn Firebrand (1945): This powerful plane was used as torpedo-fighter, meaning it was sturdy and powerful enough to carry and deliver a torpedo, its great speed helping it dodging AA when making a resource after delivery, and be used as a fighter in other occasions. It was developed from 1942 but introduced only in 1945, and 220 were delivered. It was developed with the Napier Sabre 24-cylinder H-type engine (also used on the Typhoon) already in 1941 with a specification for a 350 knots fighter (650 kph) and was given four 20 mm (0.79 in) Hispano autocannons. It was tested on HMS Illustrious in February 1943 and was capable to perform also attacks with bombs and rockets. The final production version was accepted with a 2,400-horsepower (1,800 kW) Bristol Centaurus VII radial engine. However they never saw action in WW2 as the first unit to operate them, 813 Naval Air Squadron, did not receive them until 1 September 1945.

Hawker Sea Fury (1945):
hawker Sea Fury
The last and perhaps best piston-engine British naval fighter ever built, the Fury designed by Sydney Camm was a navalized version of the Tempest (which was also evaluated by the FAA) of the late radial engine version. Propelled by a Bristol Centaurus 18-cylinder twin-row radial engine, 2,480 hp (1,850 kW) it could reach 750 kph. Armed by four 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano Mk V cannons like the Firebrand, it could also carry rockets and up to 900 kgs bombs. It was used first by 787 squadron in February 1947 and largely adopted by all active FAA squadrons, retired from 1951 onwards. It served for much longer in other naval air corps.

The Coastal Command

Interwar Coastal Command

(To Come)

WW2 Coastal Command

(To Come)

British Seaplane and Floatplanes

Early Interwar

Supermarine Channel

– (1919)

Vickers Viking

– amphibious flying boat (1919)

Supermarine Sea Lion I – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane (1919)

Saunders Kittiwake

– amphibious flying boat (1920)

Supermarine Sea King

– fighter flying boat (1920)

Fairey Pintail

– two-seat fighter/reconnaissance biplane amphibian (1920)

Short N.3 Cromarty

– flying boat (1921)

Supermarine Seal II – deck-landing fleet-spotting amphibian (1921)

Vickers Vanellus

– fleet-spotter amphibious flying boat (1922)

Supermarine Seagull

– spotter/reconnaissance flying boat (1922)

Fairey Flycatcher

– single-seat fighter floatplane (1922)

Fairey N.4

– five-seat long-range twin-engine biplane reconnaissance flying boat (1923)

Supermarine Sea Eagle

– amphibious flying boat (1923)

Fairey IIID

– Observation floaplane (1924)

Vickers Vulture

– amphibious flying boat (1924)

Short S.1 Stellite/Cockle

– small single-seat flying boat (1924)

Supermarine Scarab

– reconnaissance/bomber flying boat (1924)

Fairey Fremantle

– long-range reconnaissance biplane floatplane (1924)

English Electric Ayr

– three-seat coastal patrol flying boat (1924)

English Electric Kingston

– reconnaissance flying boat (1924)

Beardmore Inverness

– monoplane flying boat (1925)

Hawker Dantorp

– 3-seat bomber floatplane (1925)

Blackburn Velos

– two-seat coastal defence seaplane (1925)

Supermarine Southampton

– reconnaissance flying boat (1925)

Blackburn Iris

– five-seat long-range reconnaissance flying boat (1926)

Saunders A.3 Valkyrie

– three-engined military flying boat (1927)

Fairey IIIF

– Observation floaplane (1927)

Blackburn Nautilus

– two-seat biplane fleet spotter/fighter floatplane (1929)

Saro A.17 Cutty Sark

– lightweight amphibious flying boat (1929)

Late Interwar

Hawker Osprey

– 2-seat fighter/reconnaissance biplane floatplane (1930)

Saro A.7 Severn

– flying boat (1930)

Saro A.19 Cloud

– twin-engined flying boat (1930)

Saro Windhover

– three-engined flying boat with additional stub wing over main wing (1930)

Short Rangoon

– military biplane flying boat (1930)

Short Valetta

– survey floatplane (1930)

Fairey Seal

– two-seat reconnaissance floatplane (1930)

Blackburn Sydney

– three-engine, monoplane reconnaissance flying boat (1931)

Short Sarafand

– six-engined long-range military biplane flying boat (1932)

Short Knuckleduster

– monoplane flying boat (1933)

Saro London

– coastal patrol flying boat (1934)

Short Seaford

– four-engined long-range maritime reconnaissance/bomber flying boat (1934)

Short S.19 Singapore III

– six-seat general reconnaissance biplane flying boat (1934)

Fairey S.9/30

– biplane torpedo bomber floatplane (1934)

Fairey Swordfish

– biplane torpedo bomber floatplane (1934)

de Havilland Hornet Moth

– single-engine 2-seat cabin biplane floatplane (1934)

Blackburn Perth

– five-seat long-range reconnaissance flying boat (1934)

Supermarine Scapa

– reconnaissance flying boat (1935)

Short Scion Senior

– four-engined nine-passenger floatplane (1935)

Short Empire

– four-engined long-range commercial flying boat (1936)

Short S.26

– four-engined long-range commercial flying boat (1936)

Supermarine Stranraer

– reconnaissance flying boat (1936)

Supermarine Walrus

– spotter/reconnaissance flying boat (1936)

Fairey Seafox

– two-seat spotter reconnaissance floatplane (1936)

Supermarine Seagull ASR-1

– Rolls Royce Griffon-powered monoplane

Airspeed AS.30 Queen Wasp

– pilotless target floatplane (1937)

Short Sunderland

– four-engined long-range maritime reconnaissance/bomber flying boat (1937)

Supermarine Sea Otter

– reconnaissance air/sea rescue flying boat (1938)

Short S.20 Mercury

– flying-boat-launched four-engined long-range floatplane mail-carrier (1938)

Short S.21 Maia

– seaplane-carrier four-engined flying boat (1938)

Saro A.33

– four-engined flying boat (1938)


Saro Shrimp

Experimental reconnaissance flying boat (1939)

Blackburn B-20

Reconnaissance flying boat (1940)

Saro Lerwick

Twin-engined reconnaissance flying boat (1940)

Supermarine Spitfire Floatplane

– fighter seaplane (trials 1940–42)

Short Sandringham

Four-engined long-range commercial flying boat converted from Short Sunderland (1943)

Short Shetland

– large military and commercial long-range flying boat (1944)

Read more:

(To come)

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautoko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

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USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935) Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)

Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

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Royal Navy Royal Navy
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US Navy USN (1990)

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