Aichi D3A (1938)

Imperial Japanese Navy, 1,495 built

The D3A2 "Val" main IJN Dive Bomber in 1941

The "Val" as it was referred in the USN, was the main Imperial Japanese Dive Bomber of WW2, until replaced gradually from 1942 onwards by the Yokosuka D4Y Suisei, far more modern by all standards and benefiting from a higher production. But it was really the dreaded "Val" that made all the heavy lifting for the IJN in the crucial first year of the war with the US, until December 1942, with ace pilots and results: They sank single-handedly 11 destroyers, two heavy cruisers, one aircraft carrier and several auxiliaries, while assisting in many others, notably five fleet aircraft carriers.


Superb colorization by irootoko Jr. of the D3A taking off from Akagi during the Indian Ocean raid.

The Aichi D3A was innovative as being a cantilever monoplane, unlike the D1A/D2A "Susie" it replaced. It would be adopted in 1939, battle tested in China, and then produced three times more. The D3A was also the last fixed undercarriage model of the IJN, although it had a fully enclosed cockpit, and folding wingtips. Rugged, not very fast but surprinsingly agile, the "Val" was also accurate enough for the task intended, and performed well into the Kido Butai (1st air fleet) from all carrier decks since Pearl Harbor to the fall of Guadalcanal. It was delivered in two main variants, the D3A1 and D3A2 which soldiered on into well late 1944 in land-based units and for training in 1945.

Development: A replacement for the D2Y

The IJN wanted in mid-1936 a new dive bomber to replace the Aichi D2Y which just entered production. Looking at what other countries were working on, the days of the biplane seemed off, and the admiralty expressed the desire for a cantilever monoplane. The 11-Shi specification was specified to Aichi, Nakajima, and Mitsubishi, which all worked on, and submitted their own designs, and asked in a second phase for two prototypes each.

Heinkel_He_70
German Heinkel HE-70 "Blitz", an inspiration for the wings design.

The Aichi design team worked on low-mounted elliptical wings, inspired by the Heinkel He 70 Blitz, then just purchased for evaluation. The elliptical shape was at the start a mathematical theory destined to procure the best compromise of all shapes, providing lift, agility and maintaining drag low enough for agility. This type of wing was also prototyped on Mitchell's fighter at the same time.

The very first prototype, on paper, was to be powered by the 529 kW (709 hp) Nakajima Hikari 1. It was feeble for an engine, and flew slow enough not to worry about the drag caused by its fixed landing gear, an ideal solution to land on aicraft carriers. It was not seen as a serious issue as top speed was not a priority. Simplicity also imposed a trusted nine-cylinder radial engine. They dropped the idea of a liquid-cooled inline engine, as none was provided at the time in Japan.

The first built of the two prototype was complete in December 1937. It flew a month later in 1938, and despite poor test results, was designated by the Navy as as D3A1 (Factory wise it was the Type Navy Dive Bomber, and did not received a more "bankable" surname as later models). Initial tests showed the Type 99 was clearly underpowered, but also suffered from directional instability in wide turns while tighter turns made it to snap roll. Also when diving, its brakes vibrated a lot when extended, so much so it was feared they would shear off and damage the plane in flight. Still at the time, the Navy asked for a design speed of 200 knots (370 km/h), but made a revision to take in account faster western fighters depliyed in China, and asked for a diving speed of 240 knots (440 km/h).


The Loosing Competitor, Nakajima D3N1

The second prototype was extensively modified to address these demands and solve the flight issues:
-A new engine was adopted, the 626 kW (839 hp) Mitsubishi Kinsei 3
-There was a redesigned cowling
-The Vertical tail was enlarged and reshaped for better directional instability.
-Wings had now a larger span with leading edges hawing wash-out
-Strengthened dive brakes.
This fixed all but one problem as the prototype made its flight debut: The directional instability was still there, but still, the pckage was judged by the Navy Commission superior at the time to its competitor the Nakajima D3N1.


Second Type 99 protoype in 1939.

In December 1939, the Navy ordered the new model as the "Navy Type 99 Carrier Bomber Model 11" ("kanjō bakugekiki"). Production was adapted however, and presented slightly larger wing span, improved dive brakes, and increased power (Now the 746 kW (1,000 hp) Kinsei 43 and later 798 kW (1,070 hp) Kinsei 44, plus redesigned cowling. A long dorsal fin-strake, starting midway down the rear fuselage, caracteristic of the D3A, cured the instability problem. In fact it made, combined with the more powerful engine and elliptic wings, the D3A extremely manoeuvrable, so much so that new mission were invisioned.

Final Design


D3A1 From IJN Akagi over China, 1940

The fuselage was single-bay, of ovale section with framing and stress aluminium skin. The cockpit and its two sliding canopies was relatively short, just intended for two seats, the pilot forward and the observer/navigator/gunner aft, on a revolving seat. As seen above, the wings were ellipitic to increase manoeuvrability, as were the vertical tail and tailwings. As the britsh would have said, it "looked right" tat first glance, and indeed flight right, without any vice. Without its fixed undercarriage creating drag and a more powerful engine, plus some armor and self-sealing tanks, it could have been an excellent fight-bomber.

Engine:


kinsei 54 of a D3A3 in maintenance on an island, 1944

The The Mitsubishi Kinsei (金星, or "Venus") was a 14-cylinder, air-cooled, twin-row radial aircraft engine. It was developed by Mitsubishi in 1934 for the IJN, wit factory designation A8 when experimental and in service, MK8 "Kinsei" (Navy designation). In 1941, the reputation of this engine was such it was also adopted by the Army as Ha-112 or 1,300hp Army Type 1 and Ha-33 in May 1943, equipping the Yokosuka D4Y3-D4Y4 and Kawasaki Ki-100 in its late version.

Kinsei 41 saw increase in compression ratio from 6.0:1 to 6.6:1 with a larger supercharger and it was introduced from 1936 produced until 1945. The D3A1 had the Kinsei 43, delivering 1,000 hp (750 kW) at 2400 rpm at sea level or 990 hp (740 kW) at 2400 rpm at 2,800 m (9,200 ft), and later the Kinsei 44 which developed 1,070 hp (800 kW) at sea level and 1,080 hp (810 kW) at 2,000 m (6,600 ft).

The D3A2 jumped on the next iteration, in the Kinsei 50 serie. The latter had a final compression ratio of 7.0:1 and Indirect fuel injection plus a larger two-speed supercharger. The D3A2 Kinsei 54 improved output to 1,200 hp (890 kW) at 2500 rpm at 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and 1,100 hp (820 kW) at 2500 rpm at 6,200 m (20,300 ft) thanks to previous improvements, redesigned cylinder head, water injection and then higher pressure oil pump.

Armament


Vals from IJN Shokaku, 1942 (AWM)

The only issue with the "Val" was its relatively weak payload, especially compared to the B5N "Kate" which carried a bomb almost double the weight. The D3A1 and D3A2 both carried:
-Two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 97 machine guns in the wings
-One flexible 7.7 mm (.303 in) Type 92 machine gun rear of the cockpit
-Normal bomb load: 250 kg bomb (Type 99 No 25 semi-AP or Type 98 No 25 land bomb) under the fuselage. To avoid hitting the propeller, it was swung under it and released by a trapeze.
-Two additional 60 kg bombs (Type 99 No 6 semi-AP or Type 2 No 6 land bomb) were carried underwings racks located outboard of the dive brakes.

Equipments

The pilot had a Type 95 telescopic gunsight and later Type 99 used for aiming the bomb when diving. The observer/navigator had a Type 97 Mk1 drift sight located in the front-left of his seat. A drift meter was also mounted on the floor, front-right of his seat. Between him and the pilot was located the lain Type 96 Mk2 radio set, which on top of it a Type 3 reflector compass for navigation.

Variants

Production: D3A1



In total, some 479 D3A1 were delovered by Aichi Kokuki KK, less than the D1A/D3A total production, but it filled the needs of the IJN and all its aicraft carriers when introduced in 1940. Due to the rapid progress of aviaton performances, in 1942, this model was no longer relevant and already engineers at Aichi worked out a much improved model. One of te improvements brought to the late D3A1 was a propeller spinner, which became standard with the next iteration.

Production: D3A2

In June 1942, these efforts succeeded by bringing an all improved version of the D3A1, now powered by the 969 kW (1,299 hp) Kinsei 54 engine. This, and many other modifications, like the engine cowl, srength, tail, and fuselage glasshouse tested in a modern wind tunnel, brought even more performances to what became the D3A2 (Aichi Model 12, Navy Model 22). Range was reduced by the larger engine, so engineers found a way to cram into the fuselage additional fuel tanks, bringing the total to 900 L (240 US gal) so that it could effectively roamed free all along the Solomon Islands.

The Navy Model 22 started to replace the Model 11 (D3A1) in front-line units in autumn 1942, those retired being sent to training units or land-based units. However already by late 1943, they were replaced in turn by the Yokosuka D4Y Suisei ("Judy").

Overall, Aichi Kokuki K.K., at Funakata, Nagoya produced two 11-Shi prototypes (1937-38), six D3A1 Service trials aircraft (1939), 470 D3A1 Model 11 production (Dec 1939-Aug 1942) a single D3A2 Model 12 prototype (June 1942) and 815 D3A2 Model 22 production (Aug 1942-June 1944) for 1,294 total and Showa Hikoki Kogyo K.K. in Tokyo added to this 201 D3A2 Model 22 production (Dec 1942-Aug 1945).

The forgotten "Val": D3Y Myojo

D3Y Myojo
D3Y Myojo in 1945.

Aichi was conscious that mass production used lots of valuable materials, and in 1943, started a study to replace the D3A1 used for training by an equivalent using non-strategic materials, and in this case, wood. Therefore, The D3Y was designed as a two-seat bomber trainer, based on the successful Aichi D3A2, still with a fixed tailwheel undercarriage.

Aichi planned to allow construction by unskilled workers and the design was much simplified: Straight tapered wings were used while the fuselage was lengthened to improve stability. Only two prototypes were built in 1944, proving heavier than expected for their Mitsubishi Kinsei 54 radial engine, same as the D3A2. After much redesign to save weight, it was approved for production and in 1945, three producton models only were delivered, designated "Navy Type 99 Bomber Trainer, Myojo Model 22". Myojo meant "venus". Its characteristics are not well known, but it could carry at least a dummy bomb, likely to have been replaced in case by a real one:

It's armament indeed as designed comprised two 20 mm (0.787 in) Type 99 Mark 1 machine guns in the engine cowling and a single 800 kgs (1800 ib) bomb. There was no provision of a rear gunner, just a pilot. Performances were rarther similar to the regular D3A2, 470 km/h (290 mph, 250 kn) at 5,000 m (16,000 ft) for top speed, 296 km/h cruise speed, and a range of 1,472 km (915 mi, 795 nmi). Aichi also worked on an improved version called the D5Y1 Myojo Kai (Navy Special Attacker Myojo Kai), also known as the experimental D3Y2-K Myojo, a derivative used for Kamikaze missions. To improve its performances in the air, the undrrcarriage was jettisonable. The prototype was seized incomplete in August 1945.


Detailed specs


D3A1 Specs

Crew: 2: Pilot, observer/radio
Fuselage Lenght10.195 m (33 ft 5 in)
Wingspan14.365 m (47 ft 2 in)
Wing area34.9 m2 (376 sq ft)
Height3.84 m (12 ft 7 in)
Empty weight:2,408 kg (5,309 lb)
Max takeoff weight:3,650 kg (8,050 lb)
Propeller:3-bladed metal constant speed propeller
Engine:1,070 hp (800 kW) Mitsubishi Kinsei 44 - D3A1 Model 11 (late production)
Top speed:387 km/h (240 mph; 209 kn) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
Climb rate:3,000 m (9,800 ft) in 6 minutes 27 seconds
Endurance:1,472 km (915 mi)
Service ceiling:9,300 m (30,500 ft)
Wing Loading:104.6 kg/m2 (21.4 lb/sq ft)
Power/mass:4.9 kg/kW (8 lb/hp)
Armament2x forward-firing 7.7 mm Type 97, one Type 92 rear flexible moun, 1x 250 kg (550 lb) fuselage bomb, 2x 60 kg (130 lb) underwings
Other payloads2x 160 l (42.27 US gal; 35.20 imp gal) drop-tanks

D3A2 M22 Specs

Empty weight:2,570 kg (5,666 lb)
Max takeoff weight:3,800 kg (8,378 lb)
Propeller:3-bladed metal propeller
Engine:Mitsubishi Kinsei 54 14-cyl. AC RPE 970 kW (1,300 hp) take-off, 1,200 hp (890 kW)/3,000 m, 1,100 hp (820 kW)/6,200 m
Top speed:430 km/h (270 mph, 230 kn) at 6,200 m (20,300 ft)
Climb rate:3,000 m (9,800 ft) in 5 minutes 48 seconds
Endurance:1,352 km (840 mi, 730 nmi)
Service ceiling:9,800 m (32,200 ft)
Wing Loading:108.9 kg/m2 (22.3 lb/sq ft)
Power/mass:3.9 kg/kW (6.4 lb/hp)

The D3A in action

Tactical use of the "Val"


D3A taking of from Akagi for the Indian Ocean Raid

The D3A operated as a carrier-based dve bomber, able to operate decisive strikes on the often lightly protected vertical decks of USN major ships, capital ships and aicraft carriers, which had the largest surface. By doctrine, IJN pilots avoided to targets light vessels like destroyers, being a narrow, nimble and very agile ships. Cruisers were manageable using the "follow the lead" tactic by a more experience dive bomber crew. Individual D3As were commanded by the senior ranking crew member aboard. It happened to be the observer in some cases, not the pilot, unlike in the USN where the pilot was almost always commander. Both Lieutenant Takehiko Chihaya at Pearl Harbor and Lieutenant Keiichi Arima in the Solomon Islands campaign were observers/commanders.

On the tactical organization size, the First air fleet (Kido Butai) took the best advantage of these airborne combined arms tactics by using two divisions, with two carriers each, carrying divided strike forces, one division having mostly dive bombers and the other torpedo planes, while the fighter escort and CAP was contributed to all four carriers.

The D3A approached in high altitude to facilitate long range spotting by the chief observer of the squadron, the one aboard the division (Chutai, 3x3 planes) leader, although a spotting could be achievd by any "Val" in the formation, in groups of three, two "Shotai" on the wings, one on front, which was also the Chutai leader. When spotted, the targeted ship was approached from 17-22 km away (10-14 miles), ideally on its front. An attack was coming from 9,800 feets, down to 3,000 feets (3000 down to 900 m) according to the manual, the division splitting into three Shotai (sections) of three planes each to choose their own path without interference.

All three started a 20% approach, going into three direction to approach the ship on various angles, to avoid the risk of the ship avoiding the attack, before starting their final dive in a steep to almost vertical (in general in a 55-60° angle) started at least at 4900 feets (1,500 m). The pilot uses its bomb aiming forward a separate device using its own set of graduations from the main targeting sight, which could be setup via a rotating nob inside the cockpit.


D3A preparing to take off for the Pearl Harbor attack

Once the bomb dropped, the "Val" started its resource at around 2000 ft (600 m) to recover t around 160 feets (50 m), basically just above the enemy vessels, to the point of having its fixed undercarriage touching or hitting water in other cases. It was likely the plane would tumble over and break apart when it happened. This was seen sometimes with some zealous veteran pilots. Rookie "Val" pilots in 1943 tended to dive, and correspondingly take their resource far earlier, leading to growing innacuracy.

This standard tactic was often coupled in conjunction of two other squadrons: B5N "Kate" in bombing configuration, dropping their payload from well above target, and the same in torpedo-carrying configuration, if when going well combined, made their torpedo attack at the same time. The goal was for the latter to start a bit earlier in order to force the target ship an evasive turn hard to port/starboard, on which the "Val" squadron leader would calculate a trajectory ideal to meet the ship making its manoeuver.

The same was true the other way, depending on the circumstances (mainly the timing of squadrons arrival): "Vals" could dive first, and when discovered, drive AA fire to them, allowing "Kates" to operate their dangerous torpedo run where the ship was evading, just over the waves. Both USN and Japanese air crews arrived in training and simulations to the same conclusions about the best way to "corner" an enemy vessel. The strenght of USN AA was also a factor for Japanese air crews in their decision of operate immediately rather than waiting to take a better position during the pacific war. It should be added that "Zeros", when not deadling with the enemy CAP, were used to strafe enemy vessels and targert their AA crews in particular, helping the work of torpedo-bombers.

The "Val" limited speed was comparable to its arch-rival the Dauntless, but it was criticized for its "light" payload, a single 250 kgs (550 Ibs) bomb, versus the latter which caried a much more potent 454 kgs bomb (1000 ibs). Almost double. Damage result was in relations, despite the use of timing fuse and AP cap allowing the Japanese bombs to penetrate the target's decks before exploding, as shown by the fate of USS Arizona at Pearl. B5N Kates could carry a much larger 800 kgs (1760 Ibs), but it was only used in high altitude bombing and thus, less accurate. Nonetheless, those used at Pearl Harbor were modified, fitting AP shell cones into bomb bodies to ensure armo-piercing capabilities.

The "Val" carried two types, the Type 99 N°25 AP (armor-piercing) before Pearl Harbor and the Type 99 N°25 HE (High explosive) detonating on impact. The first could be used in early attacks, for example by the leader of each "Shutai", exploding on AA gun mounts and blinding AA crews, clearing the way for the next two carrying an AP bomb. This was the tactic adopted at Pearl Harbor, repeated later in several battles like against USS Yorktown at Midway. In that case however, the dive bombers attacked from the rear.

Overall, given their tally, the "Vals" small bomb did its job well enough in many cases. Only the lack of training later in the war limited their success

First combat operations (1939-41)

The D3A1 first saw combat operation in November 1939, even before its official acceptance as the Navy Type 99 dive bomber. Nakajima indeed sent several early D3As to the 14th Air group, based on Hainan island and flying over the Haikou area of South China.

These formed a small "shutai" commanded by Lieutenant Sadamu Takahashi, in support of the Imperial Japanese Army. It took part in the battle of Nanning, and multiplied raids over the supply lines coming from French Indochina. After the fall of Nanning, they stayed operational there until 1940. By May 1940, the 12th Air Group gained the first production D3A1 dive bombers. They took part in the capture of Yichang and started anti-shipping patrols over the Yangtze river, to cut Chinese supplies from Chongqing. In September 1940, D3A1 from the 12th Kokutai started operations against Chongqing, by then the Chinese capital. The 14th Kokotai had the occasion to us its D3A1s in Indochina by the autumn of 1940, over (and later from) Hanoi, launching air raids over Kunming and Burma Road.

This was land-based missions, but in parallel, the D3A1 commenced carrier qualification trials: IJN Akagi and Kaga received theirs in 1940, making their combat debut from land bases in China.

Early Pacific operations (1942-43)

At Pearl Harbor, the D3A1 took a curcal part to the success of the two raids over the Hawaiian Pacific fleet stronghold, and could be credited notably with the destruction of several of the battleships present, but none single-handedly. The first 10 months of the war saw them exytremely active and during the Indian Ocean raid in April 1942 they reached their greatest tally, scoring over 80% hits and sinking two heavy cruisers and an aircraft carrier.

D3A1 dive bombers generally used semi-AP bombs and from 5 April 1942, Colombo, Ceylon was attacked by half the "Vals" active in the raid, while the other half was kept in reserve in case RN ships were reported. Later the Japanese command ordered a second strike against Colombo and the reserve D3As were rearmed with classic land bombs. In between, British heavy cruisers were spotted and the D3A with land bombs took part in the attack, unintentionally proving very effective: Their blast "cleaned up" the cruiser's decks, nullifying anti-aircraft defense and allowing a pintpoint accuracy by the next D3A equuipped with semi-AP bombs. That accidental success led to modify the doctrine having in each Chutai, the one Shotai in the lead equipped with land bombs. This was the method use to sink HMS Hermes, and it became permanent.

1942 Netherlands, New Guinea and Solomons operations saw the better D3A2 took a grater part in operations, significantly contributing to sinking USS Lexington at the Battle of the Coral Sea, Yorktown at the Battle of Midway and USS Hornet at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands.

In addition, USS Enterprise was badly damaged at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons and at Santa Cruz, each time due to D3A hits. None prove fatal anyway. D3A1 in particular, superseded by the new D3A2 were often land-based, which came in handy during the Solomon Islands campaign, and the battle of Guadalcanal: Operation I-Go, Operation SE and Operation RO. In New Guinea they participated in the Battle of Milne Bay and Battle of Buna–Gona. During these operations, the veterans of the 2nd/582nd Air Group distinguishe themselves particularly, even shooting down enemy planes when the occasion presented itself.

D3A2s most often combined their attacks with the B5N Kate, which resulted in combination strikes that did not secured credits in sinkings for dive bombers alone. However, in many occasions especially for the land-based Kokutai in the Solomons and New Guinea, they operated alone. However D3A pilots were credited single-handedy to sink ships in the cases they succesfully hit destroyers: in the Indian Ocean alone in april, they sunk USS Edsall, USS Pecos, HMS Cornwall and Dorsetshire, HMS Hector, HMS Tenedos, HMS Hermes, and HMAS Vampire in march-April. In the February raid against Darwin, they sank USS Peary and in the Java sea in March, USS Pope. During the campaings of the Pacific in early 1943 they sank USS De Haven, USS Aaron Ward, USS Kanawha, and USS Brownson.

Later operations (1944-45)

The D3A was gradually replaced by the Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy", more modern, faster and heavily armed. The remaining D3A2s were left on land-based airfields and continued to perform occasional attacks. Some of these dive bombers left behind in isolated islands outpassed in the "island-hopping campaign" were pressed as impromptu fighters/interceptors. Without payload, and despite their fixed undercarriage, they proved very agile. Many encounters with the F4F saw the "Val" survive. Many more shot down allied attack planes.

Remaining D3A2s also still saw servive in small carriers of the IJN, as better suited than the heavier and fast-landing Suisei. A bit like for the F4F and GM Wildcat in 1944 operating from escort carriers, they were still a common asset abord IJN escort carriers in 1944 and 1945. When US forces recaptured the Philippines in 1944, they were attacked by scores of land-based D3A2s. Of course losses were heavy. The remaining models stayed in training units back in Japan, for D4Y pilots, while several were modified with dual controls, becoming the "Navy Type 99 Bomber Trainer Model 12" or D3A2-K.


D3A1 from IJN Akagi

Remaining D3A2s were then used in 1945 kamikaze missions, USS Abner Read, an American destroyer, being sunk by one such kamikaze on 1 November 1944 and USS William D. Porter, on 10 June 1945 off Okinawa. Aichi's successor of the D3A, a wooden model named D3Y Myojo, was never mass-produced in time.

References



Angelucci, Enzo; Matricardi, Paolo (1978). World Aircraft: WW II, Vol II.
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Fleischer, Seweryn; Szeremeta, Zygmunt (2001). Aichi D3A Val, Nakajima B5N Kate Wydawnictwo Militaria
Francillon, René J. (1979). Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War (2nd ed.). Putnam
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Hata, Ikuhiko; Izawa, Yasuho; Shores, Christopher (2011). IJN Air Force Fighter Units and aces, 1932-1945.
Kinzey, Bert (2010). Attack on Pearl Harbor: Japan awakens a Sleeping Giant. Military Aviation Archives.
Lundstrom, John B. (2005a). The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway
Lundstrom, John B. (2005b). First Team and the Guadalcanal Campaign: Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942
Millot, Bernard (December 1976). "Aichi D3A "Val"... la terreur qui tombait du ciel" Fana de l'Aviation
"Pacific Predator... the Aichi Type 99". Air International. 33 (6)
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Full monty on Calameo

Illustrations

Initially, D3A dive bombers were painted silver and the engine black. Unit symbols were generally painted red, white or yellow, including on the undercarriage fairings. Bands indicated the squadron and position. During the summer of 1941 (so before Pearl Harbor started), the paint finish became by default (very)light olive grey. By early 1942, dark green, buit alsways with the engine cowling and forward fuselage paintained black. Like most of Japanese planes this paint wore out quickly leaving to interesting camouflage-like patterns, but no true camouflages were ever applied, at least as regulated.


Mitsubishi M17, 3rd prototype


D3A1 of the first production batch tests in China, early 1940.


Aichi D3A1, 14 Sentai, China 1940


1st Shutai (Squadron), 21 st Section, October 1941


IJN Kaga, December 1941


IJN Shokaku, Pearl Harbor attack


IJN Zuikaku, Pearl Harbor attack


BI-231 flown by Lt. Cmdr. Egusa, 1st Sqn, 21 section, which had two different D3A aircraft garishly painted with unique schemes. The wild scheme in this profile is called 'Jaja Uma' (7 December 1941).


D3A1 IJN Shokaku, Battle of Coral Sea, May 1942.


D3A1 late production, 35th Kokutai, late 1942


D3A2 of Yokosuka KoKutai, early 1943


D3A2 of Yokosuka Hikotai in 1943


D3A2 onboard IJN Shokaku in June 1943


D3A2 of the 553th Hikotai, April 1944


D3A2 with droppable fuel tank, late 1944 (55th Kokutai) Island Base





































Poster dedicated to the Aichi D3A "Val", common 1941-43 IJN dive bomber. Full poster with all variants in preparation.


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Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


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