Sovremenny class destroyers (1978)

Proyekt 956 Sarytch, 21 destroyers:
Sovremenny, Otchayanny, Otlichny, Osmotritelny, Bezuprechny, Boyevoy, Stoyky, Okrylyonny, Burny, Gremyashchy, Bystry, Rastoropny, Bezboyaznenny, Gremyashchy, Bespokoyny, Nastoychivy, Besstrashny.
Incomplete 1990, completed for China: Vazhny, Vdumchivy, Vnushitelny, Vechny as Hangzhou, Fuzhou, Taizhou, Ningbo

The Sovremenny missile Destroyers (Project 956, Sarych) were designed as replacement for the Kotlin, and despite cruiser dimensions and construction in the same previous basins the Kresta class were built previously, they were classed as missile guided destroyer. Some sources classified these as cruisers though, but this would meant all destroyer construction ceased after the Kashins in 1973, which is not true. Same with the Udaloys. They needs to be compared to the Spruance and Ticonderoga.
The Sovremenny were all built in Zhdanov from 1976, the first replacing Yumashev (Kresta II) on slip, right after launch. They shared the same hull and identical powerplant, albeit classified as ASW ships. The TTZ for this project in 1970-71 defined a 5,000-ton ship armed with a single AA gun, SA-N-4 SAM and ASW missiles in ramps. The heavy 130 mm guns were intended to support amphibious operations associated with the Ivan Rogovs. But the project was again reworked and due to budgetary restrictions, leaned towards a truly multirole vessel complementary to the Udaloys, more specialized in ASW. Until 1990, 12 were completed, one that was never completed and another in 1990. There will be still six others in 1991-97, but both last, Vazhnyy and Nevskiy were incomplete for years before finding a new acquirer (China) in 2000. A total of 17 were thus active in the four fleets. Project 956E were also marketed to India and North Korea.


Context: The need for artillery ships

After the retirement of many large surface ships from the Soviet Navy in the 1950s, in the 1960s the Soviet Navy wanted an Oceanic projection force and needed new ships of larger size and better range for this new task. The fleet was given also a number of new tasks such as combat protection of Soviet strategic missile submarines, search and tracking of enemy submarines tracking these in turn and their neutralization, reconnaissance of aircraft carrier groups and enemy ASW warfare means and identification of sea communications. They were to be ready for any theaters of military operations and implement the foreign policy actions of the USSR.

One solution seen was the to create formations led by aircraft-carrying cruisers but it turned out to be impossible at the time due to high construction cost. The problem was partly solved by the creation of large anti-submarine ships like the Moskva class, but they needed to covered with missile or missile-artillery ships in short supply. The lack of escort ships capable of oceanic operations was acute in April 1970 during the large-scale “Okean” maneuvers.
Concurrently, the service life of 130-mm gun armed destroyers such as the Skotiy and Kotlin was approaching its limit (projects 30-bis and 56) as well as artillery cruisers projects 68-K and 68-bis) Chapayev and Sverlov, not armed with anti-ship missiles and so obsolete.

It became increasingly obvious that there were problems could not be solved by any number of ships of the same class as we had to admit that overestimating heavy long-range missiles and neglecting artillery was a mistake. It has become clear that we do not have enough multi-purpose surface missile and artillery ships of the destroyer class.
Pavlov A. S. Destroyers 1st rank

The project started thus in 1969 for a modern missile carrying ship also equipped with naval guns, as the admiralty under Kuznetsov went all for missiles and at that stage realized it lacked gunfire support, which still had an important role, particularly in support of amphibious landings. Existing gun cruisers (like the Sverdlovs) and gun-armed destroyers were showing their age. Thus a new design was studied to carry the new 130 mm automatic gun turret. The bureau responsible tested both single and twin mounts until the latter was chosen due to a better rate of fire.

Development start (1969)

The development of Project 956 destroyers was started after the resolution No. 715-250 dated September 1, 1969 approving the “Program for the construction of ships and vessels in 1971-1980”.
In TTZ, the new destroyer was called an “landing fire support ship,” operating mainly together with landing troops. According to the specifications, it was first intended to deal with small-sized ground targets, anti-landing defense assets, enemy manpower and military equipment, anti-aircraft and anti-ship defense in the landing area and during the approach. In addition, Project 956 destroyers were supposed to be used together with the large Project 1155 ASW vessels, shipbuilders working on the project believing she needed a pair of destroyers or a single “large anti-submarine ship”, superior in combat effectiveness to a pair of Spruance class ships.

In 1971 Severnaya design bureau received the TTZ. Meanwhile the US were just starting building the large Spruance-class destroyers. So Project 956 was soon updated with a new air defence system, with the addition of 3M80 anti-ship missiles. Meanwhile, the Soviet Navy went for gas turbine propulsion, and steam turbines were selected for Project 956 as there was a bootleneck in naval gas turbines, at least for the number of vessels required.

The preliminary design was developed in Leningrad at TsKB-53 or “Northern Design Bureau” and in the pre-sketch phase, combat missions were constantly expanding so multi-variant pre-sketch work was to be done. It was decided to consider various armament combinations as well as power plant, with gas turbine, diesel gas turbine and steam turbines envisioned. A.K. Shnyrov decided to settle on the version with a steam turbine plant and Project 1134 was chosen as the prototype. It had a single mack, instead of two with gas turbines for Project 61 (Kashin class).
Silhouettes at the preliminary design stage were characterized by a smooth deck hull with forward sheer main caliber artillery forward and in line, a battery of small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery AK-630M and reworked location of radar antenna posts for illuminating air and surface.

Preliminary design:

By order of TsKB-53 A.K. Perkov in January 1971, K.A. Maslennikov became chief designer to draw plans. On June 18, 1971, the Main Directorate of Shipbuilding by No. 927/e/1017-71 in accordance to the the Northern Design Bureau (TsKB-53) accepted to work out the preliminary design for the new destroyer under Project 956 “Sarych”.

Work on the preliminary design went trhough 13 options and many evaluations were performed, analyzed by the Central Research Institute A. N. Krylov for the best efficiency. The conclusion presented was that option No. 4 was the optimal design for a destroyer. Due to relative armament weight and ammunition, which turned out to be lower, additional versions were needed. By December 1971, at the first reunion on Project 956 led by S.G. Gorshkov, the Northern Design Bureau recommended to searching for an optimal version, widely motivated by the reveal of the Spruance-class multi-purpose destroyer. Project 956 was revised completely, the previous artillery focuse lainding destroyer was dropped and multi-purpose caracteristics were asked for. Previously called a “fire support ship” it became a “destroyer” in documentation by 1971. Latr it was upgraded to “destroyer 1st rank” in 1977.

The preliminary design was reviewed a second time, also approved by S.G. Gorshkov, on December 16, 1972. The final version focused on draft design No. 10. An emergency landing spot for a Ka-252 helicopter wa sprovided and a the Hurricane SAM system whereas four P-15M Termit anti-ship missiles were replaced by eight Moskit anti-ship missiles. The automated AK-130 guns were chosen as primary armament and a steam turbine power plant.

The latter was pushed foward by S.G. Gorshkov personally after a meeting with the Minister of Shipbuilding B.E. Butoma. The main supplied, the Southern Turbine Plant, was already overloaded with orders and simply could not cope with new ones, and At the same time in Leningrad, Kirov plant, the steam turbine plant was idle. This was also based on the fear of disruption of diesel fuel in the fleet, wheeras fuel oil was abundant. There was also the question of quality. The power plant of Project 956 destroyers were to be equipped with a brand new generation of steam turbines with outstanding characteristics, achieved through the use of direct-flow boilers. But they turned out to be inoperative and were replaced with high-pressure boilers. The low cost of naval fuel oil compared to gas turbine fuel after the energy crisis of the 1973 was also quite an argument.

Armament-wide, the “Platina” complex was chosen as main sonar suite. It turned out to be impossible to install the more advanced SJSC “Polinom” due to its weight and size the Project 956 lacked as all reserves were absorbed already with its AK-130 guns and ammunition forward amounting to 300 tons already. this was an impprtant tyradefoof though and made the new Sovremenny inferior for htis to the Spruances. Project 1155 (Udaloy class) ships were seen as a good complement. They lacked the 130 mm gun and thus had more reserve to installed the aforementioned sonar.
As a result of all the modifications, displacement increased by 1000 tons and total development cost amounted to 165.000 rubles.


In July 1973, the Main Directorate of Shipbuilding agreed with the final design with the Northern Design Bureau, signed by V. A. Konoplev. Research institutes of the Ministry of Shipbuilding and specialized research institutes of the Navy collaborated to provide the definitive plans, for a final development cost of 204.000 rubles and contractor work for 1972-1982 9.447 million rubles.
In 1973, the Ministry of Shipbuilding appointed V.F. Anikiev as chief designer, main observer Captain 2nd Rank V.G. Basov nd later I.M. Stetsyura. Final plans were ready before the end of 1973, but adjustment and clarifications were made, notably due to the unavailability of direct-flow boiler KVG-1, replaced by KVN 98/64-PM models and a movable hangar and helicopter facilities.

Large-scale construction was envisioned with some 50 units, launched at the shipbuilding plant A. A. Zhdanov in order to replace all previous vessels, and dimensions were limited by the size of the construction basins, no more than 146 m in lenght (480 ft) and 16.8 m (55 ft) in width available in 1970. At the preliminary design stage, four options for a steam turbine installation were proposed, as well as two options for the propulsion system with still a main gas turbine engines in both in-line and echelon versions. At the same time, the total cost of gas turbine turned out to be almost 80% than steam turbines, which definitely solved the issue.

November 1, 1973 was the official construction start date for Project 956 destroyers, at shipyard No. 190 A. A. Zhdanov. Detailed design was completed in 1978 after an agreement on July 4, 1974, between the Northern Design Bureau and Zhdanov yard (cist 2.220 million rubles) and between 1978 and 1981, acceptance and operational documentation was generated, the detailed design adjusted for 1.743 million rubles. Construction of the lead ship “Sovremenny” (serial number 861) start in June 1975, and of the last ship (serial number 877), completed in December 1993 with her the acceptance certificate signed on December 30, 1993.

As planned in 1976 the number of ships was reduced from fifty to thirty-two, and in 1988 just twenty.
Out of twenty-two, seventeen were delivered to the Navy (Russia later), two completed for export configuration (Project 956-E) and three laid down but unfinished and disposed of at Severnaya Verf OJSC. During construction in Leningrad, a proposal arose to organize construction in Nikolaev, 61 Kommunard plant as well. So by decision of the Navy and Ministry of Shipbuilding the Northern Design Bureau handed over blueprintsto Nikolaiev. Construction started in 1983. In parallel new forms were built at the Ingul River but 1986, this program was stopped and the newly built “Impressive” and “Eternal” were mothballed.

Before the collapse of the USSR, fourteen destroyers entered the Soviet Navy, the remaining “Restless”, “Nastoichivy” and “Fearless” being completed for the Russian Federation. Average construction time was about four years more akin to a cruiser than a destroyer. During construction ships entered by dedfault the 13th brigade at Leningrad naval base for outfitting and during testing they joined the 76th brigade, 12th division at Liepaja naval base.

A new mobular assembly method was used as blocks were brought to the laying area, notably the engine-boiler rooms, connected to the bow and stern section, with an aggregate method for the electrical installation work, so that when launched they were already 70% complete. The formation of the hull took place in an open slipway, but closed for the loading and installation of steam boilers and large equipment, main and auxiliary mechanisms. Installation of superstructures, cabling were also carried out there. Total weight of the bottom sections was 50 tons, deck and side sections 35 tons. They all passed through the launching dock of shipyard No. 190.
Still during construction from 1980 to 1991, 218 decisions regarding protecting the environment, reducing underwater noise, increasing service life of various systems, replacing outdated systems, and other leasures to improve combat and operational assets. Total cost was 10.721 million rubles. The average cost of a single Project 956 destroyer was 90 million rubles, 3,814 thousand labor hours. Later on construction this fell to 71.1 million rubles and 2,900 thousand hours.

Design of the class

Hull and general design

Architectural appearance: A three-dimensional model at 1:50 scale was made at the technical design stage to figure out the style, apart purely technical choice. According to E. Breuer, N. Palmer, J. Kehoe and others, a common feature from the Northern Design Bureau was to design ships made for express the greatest possible propaganda effect. They were to
“often serve as a means of political persuasion and an instrument of influence, a manifestation of national pride and the achievements of scientific and technological progress in the USSR”
At the same time, priority was given to requirements to maximize armament arc of fire and best possible illumination. placed on it. All was done under V. A. Konoplev together with B. P. Degtyarev that refined the placement of antenna posts, missile launchers and artillery.

There was a rare combination of expediency combined with technical aesthetics, even artistic style as stated by Ovsyannikov S.I., Spiridopulo V.I. (‘Soviet super destroyer of the third generation’)
As completed, the Sovremenny class had a Standard displacement of 6,500 tons, 7n904 tons fully loaded, and with fuel in overload some 8,480 tons which was the stability safety limit.
The ships ended as 156.5 long, ten meters more than the initial basin, but 145 m under the keel, max width 17.2 m and at waterline 16.8 m. Average draft was 5.96 m and overall max displ. Draft was 8.2 m.

Hull, superstructure and general arrangement

Project 956 ships estroyers presents a long clipper bow design with an ‘S’ shear ensuring the deck remains unflooded, and freeing all firing angles for the artillery. The hull elongation coefficient is 8.7. This is less favourabale compared to previous destroyers and large anti-submarine ships, and due to construction side limitations. Thanks to the “short” hull they had a good agility. The side “sail area” of the hull is c1700 m². All decks are located parallel to the waterline, and so this facilitated installation of equipment.

Along the entire length frames have a strong camber in order to improve stability. The freeboard had double scraping on the second and main deck in order to reduce radar signature, increase internal volume. The hull shapes are optimized underwater to reduce water resistance and ensures seaworthiness into waves up to force 6-7. The bow is bulged, hosts the Platina hydroacoustic complex MGK-335MS.

The hull was divided by 15 main watertight bulkheads into 16 watertight compartments. The hull was six decks tall: The forecastle deck, upper, second and third decks, first and second platforms with the second bottom flooring and main hull structures, foundations and reinforcements, made of low-alloy steel. The superstructures, in areas of greatest stress concentration, used steel with increased yield strength. Two longitudinal bulkheads are located aft of the aft engine and boiler room for increased rigidity aft.

The moderately developed superstructure comprised the bow, with a tower-like foremast, squat aft block with funnel and sliding hangar, close to the mainmast. The superstructures are made of aluminum-magnesium alloys using rivets to connected structures of the upper deck and forecastle deck.


The propulsion system uses instead of gas turbines two trusted steam turbine engines, each rated for 37,000 kW (50,000 hp) combined with four high-pressure boilers. A rather old school system discated for cost reasons mainly. They drove two fixed-pitch propellers. Top speed is below 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph) officially albeit some sources states 35 knots was achieved on trials. When cruising at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph) they could reach 3,920 nautical miles (7,260 km; 4,510 mi). Despite the assumption this propulsion system was reliable, there were quite severe accidents, fires and issues with these, so much so this frce the early retirement of some destroyers.

Sseaworthiness under normal conditions was made to permit use of all weapons in seas up for force 5 with 15° roll and 5° pitch. A roll stabilizer with two controlled rudders was provided amidship to reduce roll on seas up to 6 knots. There were also efficient controllable rudder propellers, allowing for mooring in any conditions and the possibility to stail sail in an emergency 3-knot speed in case of failure of the main power plant. In combat, weapons were usabled in force 6 waves at up to 24 knot in max wave height assumed by the designers up to 12 meters. The ships were designed to safely maintain speed in any sea condition with good controllability, in all heading angles relative to the wind and waves.

A starboard view of the forward half of the Soviet Sovremenny class guided missile destroyer OTLICHNNY (DDG 434).

Other systems and specs

The ship’s electrical power plant is rated for 4900 kW, based on two AK-18 steam turbine generators rated for 1250 kW each plus four backup diesel generators rated for 2,400 kW total.
Combat Posts and ammunition holds are equipped with air conditioning system, for better habitability independent of outside temperatures from −25°C to +34°C. It also participated in the NBC protection as the ships can be completely sealed off. To collect waste and wastewater in strict sanitary regime, disposal is made in special waste collection vessels, five tanks with a total capacity of 50 m³.
To receive fuel, water and dry cargo from supply ships underway, the ships are equiped with two “Struna” cargo transfer devices at the midship frame area. It is possible to receive liquid cargo from the bow and stern using the wake method, towing at c200 m.
The ship’s crew in standard service comprised 296 men, 25 officers and 48 midshipmen but in wartime, it could go up to 358. There are twenty-two single and double cabins for officers (38) whereas midshipmen are accommodated in double and four-berth cabins (48). All officer and midshipman cabins are 10 m². The commander however has its own residential quarters next to the flagship block. The commander has a cabin and separate bathroom. The reste of the crew is housed in 16 sections for 10-25 people (310 berths) for about 3.03 m² per person. Officers eat in the “large wardroom” in the superstructure under the pilothouse. Midshipmen eat in the “small wardroom” under the helipad. The rest eats in three canteens in adjacent compartments.

All living quarters are radio-equipped and an intercom. The ship has a library, cinema room, gym, and even a collapsible swimming pool for the summer. Equipment includes a standard cable television system and there is a medical block with surgical operating room, outpatient clinic, sterilization room, four-bed infirmary two-bed isolation ward. It has sanitary and hygienic facilities such as a laundry, ironing and sauna, bow and stern household appliances with latrines and wash basin. Officers and midshipmen use separate latrines. Washing takes place in the shower room while midshipmen had their own separate shower room and officers accesses the sauna.
Corridors and passages, as well as combat posts are more cramped than on the Udaloy class, despite similar dimensions. This is due to the larger boiler-turbine unit, and heavier weapons storage compared to the Udaloy and their gas turbines and lighter armament.

The lifeboat arrangement comprises a command boat Project 1390, work boat Project 338M and six-oared yawls.
Provisions are stored in six pantries (meat, fish, fats, fresh, frozen products, wet provisions, vegetables, dry products) for 150 m³ total maintained in temperatures from −18°C (frozen) and up to +10 °C for dry provisions. The onboard fresh water supply could be autonomous for three days, stored in three tanks, 106 m³. They are are replenished by a desalination plant capable of 25 tons/hour. Autonomy for provisions is 30 days.


Raduga complex, Moskit missiles (SS-N-22 Sunburn)

The ship is outfitted with the Raduga/Moskit anti-ship missile system. There are two four-cell launchers port and starboard of the forward island, angled at 15°. The ship carries eight Moskit 3M80E missiles (NATO SS-N-22 Sunburn), a sea-skimming vector capable of Mach 2.5, carrying a 300-kilogram (660 lb) high-explosive or nuclear 200 kt warhead. Range is up to 120 kilometres (6.2 to 74.6 mi). Launch weight is 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).

3S90 “Uragan”/M-22 (Shtil) SAM (SA-N-7 Gadfly)

The 3S90 “Uragan”/M-22 (Shtil) surface-to-air (SAL) missile systems are two single launchers installed fore and aft, on raised structures with a vertically reloading well. One was behind the 130 mm gun and the other aft of the small helipad. The name “Shtil” corresponds to its export name, NATO calls it SA-N-7 “Gadfly”.
They are apparented to the army BUK SAM system. The 3S90E “Shtil” was the export version of M-22 Uragan) installed on INS Talwar.
The 3S90 “Uragan” is the navalized 9K37 “Buk” also called M-22. Missiles are loaded vertically onto a single arm trainable launcher, replenished from an under-deck magazine, 24-round carousel in 12 seconds.
From the 9th ship onwards the launcher was capable of firing the SA-17 Grizzly/SA-N-12 Yezh as well.
This SAM depends on a three-dimensional MR-750 Top Steer D/E band circular scan radar for target tracking and up to three missiles can be fire and controlled simultaneously to the target up to 25 km (16 mi), providing they fly at the most 830 metres per second (2,700 ft/s). Maximum detection range of 300 km (190 mi), maximum range of 30 km (19 mi) and up to 70 for the ‘E’ version. 48 missiles are in store, 24 for each fore and aft barillets. The Uragan was tested from 1974 aboard the destroyer Provorny, and introduced on Project 956 Sovremenny class officially in service by 1983.

130 mm AK-130-MR-184

The Sovremenny class’s 130 mm (5.1 in) dual purpose twin AK-130-MR-184 was located on the froward deck and part of a whole complex, included computer control with electronic and television sight. It was operated in fully automatic mode in general, slaved to radar control system, or under under autonomous control with its turret-mounted Kondensor optical sighting system with a manual backup for the ammunition laying in case of a jam. manually. The rate of fire according to Russian sources is about 30–40 rounds per minute and per barrel so around 80 at best for the mount. It was comparable to the French Creusot-Loire 100 mm or Italian OTO Melara 127 mm/54, and faster than the USN Mark 45.
These guns are liquid-cooled, usable also against ground targets (shared by the Slava class cruisers), and designed to fire at sea, air and coastal targets at a range of up to 24 km, with a rate of fire of 90 rounds/min. The weight of the installation reaches 98 tons, the weight of the shot is 86.2 kg, the weight of the projectile is 33.4 kg, the initial velocity of the projectile is 850 m/s. The AK-130 ammunition includes unitary cartridges with a high-explosive fragmentation projectile, equipped with three types of fuses.

AK-630 30 mm CIWS

The Sovremenny class has four six-barreled 30 mm AK-630 auto-cannons located on four corner of the upper structure, abaft and forward of the bridge and of the helipad.
Thet are intended to deal with very close air targets and missiles. Maximum rate of fire is 5,000 rounds/min. Range 4,000 m for low flying anti-ship missiles, 5,000 m for light surface targets as well. They are slaved to a radar for tracking with television detection. Ammunition capacity of 16,000 rounds, 2,000 rounds per belt) are designed to destroy air targets, anti-ship missiles, small ships, pop-up mines and lightly armored ground targets. The initial speed of a projectile with a diameter of 30 mm, weighing 0.39 kg reaches 900 m/s, rate of fire is 6000 rounds/min, range is up to 8 km. The last Sovremenny class ships were upgraded to the Kortik (Kashtan) CIWS system which had light anti-missile missiles in addition.

CADS-N-1 Kortik/Kashtan CIWS

NATO name: CADS-N-1 Kashtan. 15,500 kg (34,200 lb), 2,25 m (89 in) tall, firing a HEI-Frag, Frag-T, APDS-T 0.39 kg (0.86 lb) or 0.30 kg (0.66 lb) (APDS-T) 30×165mm AO-18 round
Two barrels of six tubes each and two quad missile launch tubes.
Gas-operated rotary cannon, 9,000 rpm mv 860 m/s (2,800 ft/s)/1,100 m/s (3,600 ft/s) (APDS-T)
Range 500–4,000 m (1,600–13,100 ft). Missiles 1,500–8,000 m (4,900–26,200 ft)
Sights: Radar and TV-optical 2–3/1 m (6.6–9.8/3.3 ft) accuracy and could tracks 6 targets simultaneously. Missile warhead used a continuous-rod w/frag layer


The two six-barrel RBU-1000 anti-submarine rocket launchers, with 48 rockets in storage are located aft, close to the rear SAM system on the structure. Range is 1,000 metres (1,100 yd). Each rocket carries a 55 kg (121 lb) warhead.


The destroyers have two twin 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes with acoustic heavyweight models.
533 mm (21 in), torpedo length 7 m, weight 2 tons, explosive charge 400 kg range up to 22 km, speed up to 55 knots (100 km/h). The torpedo tubes are compatible also with the Vodopad-NK anti-submarine system and Kalibr-NK universal missile system.
Standards: ISETТ-80, SEТ-65:
The Sovremenny carried two twin-tube 533-mm torpedo banks on the weather deck amidships. Torpedoes are standards were the SET-53M torpedoes, later replaced by SET-65 and USET-80 torpedoes.
It’s an aspect which is also oftern glossed over but the Sovremenny class had standard mine rails and can carry ald lay up to 22 mines of the RM-1, PM-1, UDM types.


-Air target acquisition radar
-3× navigation radars
-130 mm gun fire-control radars
-30 mm air-defence gun fire control radar
-Active and passive under-keel sonar

The ship is equipped uses the MR-710 Fregat (Top Plate) 3D air/surface radar. It was installed in its more modern variant, initially the Fregat-M2 version then Fregat M2EM later on the Chinese variants. There were 3 navigation radars, a radar for receiving air targets and another radar as a fire control for 130 mm and 30 mm guns.
The 3D Top Plate radar was thus later replaced by Top Plate (MR-760). It provides 230 km range against fighters, 50 km against missiles, and can track 40 targets simultaneously.
The system (“Strip”) provides guidance to the SS-N 22.
Three navigation and surface control radars MR-201 and 212: Two “Bass Slope” (MR-123) for the CIWS, six Forward Dome Radar (MR-90) for the SA-N-7 (very large arrangement for effective protection against saturation attacks). They are all linked to the 3D radar and the two SAM launchers
There is the “Kite Screech” radar ranged for 130 mm (MR-184 Lion).

Medium and High Frequency (M/HF) MGK-355 Platina integrated sonar system with the NATO name “Bull’s Horn”, including an array mounted on the MG-335 hull. The Type 956 initially carries only a hull-mounted body, because this class of ASW gear is intended primarily for self-defense. The Type 956A uses the advanced MGK-355MS Platina platform, which includes a hull-mounted array, VDS and towed array, with NATO report names Bullnose/Mare’s Tail/Bullskin respectively. The Type 956EM is reported to be equipped with the successor to the MGK-355/355MS, the MGK-355TA integrated sonar system, which includes both hull-mounted and towed arrays (with the NATO names “Horse Jaw” and “Pony Tail” respectively). The sonar has active and passive capabilities.

The 3D radar ‘Top Steer’ was replaced later with ‘Top Plate’ (MR-760): 230 km range vs fighters and 50 km vs missiles and a total of 40 targets can be simultaneously tracked;
Mineral system (‘Band Stand’) to guide the SS-N 22 missiles.
The three navigation and surface control radar MR-201/212
There were two ‘Bass Tilt’ radars (MR-123) for the CIWS
Six ‘Front Dome'(MR-90) radars for guiding the SA-N-7.

Over-the-horizon target designation up to 200 km is made with the “Bridge” system, with four-band passive detection and target designation radar KRS-27. There is also a radio station which processes information from an aviation remote observation post, and provides coordinate reference as well as an information exchange system ISOI. As a target designation device for the anti-ship weapons complex, the “Mineral” complex comprised a an active radar channel with the ability to over-the-horizon detection of surface targets, and a passive radar channel, plus one for receiving target designation from helicopters and aircraft.

A starboard view of the forward half of the Soviet Sovremenny class guided missile destroyer OTLICHNNY (DDG 434).

The Platinum hydroacoustic station is used to detect submarines and torpedoes. The MG-335 Platina-S was developed in the 1970s, with an antenna in the bow fairing. The Platina-MS works with the Purga anti-aircraft missile system from the sixth ship. Guaranteed detection range of underwater targets was 1-2 km, maximum possible detection range under normal hydrological conditions is 10-15 k and to detect underwater saboteurs the special MG-7 listening devive is used.

The sonar complex used Medium and high frequencies (M/HF) MGK-355 Platina integrated sonar system (NATO Bull Horn) and it includes the MG-335 hull-mounted array. These destroyers only carries the hull-mounted array because the ASW gear is primarily for self-defence. For the next improved Type 956A, an improved MGK-355MS Platina is carried instead, including the hull-mounted array, VDS, and towed array (NATO Bull Nose/Mare Tail/Steer Hide). The 956EM is equipped with the MGK-355TA integrated sonar system including both the hull-mounted and towed arrays NATO Horse Jaw & Horse Tail).

Combat System

The ship’s combat systems used target designation data from active and passive sensors but also via datalink, from other ships in the fleet such as the Udaloy class DDs (notably for ASW data), and from surveillance aircraft or via communications link from the onboard helicopter. The multi-channel defence suite had been geared up to strike several targets simultaneously, but it was still not on par with AEGIS. There was in the CC a tactical situation plotting board and monitors for operators of the anti-ship missile fire control system, air defence, missile fire-control system, and torpedo fire control system.

Active & Passive Protection

-NBC protection (air conditioning, sprinklers, autmatic fire extinguishers, ASW sections to stop flooding, compartmentation).
-Electronic countermeasures system and carries a store of 200 rockets for the two decoy dispensers, model PK-2.
There are many Electronic warfare systems:
-2x EOR MP-410 or MP-405
-2x ESD PPM-11M or 12M (‘bell shroud’)
-2x ‘squat bell’
-4x ‘football b’, one MP-407
-2x PK-2M chaff RL (140 mm)
-8x PK-10 (120 mm) chaff RL
-2-8x warning sensors for laser irradiation
-1x receiver Spectrum-F, squeeze box combination TV, laser and IR system.

Air Group

Ka-27 helicopter

The designers did not provided for a permanent helicopter hangar but they received instead a telescopic hangar made of aluminum alloy to temporary shelter a Ka-27 helicopter from the elements. The helipad is located behind the aft superstructure and quite high so the pitching swing affects the pilot less, albeit the target spot is quite small. There are no systems to help landing and depending of its configuration, the Ka-27 could be geared for ASW, relay datalink for air defense support, conduct radar reconnaissance to issue target designations and just doing SAR and liaison. The supply kerosene is 5 tons, just enough for two refuelings. In short, the helicopter was not supposed to be permanently aboard.


There are a total of four versions of this class:

Project 956

Base design, armed with the 3M80 version of the Moskit anti-ship missile

Project 956A

Armed with the improved 3M80M version of the Moskit with longer range. The launching tubes are longer, but still compatible with the 3M80.

Project 956E

Initial export version market abroad, notably to India, but not purchased


Improved export variant developed in the 1990s for the People’s Liberation Army Navy, ships called in Chinese media “carrier killers”.

Sovremenny class destroyers illustration by David Bocquelet

⚙ specifications

Displacement 6,200/6,600t standard, 7,800/8,000t Fully Loaded
Dimensions 156 x 17,3 x 6,5 m (511 ft 10 in x 56 ft 9 in x 21 ft 4 in)
Propulsion 2 shafts GST, 2 TBG, 2 Diesel Gen. 4 HP boilers, 100,000 hp/75,000 Kw
Speed 32.7 knots (60.6 km/h; 37.6 mph)
Range 3,920 nmi (7,260 km; 4,510 mi) at 18 knots
Armament 8 SSN-22 (2×4), 8 LM SAN-7 (48), 4 canons de 130 mm (2×2), 4 TLT 533 mm (2×2), 4 de 30 mm Gatliing AM, 2 LR ASM RBU 1000 (12)
Sensors Top Steer, 3 Palm Front, 6 Front Dome, 1 Kite Screech, 2 Bass Tilt radars. LF Sonar, 8 AW Bell, 2 CD.
Air Group 1x Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Crew 350-380


Design studies in the 1980s:

In 1981-1982 already the Northern Design Bureau started a number of design studies to improve combat capabilities of the ships and the option of installing new types of weapons and equipment. It was studied also the possibility of replacing steam turbine powerplant with a gas turbine. In total, five versions of the powerplant were developed, with different compositions and different capacities, making for a displacement ranging from 8,000 to 14,000 tons.
During the design research process, potential changes to the armament were considered, and the global idea was to have a Project 956M, fully modernized and truly multi-purpose. In terms of anti-aircraft defense systems, or options for a more powerful sonar were explored. The option of strengthening also her onboard aircraft complement helicopter to two ASW helicopters, with appropriate ammunitions was also looked upon. Radar equipment was to be upgraded by a placing a second antenna post. From two to four combat modules for self-defense anti-aircraft/missile and artillery were considered to replace the Uragan system.
Results of these analysis of efficiency showed that modernizing the Project 956 by simply adding all types of weapons to make it more versatile was recognized as very expensive so it was postponed until the end of the 1980s.

Project 956U

Work on the project of a destroyer with enhanced armament (Project 956U) started at the Northern Design Bureau in the late 1980s under chief designer I. I. Rubis, main observer Capt. S. N. Surgaev, later M. A. Tsyukh. The project provided for three modernization options: The difference between the first and basic project 956 was that instead of the Moskit anti-ship missile system, SM-403 universal launchers for 16 cruise missiles, CBMD class would be installed. The second option in addition aft launcher AK-130, an 3S-14 VLS (16 Kalibr cruise missiles). The third modernization option only envisioned the at VLS and removal of the Moskit launchers.
The VLS or alt. launchers were meant to operate both the Onyx and Kalibr missiles in any combination. Target designation was to be provided by the new radar complex “Monument”, replacing “Mineral” (KRS-27). The RBU-1000 and all AK-630M CIWS were to be removed. Instead, it was planned to install two “Kortik”. Standard displacement was planned to be 6,700–6,750 tons.
All necessary design work was completed by the end of 1991. However, due to budgetary constrains and in military shipbuilding completion of Project 956U was cancelled, all further work curtailed and the ships decommissioned after some reserve time.

Project 956E/EM (The Chinese Hangzhou class)

In 1997-2000, two hulls, No. 878 “Ekaterinburg”, former “Vazhny” and No. 879 “Alexander Nevsky”, former “Thoughtful”) were completed under project 956E for the PLA Navy with a design modified on demand by the Severny Design Bureau. New drawings were developed according to the modified design with a contract signed on November 19, 1997, work was completed quickly, the firdt ships was commissioned by December 1999 and the first destroyer was handed over as “Hanzhou”. The second became “Fuzhou” (pennant 137) in December 2000. These were near repeats Project 956 but diverged in the composition of the weapons and export version and the main power plant.
Project 956EM destroyers concerne the second batch, developed by the Northern Design Bureau under chief designer V.P. Mishin, and it differs from its predecessors in increased dimensions and firing range tanks to the introduction of the modernized Moskit-ME to 200 km, replacement of four AK-630 CIWS by the Kashtan, absence of a aft main gun mount, shirted with the Shtil SAM and a new aft full-fledged helicopter hangar for a permanent helicopter. Taizhou (no. 138) and Ningbo (no. 139) were thus commissioned in 2005-2006 (Taizhou class). All four ar still in service today.

The lead ship, Sovremenny, was laid down in 1976 and commissioned in 1980. A total of 17 were built for the Russian Navy, but currently, only six remain in service due to a lack of funds and trained personnel. Additionally, two ships are today ongoing modernization and overhaul and two are laid up in reserve, so today three in service, two in reserve, one overhauled, and 11 decommissioned plus four Chinese. The first ship entered service on January 24, 1981. They served around Europe, the Mediterranean with the first ship based at Sevastopol. On March 20, 1983, the two first vessels were making minelaying training.
Of the fourteen destroyers transferred to the fleet before December 8, 1991, eight became part of the 56th destroyer brigade, 7th OPESK Northern Fleet, six other were included in various formations of the Pacific Fleet all part of the 175th brigade.
These destroyers took part in large fleet exercises such as “Ocean-83”, “Atlantika-84”, “Zapolyarye-84”, “Squadron-84”. “Moncada-85” and others. They often shadowed NATO naval exercises in the Norwegian and Mediterranean Seas and monitored US aircraft carrier groups as well as the Royal Navy. In addition they carried out representation missions in official and visits to fiendly countries but even of the Xest before and after the collapse of the USSR: Algeria, Vietnam, East Germany, Greece, Egypt, India, China, Cuba, Libya, Syria, USA, Germany, Yugoslavia, African countries among others.
The collapse of the USSR saw a realy military expernediture crash, the budget was cut down 20-fold for the Navy. Thus the ongoing modernization of the fleet was cancelled. Construction of new destroyers was stopped dead (four completed later with Chinese funds) while issues with their powerplant led overall to a real service of just ten years or less, despite a designed service life of two decades. “Stoikiy” was eve in operation for only five years, “Inspired” for six years, “Unrestrained” and “Prudent” for seven years, “Impeccable”, “Thundering” and “Rastoropny” for eight years.
By 2002, out of seventeen destroyers built only five were kept in service including “Burny” and “Nastochivyy”, the remaining placed in reserve, mothballed or scrapped. By 2011, three were stil in service, “Nastoychivy”, “Bystry” and “Admiral Ushakov” in Northern Fleet.
After 1991, activity decreased many times over due to the lack of funds also, making only a few sorties. In December 1995 and up to March 1996, Besstrashny served with the Admiral Kuznetsov CBG with the SSN Volk, patrol ship Pylkiy, 3 tankers and 2 rescue tugs, seeing a campaign in the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic with ports visits to Tunisia, Syria and Malta.
From February 17 to April 30, 1997, “Nastoychivy” left the Baltic Fleet for a trip to the southern Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean via Abu Dhabi, Simonstown, Cape Town and back to Baltiysk via Suez. She took part in the international arms exhibition in Abu Dhabi, which trigerred a contract for the sale of two Project 956-E DDs to China.
In September-October 2004 “Admiral Ushakov” (formerly “Fearless”) also served with the main Russian CBG (Admiral Kuznetsov, Peter the Great, Marshal Ustinov, 2 DDs, a tanker and 2 tugs) taking part in the Northern Fleet exercises (Northeast Atlantic).

Sovietsky Flot Sovremenny

Sovremenny (‘Modern’) was laid down on 3 March 1976, launched 18 November 1978 and completed on 25 December 1980. She was assigned to the Northern Fleet, and decommissioned in 1998.
On December 30, 1981, she left Liepaja for the Mediterranean, Sevastopol on January 12, 1982. When testing her artillery at the range, one of the bow 130-mm AK-130 barrel mount ruptured. On July 24, 1982, she left Sevastopol and by August 6, arrived at Severomorsk, Northern Fleet. On March 20, 1983 she sailed with the cruiser Alexander Nevsky, the destroyer Soobrazitelny and two more for a training minelaying. On April 15, 1983, she took part in air defense exerciseswith Kirov, Admiral Yumashev and five DDs. From March 31 to April 8, 1984, she took part in ship strike group No. 1 for the Atlantic-84 exercises. In April 10-13 she was at the Polar Region-84 exercises, and on 19-25 April to the “Squadron-84” exercises. By October she took part in datalink tests.
On January 15, 1985, she departed for the Mediterranean with the Kiev, Vice Admiral Drozd, Marshal Timoshenko and two DDs. When entering Split she damaged her port propeller. On June 4, 1985, after 19,985 nautical miles she was back at Severomorsk. She won the best prize for artillery markmanship for the 56th brigade, 7th operational squadron on October 9, 1986. From August 28 to September 26, 1988 with Stroyny she shadowed NATO exercise “Team Work-1988” in the Norwegian Sea, an the USS Forrestal CBG for 53 hours.
On December 15, 1988, she was transferred to the 2nd category reserve. On May 25, 1989, she entered No. 35 Yard in Rosta for modernization overhaul. Insufficient funding was very slow and after 1991, no progress was done. Eventually it was decided to have her decommission on November 15, 1998 whe she was stricken. By 1997 she was 72% completed, and 1997 86% so this decision was controversial. She was BU in Murmansk in 2003.

Sovietsky Flot Otchayanny

A starboard bow view of Soviet Sovremenny class guided missile destroyer Otchayanny.

Otchayanny (“Reckless”) was laid down on 1st March 1977, launched 29 March 1980 and commissioned on 30 September 1982. From September 23 to October 2, 1982, she was transferred to the Northern Fleet and 56th destroyer brigade, 7th operational squadron. By March 17-20, she practice mine laying with an “excellent” rating with the naval strike group, including the Commander-in-Chief prize. On April 15, 1983, with Sovremenny, she took part in air defense exercises. By September 20-27, she took part of the command group for the Ocean-83 exercises, also earning an “excellent” rating. By October to November she campaigned in the Mediterranean and Atlantic. By March-April 5, 1984 she took part in Atlantic-84 exercises and in April 5-13 to the Zapolyarye-84 exercise. May 19-24saw her taking the lead of the 56th DB for ex. “Squadron-84”.
From June 18 to June 24, 1984 she assisted the submarine K-131. On August 6 she took part in a mine-laying exercise, was declared the best in the Soviet Navy. In October 1984 she made more exercises and covered some 22,142 nautical miles.
On January 15, 1985 she was in the Mediterranean, shadowing the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower CBG. From May 2 to May 6, 1985 she operated with Kiev and visited Algeria, with aboard Vice Admiral V. Selivanov.
From July 10 to July 20, 1985 she took part in tactical exercises with the Northern Fleet when an Uragan anti-aircraft missile burned out on her forward launcher and the emergency release failed. On October 6, 1985 she won the CiC Prize for artillery. In 1985 she covered 29,336 nautical miles and was awarded the title of “best air defense ship of the Northern Fleet”. Based on combat training excellence awards she was awarded the Challenge Red Banner.
From January 22 to February 14, 1987 she went on training in the Atlantic, Baltic and Northern Fleet notably with the cruiser Marshal Ustinov off the Faroe Islands. By September 1987 in the Atlantic she shadowned the USS Forrestal. In September 26, 1989, she practice missile fire with its Moskit anti-ship missiles. The routine went on in 1989 and 1990.
By October 1991, while sent in support of SSGN training she was in very bad shape wjen back and after inspection by May 22, 1992 she was placed in the 2nd category reserve, and in June 22 entered SRZ-35 (Rosta) for an overhaul or at least basic repairs. On January 4, 1994 it was stopped, and by November 30, 1994, she was towed to Severomorsk. From January 30, 1995, she was in 2nd cat. reserve and cannibalized. On May 1, 1998, she was in the 43rd division of missile ships, 7th opesk and decom. stricken on September 12, 1998, on January 10, 1999, she was docked at SRZ-82 (Roslyakovo) for conversion and transfer, then disposed of in 2003. She covered 121,916 nautical miles in service.

Sovietsky Flot Otlichny

A starboard view of a Soviet Sovremennyy class guided missile destroyer observing US Navy ships participating in an underway replenishment operations.

Otlichny (“Excellent”) was laid down on 22 April 1978, launched on 21 March 1981 and completed on 30 September 1983. From April 18 to April 26, 1984, she was transferred from the Baltic Fleet to the Northern Fleet based in Severomorsk. From December 6, 1984, she started an Atlantic campaign. By December 25, until January 3, 1985, she stopped at Havana, Cienfuegos and back to Havana again on January 14. From January 17 to 24, 1985, she took part in joint exercises “Moncada-85” with the Cuban Navy. Later she shadowned the USS D.D Eisenhower CBG in the Mediterranean Sea, spring 1985 and in simulation “destroyed” 29 enemy ships. Back to Cuba she was visited by Raul Castro in February.
From March 1985she was in the Mediterranean and by May she tracked US SSNs in the western area (nitably off Rota, Spain) and Atlantic.
On October she was part of a strike group artillery contest, winning the CiC prize. 1986 Mediterranean and until January 23 she took part in ASW ex. “Molizite” in the North Cape. February 9-15, she took part in Baltic Fleet exercises Dozor-86. March 20-23, she shadowed the USS Saratoga CBG, then in April 10-15, USS America CBG, stopping at Benghazi (Libya). By April 29-30, she shadowed the USS Enterprise CBG. On May 21 while anchored off Sicily she was rammed by the Panamanian bulk carrier Esmeralda II in autopilot. Her starboard side, missile launchers and radar were damaged and she was repaired in June 8-30 June in Sevastopol and by January 1987, at SRZ-82 (Roslyakovo).
In March 24-28, 1987, Otlichiy took part in Northern Fleet air defense exercises. By May 1988, she was in the Baku (Kiev class) battle group in the Mediterranean. She tracked US Navy submarines and by July shadowed Dwight Eisenhower CBG, stopping in Tartus, Syria, for R&R.
In August she visited Latakia as flagship, Rear Admiral V. G. Egorov. In September 12, 265 meters of the chain with an anchor broke under 107 meters. By October 27-31, 1988, she took part in exercises with the Syrian Navy. November 1-21, saw repairs in Tartus, and she escorted Baku back to Severomorsk, arrivng on December 18.
By April 7-19, 1989, Otlichny monitored radiation around K-278 “Komsomolets” after she sank. On June 30 she started another Mediterranean campaign with the with the cruiser Marshal Ustinov (Vice Admiral I. V. Kasatonov) and exceptionally visited Norfolk as a sign of good will under the Gorbatchev era. She was open and seen there by 9,020 visitors.
From October 9 to November 5, 1989, she was in Tartus in maintenance. November 12-17 1989 saw her in Algeria during an official visit of S.G. Gorshkov. On December 14, 1989, she was back to Severomorsk.
On October 1, 1991, she was transferred to the 43rd division, 7th operational squadron and placed in reserve for overhaul at Sevastopol, then transferred to the 1st category reserve. In August 1993, overhaul scheduled at Leningrad was cancelled and on January 4, 1994 the same happened in Murmansk, she was moved in category 2. On November 20, 1994 she was back to the 56th Div. and decommissioned on November 22, 1998, stricken December 30 after cranking up 150,535 nautical miles.

Sovietsky Flot Osmotritelny

Osmotritelny (“Circumspect”) was laid down on 27 October 1978, launched 24 April 1982 and completed on 30 September 1984, assigned to the Pacific fleet.
Her crew, formed in Severomorsk from October 1982, boarded her on April 16, 1983, and she started trials, making a parade on November 7, 1984, on the Neva for the 67th anniversary of the October Revolution. From August 21 to November 22, 1985, she sailed from Baltiysk to Vladivostok around Africa as part of the naval strike group Frunze and Admiral Spiridonov, stopping en route to Luanda, Aden and Cam Ranh, under Vice Admiral V.S. Kruglyakov over 21,268 nautical in 67 sailing days.
On November 25, 1985, she was assigned to the 175th brigade, 10th operational squadron. In 1986, she was in the South China Sea. In 1987 she was drydocked overhauled. From February 15 to September 9, 1988, she was in the Persian Gulf, convoying 31 ships in 16 convoys. She won the 1988 Navy Civil Code Prize for missile and artillery training. In 1990 she made a deployment with the destroyer Boevoy and Admiral Tributs. On August 14, 1991, Osmotelny was to be overhauled and modernized at Dalzavod, 79th brigade but it was cancelled. On August 16, 1997 she was decommissioned and on July 18, 1998, sent to be BU at Strelok Bay.

Sovietsky Flot Bezuprechny

A starboard view of the Soviet Sovremennyy class guided missile destroyer BEZUPRECHNNY observing NATO ships during NATO Exercise NORTHERN WEDDING 86.

Bezuprechny (“Impeccable”) was laid down on 29 January 1981, launched on 25 July 1983 and completed on 6 November 1985. She was assigned to the Northern fleet. When in trials, she was part of the 76th brigade, 12th division at Liepaja naval base. In 1986, he was transferred to the Northern Fleet, 56th destroyer brigade, 7th operational squadron. She arrived in Severomorsk on February 4 and took part in a naval strike group (SCG) with Otlichny for life artillery tests at the Northern Fleet ange. From August 28, 1986 she made her first Mediterranean deployment. From January 5, 1987, she was part of the Kiev CBG with Admiral Isachenkov, shadowing USS Nimitz (CVN-68) CBG. In June she was in Tripoli and back to Severomorsk after 168 sailing days.
On March 24, 1988 she took partin an artillery range contest. By March 1989 she monitored NATO exercise North Star and USS America (CV-66) CBG. On July 1, 1990, she left for the Atlantic, visited in July 9–13 Portsmouth with Vice Admiral V.P. Eremin onboard and back by July 21, 1990 to Severomorsk.
On January 4, 1991, she operated with the cruiser Kalinin in the Mediterranea and by February stopped in Tartus, then Alexandria, and Port Said. On July 25, 1991 she was transferred to the 43rd division, 7th detachment. Her 1993 planned overhaul and modernization was to be carried out at SRZ-35, Rosta. But it was cancelled on August 4, 1994, and she was transferred to reserve. From November 3, 1994, she was sent to the Northern Shipyard in St. Petersburg but due to lack of funding she was decommissioned stricken and BU after covering 62,000 nautical miles.

Sovietsky Flot Boyevoy

Boyevoy (“Militant”) was laid down on 26 March 1982, launched on 4 August 1984 and commissioned on 28 September 1986, assigned to the Pacific. from 1986, Boevoy joined the 175th brigade, 10th operational squadron of the Pacific Fleet. On June 22, 1987, she sailed to the Persian Gulf and escorted conducted 22 ships in 16 convoys. From July 23 to July 27, she was in Aden (South Yemen) With Admiral Tributs under Vice Admiral V.N. Sergeev. On November 28, 1987 while in the Indian Ocean, under Rear Admiral V.I. Darnopykha she visited Bombay and by December passed through the Strait of Malacca, stopped at Cam Ranh by December 22, 1987 with Marshal Shaposhnikov and Admiral Zakharov and back to Vladivostok. By 1988, she escorted the carrier Novorossiysk and Admiral Zakharov under Admiral G.A. Khvatov to Wonsan, North Korea, being visited by the NK Navy commander.
By April 4, 1989, she started service in the Persian Gulf, between reconnaissance and convoy escort and by August she was in Madras, then the South China Sea, monitoring a US CBG and later weathring a storm, rescuing 50 Vietnamese from a lost junk. On September she was back at Vladivostok after 16,876.6 nautical miles. In 1989 she receive the markmanship prize, Pacific Fleet, and accepted the Red Banner.
On July 12, 1990, she made a sortie and by July 16–18 was inPetropavlovsk-Kamchatsky with the tankers Admiral Vinogradov and Argun under command of Admiral G. Khvatov to San Diego. She was open and visited by 49,000 Americans. On August 18, 1990, she was at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and back in Vladivostok after 12,100 nautical miles, 5 refuelings tat sea along the way. In 1991, she only made 4,730 nautical miles in a sortie.
From October 15, 1992 to August 30, 1993, she started an overhaul at Shipyard No. 178. In 1994, he won 1st missile training prize. In August 1995 she sortied with a naval strike group with the destroyer Bezboaznenny. In 1996 her troublesome boilers sent her in repairs. In 1998 she was placed in reserve due to lack of funds, laid up at Abrek Bay. She was later decommissuioned, stricken and BU.

Sovietsky Flot Stoyky

Stoyky (“Steadfast”) was laid down on 28 September 1982, launched on 27 July 1985 and completed on 31 December 1986. Upon commissioning, he was assigned to the 175th brigade of missile ships of the 10th operational squadron (OPESK) of the Pacific Fleet. From October 1987 she served in the Persian Gulf and escorted convoys during the Iran-Iraq War. She visited Bombay and Cam Ranh and by April 1988, Stoikiy arrived in Vladivostok. On October 1988 she was visited by the MoD with conditions assessed as unsatisfactory due to a design error identified during missile firing. In 1989, she was modified repairs and trials in November 1989 were a success. By January 15, 1990 Stoikiy served in the South China Sea, crossed the Indian Ocean and was in the Gulf of Oman, and returned to Vladivostok in July 1990 for an overhaul.
On April 1, 1991 she was assigned to the 193rd brigade and moved to Havana. On November 20, she was moored at the pier No. 1 in Abrek Bay due to the lack of funds. From March 20, 1992, she started an overhaul in SRZ-178, never completed and by October 22, 1993, she was transferred to Dalzavod. By April 28, 1994 she was in reserve, 36th division, 10th OPEC. By September 1996, modernization was cancelled, by September 14, she was mothballed in Strelok Bay. On May 30, 1998, she was decommissioned and on April 6, 1999, she sank on the port side after the theft of her outboard fittings but was later raised. In 2001, she sold to China for scrap (and duly studied in the process).

Sovietsky Flot Okrylyonny

Okrylyonny (“Winged”) was laid down on 16 April 1983 and launched on 31 May 1986, completed on 30 December 1987, assigned to the Northern Fleet. By August 5-24, 1988, she moved from Liepaja to Severomorsk and joined the 56th destroyer brigade, 7th squadron Northern Fleet. In December she escorted Kalinin over 2,430 nautical miles to her assigned fleet.
By March 1989, she shadowed NATO exercises “Nord Star” in the Norwegian Sea and HMS Ark Royal CBG. On December 1, 1989, she made another sortie and from January 4, 1990, she carried a Mediterranean campaign. In March she stopped in Tartus, and in April shadowed USS Dwight D Eisenhower, USS Ticonderoga and her CBG. She was back to Severomorsk on June 13, 1990 after 21,702 nautical miles covered. That year she was also awarded the artillery Challenging Banner.
She was in the North Atlantic on January 4, 1991 with Kalinin to the Mediterranean Sea. At Gibraltar she returned to Severomorsk. On August 15, 1991 she visited Plymouth but returned as the State Emergency Committee took place. She tested the modernized Moskit missiles in 1992 and was hard at combat training. On January 6, 1994, funds lacked and she was moored in shipyard No. 82 Roslyakovo, category 2 reserve. In April 1997 she was inspected by CiC F. Gromov. It was decided to have her decommissioned, on November 29, 1998, conversion to Severomorsk cancelled.

Sovietsky Flot Burny

Burny (“Impetuous”) was laid down on 4 November 1983, launched on 30 December 1986 and completed on 30 September 1988, and she entered in the Pacific Fleet. By November 13, 1989, she was transferred to the 193rd brigade, Sovgavan naval base, Pacific Fleet. On October 14, 1989, she sailed from Baltiysk to the Pacific Fleet through the Suez Canal via Port Said. In November she was in Aden and stopped at Cam Ranh after 12,000 nautical miles in 44 days.
From October 14 to November 14, 1990, she was in overhaul at Dalzavod, PD-77. From January 3 to July 20, 1991, she was in the South China Sea, based in Cam Ranh.
On April 28, 1994, she was assigned to the 36th missile ship division, 10th operational squadron. In 1996, she covered 1,125 miles in 27 days. In August 1998 she took part in Russian-American exercises to provide assistance in emergency situations. From April 19 to April 23, 1999 she integrated the Pacific Fleet for missiles tests. In June 1999, she was overhauled at Dalzavod. On September 26, 1999 under VZDM M. G. Zakharenko she sailed with Varyag and by October was present for the 50th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China in Shanghai.
On April 10, 2000, at 10:AM while turning, an accidental salvo was fired from an AK-630, peppering the side of Admiral Vinogradov. Her visit to Busan was postponed.
In 2005, she took part in a detachment for joint Russian-Chinese exercise “Peace Mission 2005”. She was in overhaul at Dalzavod, work starting in September 2007. In February 2013, repair of her powerplant was still ongoing, experiencing delays and issues as there was no specialists left. On October 24, 2013, Dalzavod announced her repaired and modernizated from 2014, not made by the end of 2015 at Kirov-Energomash plant. In 2016, decision was made to continue her renovation. In 2019, they are going on with reduced funding and delayed deadlines, stopped for 2023, and she is listed in reserve, pending decommission.

Sovietsky Flot Gremyashchy

A port bow view of the Russian Sovremenny-class guided missile destroyer GREMYASHCHY underway.

Gremyashchy (ex-Veduschy, “Thunderous”) was laid down on 23 November 1984, launched 30 May 1987 and 30 December 1988 assigned to the Northern fleet. In May 1989, she performed a display for the Bundesmarine delegation led by Admiral Wellershof. Until June 1 she took part in exercises with Warsaw Pact navies, then was placed in reserve. On July 17 the Commander-in-Chief of the Finnish Navy, Rear Admiral Tikka Juhaug, visited her. She sailed from Baltiysk to Severomorsk and entered the 56th destroyer brigade, 7th operational squadron.
On August 7, 1989, she had all qualifications and she was visited by the chief of staff MoD Colonel General Sychinsky. On January 24, 1990 she saw her first Mediterranean campaign. On March 5 she performed joint maneuvers with the Italian frigate “Minerva”. On April 26, she stopped in Tartus. On June 25 to July 1 she visited for joint naval exercises with the Cuban Navy. On July 3 she inspected the area where K-219 was lost. On July 21, she was in Severomorsk after 24,000 nautical miles, 176 days.
In August 1991, she took part in the “Dervish” campaign and 50th anniversary of the first northern convoy. On October 17 she life fired her Moskit anti-ship missile system with the destroyer “Rastoropny”. By March 25, 1992 she chased off a US SSN from Russian territorial waters. In February 1993 she took part in a fleet exercize under Admiral I. V. Kasatonov and in April she took part in an air defense test exercise (flagship Admiral O. A. Erofeev). On April 15 during she passed her inspection, with overall rating of “good”.
On May 16, 1993, she operated under Vice Admiral Yu. G. Ustimenko for an official visit in Liverpool to participate in the 50th anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic. She was opened to visits, hosted 46,000 including the First Lord of the Admiralty, Admiral A. Winfried. Later she was awared the prize of best ship for artillery preparation.
From April 23 to October 27, 1994 she started an overhaul at shipyard No. 35 in Rost, with her boiler tubes replaced. On January 12, 1995, she was in PD-50, shipyard No. 82 Roslyakovo, drydocked, completed on March 11. From March 1995 to January 1996 she passed all qualifications and was awarded the Diploma of the President of Russia, being present of the 50th anniversary parade, Great Patriotic War. In September 1996 three of the four boilers failed and she waw permanetly berthed. Gremyashchiy was placed in pre-reserve by March 28, 1997, transferred to the second category reserve, repairs were cancelled in December 1997. On February 16, 1998, she was transferred to the 43rd Missile Ship Division, 7th Operational Squadron. On June 15, she had a reduced crew, and eventually she was Decommissioned in 2007, in 2016, sent to recycling, starting in 2019.

Sovietsky Flot Bystry

Bystry (‘Quick’) was laid down on 29 October 1985, launched on 28 November 1987 and completed on 30 September 1989. She was assigned to the Pacific fleet.
From 1989, she was in the Pacific Fleet, 175th brigade, 10th OPESqn. On June 14, 1990, Bystry was qualified. In June 1990, under Rear Admiral V. Litvinov she visited Kiel, Germany but collided with a German frigate, but no damage. In June 21-23, she took part in exercises of the Baltic Fleet under the CiC and on June 26, 100 military attaches visited her in Tallinn. From September 15 to November 3, 1990 Bystry sailed to the Pacific Fleet with the cruiser Chervona Ukraina via Cam Ranh. By December 15-22, she trained in ASW in the Sea of ​​Japan. By April 24-26, 1991, she took part in exercises of air defense for aircraft carriers. By August 14-16, 1991, Bystry took part in joint exercises in the Sea of ​​Japan with observers from eight countries. Together with the destroyer Boevoy she won the Prize of the CiC of the Navy for artillery, 1st place.
On February 17, 1992, Bystry assisted in extinguishing a fire on Admiral Zakharov in the Amur Bay. By April 18-22 with the destroyer Bezboaznenny she conducted an ASW search operation in the Sea of ​​Japan, having six contacts of foreign origins. In August-September 1992, she was dry-docked at Dalzavod. On April 13, 1993 she made a demo for the PLAN’s CiC and by August 18 she escorted Admiral Panteleev and ther tanker Pechenga while on the 21th she had a bearing failure and by August 24, she was towed by Pechenga, into Qingdao for repairs and an official visit. From August 31 to September 4, under Vice Admiral I. N. Khmelnov she visited Busan, South Korea and was back on September 6 in Vladivostok after 4,506 nautical miles.
From October 1993 to March 1994, Bystry was overhauled. The next year she sailed little however. 1994, 2,582 nautical mile, 1995 2,240 nautical miles, 1996, 2,200 nautical miles.
By December 11-17, 1997 she escorted the K-500 returning from her patrol through La Perouse Strait, making 2547 nautical miles. By December 29, 1998, she was placed into reserve category 1 because of her three main boilers failing. On July 10, 2003, while installing portable lighting on board, a boiler operator died from electric shock. by July 25, 2004 she took part in the naval parade for the 308th anniversary of the Russian Fleet. From August 19 to September 4, 2004 she escorted the submarine K-565 through the La Perouse Strait. From September 24 to October 20, 2004 she escorted PM-74 and BDK-98 to Kamchatka and back. On September 24, 2010 she had a fire broke in her engine room, with sailor Aldar Tsydenzhapov put out the fire, saved the ship but died later he in hospital, being awarded the ittle of hero of Russia.
From June 3 to June 28, 2013, she sailed with the cruiser Oslyabya and tanker Kalar from Vladivostokto commemorate the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, 282nd anniversary of the Pacific Fleet and the 200th anniversary of the birth of Admiral G.I. Nevelsky, to Nevelsk, Yuzhno-Kurilsk, Severo-Kurilsk, Vilyuchinsk and back to Vladivostok on 4,200 miles in 25 days. On November 2, 2015, she left Vladivostok to Visakhapatnam in India with Varyag, tanker Boris Butoma and redcue ship Alatau for the joint ex. “INDRA” NEVI-2015” until December 12, 2015.
By January 27, 2016 she was back in Vladivostok. She was awarded several prized. In the summer of 2019 she took partt in an ASW ex. in the Sea of ​​Japan but by 2021 she was transferred to reserve.
On December 1, 2021 she was decommissioned. She is now mothballed at Vladivostok.

Sovietsky Flot Rastoropny

Rastoropny (“Prompt”) was laid down on 15 August 1986, launched 4 June 1988 and completed on 30 December 1989, she was assigned to the Northern fleet. From 1990, she served with the 56th division of the 7th OPEsqn. Northern Fleet. By July 5-9, 1990, Rastoropny sailed from Baltiysk to Severomorsk and trained over 5,912 nautical miles, 42 days at sea. On May 7, 1991 she participated in a naval exercise to provide assistance to an emergency submarine under Vice Admiral I. V. Kasatonov. In August 26-31 with Gremyashchiy, she took part in the Dervish campaign (50th anniversary of the first northern convoy) making 8919 nautical miles in 51 days. By March 25, 1992 she monitored a US SSN in “Russian territorial waters”. On July 1 she became a host ship during a visit of USS Yorktown and O’Bannon to Severomorsk. From 1992, 3,846 nautical miles, 38 days.
From August 3 to 7, 1993, Rastoropny took part in the Sever-93 air defense exercises as radar patrol ship. September 1-3 saw fire support exercises for landing forces. In October 11-15, with the tanker “Dniester” and DD Levchenko she visited Toulon, France under Vice Admiral V. A. Poroshin. 12,397 nautical miles in 65 days that year.
In April-May 1994, she was to visit Holland but this was cancelled. On July 20, 1994, she was present in Severomorsk as host ship during a visit by French ships. On October 12 she took part in the Rastoropny commando group with artillery firing. 2,251 nautical miles, 31 days.
On April 4, 1995 with Besstrashny, she took part in an anti-aircraft missile firing. From May 17 to September 14 she was drydocked at SRZ-35 in Rost. In 1995 she sortied once, 19 days at sea, 1315.5 nautical miles. From February 8 to April 22, 1996 her boilers were repaired at SRZ-35. On July 14, 1996, Rastoropny took part in the Northern Fleet artillery trials and again on August 20 but poor technical condition of the boiler and power plant in general saw her berthed. In 1996 she made a single sortie for 21 days but was later prohibited from going to sea.
On April 16, 1997 she took part still in the command and staff exercises of the Northern Fleet and by December 31, 1997 she was in category 2 reserve. By October 2000 she sailed to St. Petersburg for repairs and modernization, but the lack funding left her berthed at JSC Severnaya, Verf Shipyard. By September 16, 2014 she was towed to to Kronstadt an she was BU from September 9 with by April 2016 a recycling tender announced.

Sovietsky Flot Bezboyaznenny

Bezboyaznenny (Fearless) was laid down on 8 January 1987, launched on 18 February 1989 and completed by 28 December 1990 assigned to the Pacific Fleet.
On January 25, 1991, she was assigned to the 36th Division, 10th Operational Squadron, Pacific Fleet. June 10-15, saw her visiting Antwerp under the flag of Admiral V. Ivanov. Due to pilot error the ship collided with the pier, damaging the stern and during the incident midshipman Granko defected along with the ship’s cash register of 160,000 francs of the time. On June 19, 1991, she was back in Baltiysk.
From November 25, 1991 to January 7, 1992 Bezboyaznenny sailed to Vladivostok without stop. In the Red Sea another sailor defected, and one was arrested on suspicion of involvement, locked in a combat post, and found dead 3 days before arriving in Vladivostok. In April 18-22, 1993, Bezboazenny and Bystry took wart in ASW drilled in the Sea of ​​Japan,, allegedly making 6 contacts. From August 18 to September 16, 1994 she took part in Pacific Fleet exercises and missile firing. By October 6, 1994, during preparations, four sailors were scalded by steam.
On May 9, 1995, she took part in the 50th Victory anniversary in the Golden Horn Bay. Meanwhile one sailor native of Kamchatka was beaten to death by senior conscripts removed from office. By late 1997, she was awarded prizes for the best in the Pacific Fleet for artillery. In 1999 she was placed in overhaul, lasting until until 2018 so by October 2020 she was on disposal, opther sources starting she was was Decommissioned in 2016.

Project 956A

Sovietsky Flot Gremyashchy (ex-Bezuderzhny)

Gremyashchy (ex-Bezuderzhny, “Thunderous”) was laid down on 24 February 1987, launched on 30 September 1989 and completed by 25 June 1991, she was assigned to the Northern Fleet.
Bezuderzhny entered Baltiysk on July 30, 1991, and by October 30, arrived in Severomorsk. She was assigned to the 43rd missile ship division of the 7th operational squadron on November 14, 1991. On December 11 she was in Vidyaevo to guard the CV Kuznetsov. On July 5, 1992, she took part in a joint exercise with a detachment of US ships in the Barents Sea.
From May 26 to May 31, 1993 under Vice Admiral V. A. Poroshin, she made an official to New York, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic and joined a Russian-American naval exercise. On June 16, she returned to Severomorsk. From 1994, Chelyabinsk took her under patronage and started to provide financial assistance both for her maintenance and pay the crew. At Navy Day, they received gifts and cash bonuses. On October 8, she started an overhaul at the repair plant No. 35 Rosta to change pipes on boilers 3 and 4. On November 15 it was over and after trials, Bezuderzhny returned to the 56th destroyer brigade, 7th operational squadron HP Severomorsk.
On May 10, 1995, she took part in the Victory Parade in Murmansk. From September 9 to 11, 1996, she mocked sunk K-157 submarine in ASW ex.. On April 14, 1997, she made a comprehensive combat readiness check. In 1998 she was placed in reserve, 2nd category due to troubesome boilers, and drydock to change her diesel generators. As there were terrorist attacks at the time she had a non-standard marines platoon on board. She also became the the first Russian warship whose flag was consecrated (agaion, after the Soviet era interruption) by the Orthodox Church.
In 2007, she was renamed Gremyashchiy. Delegations from the Chelyabinsk region came on board with meetings between sailors and their sponsors, such as the governor of the Chelyabinsk P.I. Sumin and youth of Chelyabinsk. This was repeated each year. The best conscripts from the region were sent to serve on board. In 2008, the crew was reduced to 50. By 2012, the destroyer had not sailed since 1997 and she was decommissioned on December, 1 she was stricken and sold on April 2016 for recycling. Process still ongoing.

Sovietsky Flot Bespokoyny

Bespokoyny (Restless) was laid down on 18 April 1987, launched on 9 June 1990 and completed on 28 December 1991 assigned to the Baltic fleet. She was decommissioned in 2018, museum ship in Kronstadt.
Full records to come soon.

Sovietsky Flot Nastoychivy

Nastoychivy (ex-Moskovsky Komsomolets, “Persistent”) was laid dwown on 7 April 1988, launched on 19 January 1991 and completed on 30 December 1992 Still active, undergoing overhaul.
Full records to come soon.

Sovietsky Flot Fyodor Ushakov

Admiral Fyodor Ushakov (ex-Besstrashny “Fearless”) was laid down on 6 May 1988, launched on 28 December 1991 and completed on 30 December 1993 for the Northern fleet. Listed Active
Full records to come soon.

People’s Liberation Army Navy

chinese PLAN Hangzhou (ex-Vazhny)

Vazhny was was laid down on 4 November 1988, launched on 27 May 1994, and commissioned as on “City of Hangzhou” on 25 December 1999, she was assigned to the East Sea, Active.

chinese PLAN Fuzhou (ex-Vdumchivy)

Vdumchivy was laid down on 22 April 1989, launched on 16 April 1999 and completed as the “City of Fuzhou” on 20 November 2000, listed as Active.

chinese PLAN Taizhou (ex-Vnushitelny)

Vnushitelny was laid down on 3 July 2002, launched on 27 April 2004 and completed as the City of Taizhou, Jiangsu on 28 December 2005. Active.

chinese PLAN Ningbo (ex-Vechny)

Vechny was laid down on 15 November 2002, renamed whe launched as the City of Ningbo on 23 July 2004 and completed on 27 September 2006. Active.

First published on March, 22, 2017.

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Conway’s all the world’s fighting ships 1947-95

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