French Submersibles of WW1

Marine Francaise - French Navy 1914 About 80 submersibles 1865-1919

Introduction

As a matter of fact, submarines like aviation had many fathers. Although Clement Ader claimed to have "flown" his Eole in 1890, a small hop of about 50 m at 20 cm off the ground, it remained unofficial. The feat would have to wait 1903's Wright brothers attempt. Paternity of the first submarine however made no doubt. The American inventor Bushnell and his turtle, and the first "kill" by a submarine, the CSS HL Hunley in 1864 were Americans. However on the other side of the Atlantic, in 1800 Robert Fulton created for the French the Nautilus

Gnome
Gnome, of the Farfadet class which introduced variable-pitch propellers (cc).

The pionneers 1863-1899

If the Plongeur started an early craze about submarines, inspiring Jules Vernes's famous own "Nautilus" and twenty leagues under the seas (1870), the Navy remained skeptical and by the early 1880 concentrated on torpedo boats instead. The electrically-powered Gymnôte became a breakthough and relaunched the interest for undersea warfare. But for the engineers of the time, a submarine was a complex machine destined to exceptional undersea performances, and many engineers started their own design in this philosophy. It would take time after Laubeuf's Narval before the Navy settled up on a single design.

Le Plongeur (1863)

Plongeur at Munich From 1859 to 1863, engineer and Captain Siméon Bourgeois and Charles Brun, the builder, launched the Plongeur ("plunger"). The race was on, to devise the first practical submerged attack ship.

The competition was fierce however. In Spain already in 1859, Narcis Monturiol created the Ictineo, first air-independent and combustion-engine-driven submarine. And even before in 1850, for the small state flotilla of Schleswig-Holstein, Bavarian inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer created the Brandtaucher. It was, however, man-powered with three turning large tread wheels connected to a propeller.

"The Plunger" was started when the Conseil des Travaux in 1859 ordered naval engineers to submit plans for a submarine and selected Brun and Bourgeois concept. Le Plongeur was, by all accounts, an amazing contraption, with an hydrodynamically sound hull shape, reminiscent of early submerged ram concepts, and using compressed air which allowed four knots. Compressed air indeed powered a conventional reciprocating engine.

This air was stored into 23 tanks under 12.5 bar (1.25 MPa, 180 psi) pressure. But these tanks took up 153 m³/5,403 ft³, therefore obliged to enlarge the submarine itself, bringing its total to 381 t (420 tons) in displacement submerged, making it the largest submarine ever at that time, for decades. The final engine power was just 60 kW (80 hp), which ws just enough for a laughable 5 nmi (9 km), at 4 kn (7.2 km/h).

cutaway of the Plongeur
Compressed air being also used for emptying the ballast tanks, 53 m³ (1,872 ft³) wide, made likely a single dive be performed at each sortie. Ballast was 212 t (234 tons). The crew was 12. The deck counted a small lifeboat for exchanged at sea and to resupply the boat in air, she was followed by a support ship, the Cachalot.

The armament comprised both a traditiona, reinforced ram, and an electrically-fired spar torpedo, maintaining a safe distance before detonation. However the design was plagued by the decision of Admiral Bourgeois to ban the use of torpedoes in the Navy and the design did not evolved further.

Built at Rochefort, she made her debuts at the Charente river, then La Rochelle, La Pallice, but during these trials it was established she suffered from stability problems and could not dive further than ten meters. In 1867, Le Plongeur was disarmed but she was showcased at the Paris international exhibition. But she resumed tests and was finally discarded in 2 February 1872. She was later converted as a supply ship, an automotive water tanker in Rochefort harbour. She was rebuilt and received a new engine, and survived until 1927, was transferred to Toulon, and was eventually decommissioned in 25 December 1935.

Le Gymnote (1886)

Submarine_Gymnote_Pages_Magazine_1902
Submarine Gymnote Pages International Naval Magazine 1902 - (cc)

In 1886 France built the Gymnote, the first electrically powered submarine but also the first functional submarine equipped with torpedoes. The development of French submarines started from there, and by 1914, the French Navy has one of the most diverse and extensive fleet of submarines anywhere, and a recoignised pioneer worldwide. This was, however, through the same Young School experimental frame of mind, a whole set of prototype models spanning the whole range of definitions a submarine should be. On the other side of the Atlantic, John Holland created a model that would be a blueprint for many Nations, including Great Britain and Japan.

The Gymnote was officially the very first active service French submarine (Q1). The Q-serie stopped with the Foudroyant (Q257) (1974). This was rather small, torpedo-shaped submarine commissioned by Admiral Aube, started by Dupyu de Lôme, but achieved by Gustave Zédé when he passed away, and when the latter died too, to Gaston Romazotti. It was designed with a small positive buoyancy in order to stay on the surface in case of power failing, and even in the case her rudders were pointing downwards.

She had three ballast tanks tested either with compressed air and electrically-operated pumps. Her initial stern rudder was a failure and she was unstable. She would received later additional rudders and became stable around 1893.

Gymnote in construction

She was propelled by Le Havre Captain Krebs's 55 horsepower (41 kW), 200V/200A engine. Compact, it was 1 metre in diameter and 2 tonnes in weight, and propelled the shaft to 250 rpm and two sets of brushes. The rear bearing was unaccessible but the hasft was designed to gradually stop spinning by itself in case of engine failure. The boat batteries counted 540 Lalande-Chaperon alkaline cells. Placed near the bow, they used Zinc and copper oxide electrodes with potassium hydroxide electrolyte.

Banks connected in different combinations provided various speeds but the entire array of batteries weighted a total of eleven tons. A new battery set was installed in 1891, changed again in 1897. The hull was 6 mm thicks at the centre, down to 4 mm on both ends, strenghtened by 31 circular frames and longitudinal bracing.

After a periscope was tested and proved unsatisfactory, or even dangerous, a small conning tower was added in 1898. Compass and a gyroscope completed the equipments as well as the two 14-inch torpedo tubes at the prow. Gymnote multiplied testings from early 1889 to 5 March 1907 when she ran aground.

She was in drydock but her hatch was not closed apparently and whe was flooded and lost when the dock was filled. Never repaired she was decommissioned and scrapped in 1908.
Gymnote model

Gustave Zédé (1893)

This was one of the earliest commissioned submarines. Launched 1 July 1893 at Toulon, France, she was also one of the first to make torpedo launches in operational conditions, hitting the battleship Magenta.

Designed by engineer Romazotti from 1891 after Gustave Zédé passed out, she had been named originally Sirène. She was the seond French Navy operational submarine, Ordered on 4 October 1890, laid down on 1 February 1891, launched on 1 June 1893 and commissioned 1 May 1900. This was basically a development of the Gymnote, but much larger. She served until 1908, multiplying dive tests and torpedo exercizes with the fleet. She was able to performe its intended role, but the choice of all-electric prevented any idea of recharging the batteries by using a conventional engine, so the range was overall limited.

Specifications:
She was 260/270 long tons surface/submerged, was 148 ft (45 m) long, 10 ft (3.0 m) in diameter, made of hull was made of bronze rather than steel to resist corrosion. This also allowed the use of a magnetic compass. The hull was reinforced by 76 longitudinal ribs, a detachable central lead keel and two centrally placed ballast tanks and trimming tanks. She also tested a manually operated diving rudder, but eventually used Hydraulic hydroplanes instead.


Gustave Zédé being launched in 1893

The Zédé was powered initially by 720 battery cells, an ensemble of 130 tons capable of delivering 1800A at 300V, 15 knots total on surface which was unheard of for electrical power. However the system overheated and exploded. This was then lowered to a more manageable 300 battery cells in 1895. Indeed the first system The idea was to use spares if needed. Propulsio was electric, relying on two 360 hp (268 kW) Sauter-Harlé electric motors for a surface speed of 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph) on the surface and 6.5 knots (12.0 km/h; 7.5 mph) submerged. She was able to dive at 50 feets; Her nominal, and tested range was 220 nmi (410 km; 250 mi) at 5.5 knots (10.2 km/h; 6.3 mph) on the surface, reduced to 105 nmi (194 km; 121 mi) at 4.5 knots (8.3 km/h; 5.2 mph) submerged, which was far better than the Gymnote. She was armed by a single 14 in (360 mm) Fiume 'short' torpedo tube and two more torpedoes in surface Drzewiecki drop collars.

World Fame
In December 1898 Gustave Zédé took part in naval exercises with the Mediterranean fleet (Admiral François Fournier), and the world press was present, including the British Naval attaché. Twice the submarine successfully approached to a range of 270 yards (250 m) and torpedoed (with dummies) the French Battleship Magenta. The submarine, commanded by Lieutenant Lucian Mottez, made a first, which was widely reported in Naval circles. The submarine repeated the feat in 1899 before the minister of Marine and the press.

Morse (1899)

Plan submarine Morse
Morse plans by Romazzotti, 1896

The third French operational submarine (Q3) Morse (“Walrus”), was entirely designed by Romazotti from Arsenal de Cherbourg. She was an early submersible built for the French Navy and set to combine the best features of the Gymnote and Zédé. Laid down at Cherbourg (June 1897) she was launched July 1899 and commissioned in March 1900. Of single-hulled construction. She was constructed with a special "Romabronze", tailor-made copper alloy more flexible than steel and allowing the use of a magnetic compass. She was powered by two 284cv electric motors, connected to a single shaft, enough for 90 nautical miles surface at 4.3 knots cruise speed. Top speed was 7.25 knots (13.43 km/h; 8.34 mph) on surface and 5.5 knots (10.2 km/h; 6.3 mph) (submerged) Based at Cherbourg she served for nine years, as in March 1909 she was involved in a collision with the British schooner Greenwich. Badly damaged it was judged technology had advanced so far her design was not that desirable anymore, and in November 1909 it was decided to decommission and stricken the boat. She was sold and broken up in 1911.

The Narval Revolution (1899)

Narval
However in 1898, the ball bounced back to France again, with the Narval. Born from a fierce Navy competition with 17 submitted designs, only one, won hands down. Not only it fully respected the specifications of 100 nautical miles, speed of 12 knots, submerged range of 10 nautical at 8 knots, but Emile Laubeuf design set a new level with a revolutionary double-hull design, enclosing the rounded pressure hull, making a much more agile and faster submarine, especially on the surface. Design
While most of its competitors concentrated (like John Holland) on building the best submarine, he took the problem on its head and conceived essentially a submersible torpedo boat. Crucially, he also clearly divided the power sources for surface and submerged propulsion. He took the same approach, but refined the concept already similar of Garrat's Resurgam in 1878, 1880s Nordenfelt models, and even Holland's approach with a petrol engine coupled to an electric one, with dynamos.

Laubeuf however rejected the petrol engine as too dangerous, choosing instead to adopt the 225 hp Brule steam engine with an oil-fired Temple boiler. By doing all these choices he gave his Narval a generous reserve of buoyancy, of 42%, unheard of at the time. Born from the Arsenal de Cherbourg, the Q4 was fully tested and in service by 1900. Narval's double-hull and dual propulsion design, described as "epoch-making" made such an impression on all navies that this system was widely adopted and became the blueprint for all submarines until the German Type XXI and XXIII and Walter experiments.

She however had a serious drawback though: Her diving time was hampered by operations performed on her engines: The process included shutting down the steam boiler, cooling it down before diving to avoid residual steam to built up. The whole could take up to 21 minutes. The crew learned how to break it down to 12 minutes later but it was still a far cray to anything resembling a crash dive. Laubeuf this delay in later designs but that was the achille heal of all steam-powered submarines, solved when the diesel engine was developed.


Narval's side view from Pages of a Canadian engineering Magazine 1902 src

Operational life
Narval started sea trials and first dive on 3 February 1900. Commissioned on 26 June 1900 she received pennant number Q4. She served actively, mostly in combined exercices and evaluations until 9 March 1909. She was stricken, but mothballed, survived WW1 unscaved and was finally sold for scrap in February 1920.

Narval was the template for more submersibles by Laubeuf, with this double-hull and dual propulsion. The "Laubeuf type" was a clear departure of other more adventurous designs, like all-eletric or petrol-driven types. This model was used and reused by the French Navy and widely copied also by all major European navies. A standard still true until the teardrop hulled nuclear submarines of the cold war.

1st era: Pre-war prototypes

Sirène class submarines (1901)

Triton
The Triton, Sirène class (1902)

This first class, first generation of french submarines were four units built on the same model in 1901, with pennant numbers Q5-6 and 13-14 (also triton, Espadon and Silure). They were essentially Laubeuf's next design, improved versions of the revolutionary Narval. They were constructed of steel, with a double-hull, ordered on 20 May 1899 to 1st May 1900. They still were conceived as submersible topedo-boats essentially, the double hull providing both the water lest for diving and buoyancy.

Although the machinery was still like on the Narval, many improvements ensured diving time was 6 to 9 minutes, which was enough to escape many spotted ships of the time, barely making 18 knots.

Technically they displaced 157 t (155 long tons) surfaced and up to 213 t (210 long tons) when submerged. They were 32.5 m (106 ft 8 in) long, 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in) wide, and 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in height, propelled by 250 ihp (190 kW) triple-expansion steam engines and two 100 bhp (75 kW) total electric motors, giving a top speed, surfaced, of 9.75 knots (18.1 km/h; 11.2 mph) and 5.8 knots (10.7 km/h; 6.7 mph) when submerged. Operational range was 500 nmi (930 km; 580 mi) at 7 knots (13 km/h; 8.1 mph) reduced to 55 nmi at 3.75 knots when submerged. The crew of 13 operated also the four external 450 mm (17.7 in) Drzewiecki drop collars.

Specifications
Displacement: 157/213 t Surf/Sub
Dimensions: 32.5 x 3.9 x 2.5m
propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 TE steam engines, 2 electric mot., 250/100 hp. 9.75/5.8 knots surf/Sub
Armament: 4 Drzewiecki drop collars.
Crew: 12

Farfadet class (1901)

Farfadet by Bougault
Fardadet by Bougault (cc)

These were designed by Gabriel Maugas, a French engineer at the Rochefort Naval Dockyard. These submersibles had a single-hull, and had only electric motors. So their range was quite limited and they were considered for coastal harbour defence only. Maugas however introduced variable-pitch propellers, so there was no need of a reversing engine. These four units (Q7-10) has been ordered as part of the 1899 building programme.

They were all from the naval dockyards at Rochefort; built 1901-1904. In service they were plagued by issues, Farfadet sinking during a dive in July 1905, Lutin in October 1906. Farfadet was later recovered, an enquiry followed, and she was repaired and recommissioned as Follet, in service until 1911. The other three were disarmed quickly in 1906 and converted for other tasks so they were not even in the active list in 1914.

Specifications
Displacement: 185/102 t Surf/Sub
Dimensions: 41.3 x 2.9 x 2.6m
propulsion: 1 propeller, 1 electric motor, 185 hp. 6.1/4.3 knots surf/Sub
Range: 115/28 nm at 5.3/4.3 knots surf/submerged
Armament: 4x 450 (18 in) Drzewiecki drop collars.
Crew: 16

Morse (ii) class (1901)

This class was built at Arsenal de Cherbourg in 1900-1902, of single-hull type by naval engineer Romazotti. They were the Algerien and Francais, Q-11-Q12. They were based on the previous Morse and raised by national subscription through French newspaper "Le Matin" at the time of the 1899 Fachoda incident at initial cost of 33 000 pounds at the time. They served for a short time however, as they were discarded in May 1914.

Specifications
Displacement: 147.10/160 t Surf/Sub
Dimensions: 36.7 x 2.7 x 2.8m
propulsion: 1 propeller, 1 electric motor, 307 shp. 10.1/8.3 knots surf/Sub
Range: 135/93 nm at 6/4.3 knots surf/submerged
Armament: one 450 mm (18 in) bow TT, two in Drzewiecki drop collars.
Crew: 13

Naiade class (1903)

Grondin and other subs by Bougault Grondin by Bougault (cc)

This was the largest class of submersibles built by France at that point. No less than twenty of them, from all three Arsenal de Toulon, Cherbourg and Rochefort. They were designed by Gaston Romazottifrom Cherbourg Naval Dockyard. Of single-hull design they introduced a dual propulsion with electric and petrol power. As previous designs by this engineer, the hull used this famous "Roma-bronze" copper alloy. The latter was more flexible than steel to offer better resistance in depht, was easier to work with, and did not interfered with magnetic compass. The surface engine was a petrol Panhard et Levassor which gave 57 bhp, but overall provided a quick dive. The Naïades were ordered as part of the 1900 building program, at 365 000 Frs each. construction spanned five years but they remained in service only until May 1914, apart Esturgeon (stricken 1912) and Grondin (1913). Like in aviation the path of technology in this area was so fast they were considered obsolete by 1914. These submarines were small at only 70 tonnes with a crew of 12, and weakly armed with just two surface drop-collars.

Sailors nicknamed the whole serie "Fritures" or "chips", but also "Naïade", "Noyade" ("drowning") by rival engineer Emile Bertin. Only one survived and was preserved, Alose, at the headquarters of COMEX maritime undersea expertise company in Marseilles. They had a better range than Romazotti boats and Farfadet class, but still paled in comparison of laubeuf's Narval and were quite expensive.

Specifications
Displacement: 70.5/73.6 t Surf/Sub
Dimensions: 23.7 x 2.2 x 2.6m (77.11 x 7.5 x 8.6 feets.in)
propulsion: 1 propeller, 1 electric motor, 1 petrol engine, 57 bhp/95 shp. 7.2/5.8 knots surf/Sub
Range: 200/30 nm at 5.5/4.1 knots surf/submerged
Armament: Two 450 mm (18 in) torpedoes in Drzewiecki drop collars.
Crew: 12


Alose preserved at COMEX (https://blueabyss.uk)

X, Y, Z prototypes (1904)

French submarine X
French submarine X

At that point in 1904 each yard involved in submarine construction tried to deliver a prototype, make by in-house engineer, with the idea of winning orders. The first, X, launched in 15/11/04 at Arsenal de Cherbourg had a single hull, and was designed by Romazotti, with the same "romabronze" hull and two shafts with Panhard and Levassor petrol engine rated for 260 bhp, as compared to 230 shp for the electric motors. Top speed was about 8.4 knots in surface compared to 6 knots submerged. Armament comprised a single bow TT and three external cradles or drop collars with six torpedoes in store. She was stricken in May 1914, by then known as Dauphin.

Z was a single-hull type designed by Maugas as an improved Farfadet type and first French submarine fitted with the diesel engine. She was larger at 202/222 tons, 41 m long, but with less raw power but still 9/7 knots final. Range was also much better at 500 nm versus 168 nm. Her cost was also higher at 790,000 frs versus 500,00. She was stricken in March 1910. Y also named Q37 from Arsenal de Toulon was designed by Emile Bertin. She was the costiest at 924,000 frs, longer at 45m for 213/226 tons, and tested a dual use diesel (for surface and dive alike), 250 bhp providing a top speed of 10 knots, 6 submerged. Technical issues arose quickly and she never completed her trials. Reconstruction projects were also dropped and she was discarded in 1909 after being launched in July 1905.

French submarines in 1914

Aigrette class (1904)

These two units from arsenal de Toulon, Aigrette and Cigogne were designed by Laubeuf, launched in january and november 1904. Still largely experimental, they were based on the Triton, with a combined diesel-electric system providing a diving time reduced to 4 minutes.

The French admiralty has not yet chosen the type to be built, and submersible Z and Aigrette were both conducted on July 18, 1904 at Cherbourg for comparison tests before a special commission. The latter was appointed to continue submersible studies. On October 1904, she suffered an accidental explosion of batteries after a leak of hydrogen. From May 13, 1908, she was sent to Toulon to serve at the Underwater Navigation school and from November 1911 she collided with Sirocco in Brest at slow speed causing little damage. Aigrette was stationed as a guard ship for the port of Brest and Cherbourg whereas Cignogne did the same at Brindisi. In 1916, Aigrette participated in the first anti-submarine net-cutting systems testings which were successful, but never used operationally.

Eleven other bopats were planned at Toulon and Cherbourg, to be named after other marine birds, but this was cancelled.
Both units were stricken in November 1911.

Specifications Displacement: 178/253 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 35.83 x 4 x 2,63 m
Propulsion: 1 shaft diesel-electric 150/130 hp, 9.25/6.45 knots
Crew: 14
Armament: 4 x 450 mm TTs drop collars and external cradles.

Omega (1905)

Built at Arsenal de Toulon by Emile Bertin and Petithomme this was the first French twin-hull submarine. She was ordered on 21 May 1907 and completed in 1909 with half of the steam machinery fitted normally to the Pluviose class. Her single shaft propeller was mated to a steam engine with two Du temple boilers, and she was renamed Argonaute from 27 September 1910. For armament she carried two bow TTs and the usual four 450 mm in either drop-collars or trained external cradles. 6 torpedoes were carried. She was stricken in 1919.
Specifications
Displacement: 306/409 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 49 x 4.2 x 2,8 m
Propulsion: 1 shaft reciprocating engine,2x Du temple Boilers, 1 electric motor 350/230 hp, 10.2/6 knots
Crew: 22
Armament: 2 bow TTs, 4x 450 mm TTs drop collars and external cradles.

Emeraude class (1906)

Emeraude, Cherbourg
Emeraude at Cherbourg, 1909 (cc)

These famous "gems" names, carried by three generations of French submarines, started there. This class of six boats, Emeraude, Opale, Rubis, Saphir, Topase, Turquoise (Q41-46) were designed by Maugas, under the 1903 naval program. These 400 tons units started wit some good credential like two diesels and a record engine power of 600 bhp; but they were fraught with problems which delayed their completion. Launched from August 1906 to 1908, at Arsenal de Toulon (last three) and Cherbourg, their buoyancy was poor and therefore this power was squandered in abysmal surface performances. On paper they reached 11.5 knots which was the best achieved so far. But the Sautter-Harlé diesels were riddled ith problems and defects. Topase and Turquoise in 1915 were fitted with a 37mm QF gun, and the first was later given a lenghtened conning tower. Three fought in the Dardanelles. Turquoise was blasted by Turkish gunfire and beached to save the crew, while Saphir hit a mine and sank on 5.1.1915. Turquoise was later recovered by the Turks, integrated in the Ottoman navy as Mustadieh Ombashi but she was never fully commissioned and was returned to the french after the armistice and peace treaty. All the remainder were stricken in November 1919.

blueprint of the Topase
Blueprint of the Topase (plans marine nationale)

Specifications
Displacement: 392/425 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 44.9 x 3.9 x 3,6 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel, 2 electric motors 600/? hp, 11.5/9.2 knots
Crew: 23
Armament: 4 bow TTs, 2 stern TTs, no reloads.

Circe class (1907)

Circe

This pair of Toulon-built boats, designed by Laubeuf, were ordered in 1904 as part as this year plan. They were of the usual Laubeuf type, with reliable diesels, and were he faster of all series built so far. Calypso was sunk in a collision on 7.7 1914 with Circé, which survived and war repaired. She torpedoed the German UC 34 but was herself sunk by U-47 in the adriatic in 20.9.1918. Also, ordered but never completed were the two Guepe (Q49 and 50) from Arsenal de Cherbourg, designed by Petithomme. Ten were planned in the 1904 program, three groups in three yards, the two first were ordered at Cherbourg in october 1904, laid down, but construction was stopped in March 1908. Subsequent pennants were allocated to the Pluviôse class, of better design. Arsenal de Rochefort was also ordered two improved Emeraude class, also designed by Petithomme, under the same 1904 program, and construction started in the fall of 1904 and 1905 to be cancelled in 1908. They would have been named Q59 and 60, but these pennants were reallocated to Brumaire class submersibles.

On a completely different register, a small prototype also emerged, designed by Marquis de Dion, the automobile designer. This was a Goubet derivative, of the vedette submersible type (a sub MTB) to be used on a carrier cruiser like the Foudre did with "torpilleurs vedettes", on as self-defense means on battleships. Construction started in October 1904, but cancelled and the hull was used for experiments.

Specifications
Displacement: 351/491 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 47.1 x 4.9 x 3 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts MAN diesel, 2 electric motors 630/460 hp, 11.9/5.1 knots
Crew: 22
Armament: 6 torpedoes, 2 in Drzewieckli drop-collars 4 external cradles, 1x 47 mm gun

Pluviôse class (1907)

Pluviose - Brumaire

A class of 18 boats bearing the names of French engineers or revolutionary months. They were built in groups of six at Rochefort, Toulon, Cherbourg under the program of 1905. Designed by Laubeuf, equipped with a double hull they derived from the excellent Narval. They were submersible torpedo boats, equipped with nautical capacity on the surface thanks to their well-crafted hull and their steam engine, but were plagued by their very slow dive due to the complexity to switch to all-electric mode. Their torpedoes were mounted in outdoor cradles in the usual French fashion.

Operational career:
17 units were operational in 1914: The Pluviose had been lost by collision with the steamer Pas-de-Calais in 1910, but was bailed out, repaired and returned to service. This was not the case of the Vendémiaire, lost in 1912 for good, by collision with battleship Saint Louis. These units saw great service, especially in the Mediterranean. The Fresnel and Monge were torpedoed in December 1915, the Floréal was lost after a collision in 1918, as was the Prairial. The others were removed from service in 1919.

Monge
Monge
Submersible Monge (Top 1918) (cc)

Specifications
Displacement: 398/550 tonnes surface/plongée
Dimensions: 51,7 x 5 x 3 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 2 steam engines, 2 Du Temple boilers, 2 elect. engines. 700/450 cv, 12/8 knots.
Crew: 24
Armament: One TT 450 mm prow, 6 external Drzewiecki drop collars.

Brumaire class (1911)

Brumaire
Author's illustration of the Brumaire

Second series of submersibles designed by Laubeuf, after the Pluviose, these 16 units also had names of revolutionary months and men and women of French science. They were very similar in all respects to the Pluviose type, but used MAN diesels adapted by each of the yards that had these ships in command. Thanks to this formula, they dive much more quickly. Some received 75 or 47 mm deck guns, and almost all after.

Operational career:
Their career was very active, the Bernouilli, the Foucault and the Joule being sunk (mines, collision, blow to the goal of a destroyer). The Curie was captured while attempting to force Pola's harbor and misguided in protective nets.

She was captured, rearmed with a 88 mm and reassigned to the Austrian Navy as U14. The others were dropped from the lists between 1919 and 1930.

Pluviose
Pluviôse in Boulogne (Q51) (cc) ELD editors (Eugène Le Deley).

Blueprint of the Vendemiaire
Blueprints of the Vendemiaire (Archiives Plans Marine Nationale)

Specifications
Displacement: 397/551 tons surface/dive
Dimensions: 52,1 x 5,14 x 3,1 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric 6 cyl. MAN, 840/600 hp, 13/8,8 knots
Crew: 29
Armament: 1 bow TT, 8 x 450 mm drop-collars.

Other prototypes (1909-1912)

blueprint of the Mariotte
Four other submersibles were ordered from various yards to replace the current generation of the Brumaire and Pluviôse types. Although experimental, they tested power solution and seved active ly during the war.

-The first was Archimède (1909) from Cherbourg, designed by M.H Hutter, as an extended and improved Pluviôse with a twin hull. Part of the 1906 program, she had a much better machinery, with two shaft reciprocating steam engines fed by two boilers and electric motors for a total of 1700 ihp/1230 shp, figures never seen before. Therefore Archimède was capable of 15 knots in surface, 10.95 submerged. She was able to reach 100 nautical miles at 4.5 knots. Armament was the same as Brumaire. She also boasted three horizontal rudders and one vertical. During her time, she sank four transports and was stricken in November 1919.

Mariotte
-The second was Mariotte. A rather large unit at 630 tons submerged, she was single-hulled, and designed by Radiguer as an improved Emeraude design. her solution for more power was a combination of Sautter-Harlé diesels 6-cylindr, 4-stroke units plus electric motors for a total of 1400/1000 hp. This gave them a 14.26 knots in surface speed and almost 12 when submerged. She was also modified with buoyancy tanks moved forward to improve sea-keeping. She was sunk in the Dardanelles in july 1915 after being caught in a Turkish net and fired upon.

-The third was Amiral Bourgeois. A 730 tons submersible (when submerged), she was built at Arsenal de Rochefort and launched in November 1912. Designed by Mr. Bourdelle, she had a twin-hull, and served with the Channel fleet during WW1. She ws propelled by f-stroke Schneider diesels for 1400/1000 hp and was able to reach 1385 knots when surfaced and 8.6 submerged. She had four 450 mm torpedo tubes, two after and two forward.

Charles Brun
-The fourth was Charles Brun. Built at Arsenal de Toulon and launched on September 1910, she never really entered service and wa condemned in 1920. She was built to test a new all-electric propulsion system comprising two Schneider accumulators and alternators for a total of 1300 shp. Speed was 13.5/7.25 knots. She was armed with two bow TTs and four drop-collars and external cradles.

Clorinde class (1913)

Clorinde
Author's illustration of the Clorinde

These two units (Clorinde and Cornélie) were ordered in 1912 (program of 1909) and launched in 1913. Of the Laubeuf type, double hull, they derived from "Brumaire" of 1912 and inspired the "Amphitrite" of 1915, although suffering poor performance. At that time, France was still refractory to standard torpedo tubes used in other fleets except in Russia, adopting the same side cradles/drop collars system developed by Russian-Polish engineer Stefan Drzewiecki. Both units served in the Atlantic and were reformed in 1926.

Blueprint of the Clorinde

Specifications Displacement: 413/567 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 54 x 5,1 x 3,4 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric MAN-Loire, 800/700 hp, 13/9 knots
Crew: 29
Armament: 1 deck 75 mm gun, 8 x 450 mm TTs drop collars.

Wartime French submarines

Gustave Zédé class (1913)

Zede

Gustave Zédé and Halbronn on the first rank

This class of two boats was ordered under the 1911 plan, designed by Simonot at Arsenal de Cherbourg. Gustave Zédé was launched 20.5.13 and Néréide on 9.5.14. Both differed in propulsion, the first was steam-drive while the second had diesels motors which lacked power. Original were teir two deck-mounted QF 65 mm guns. Both displaced 1000 tons submerged, with diverging performances: The first one was 3500 bhp strong in surface, 1640 submerged, about 17.57 knots in surface for 11.4 submerged. The second was 2400 bhp strong with a couple of Schneider-Carel diesels which were sold at 4800 hp but could only deliver half, with as a result a top speed of 17.3 knots surfaced and 10.5 submerged but a far better range with 3120 nm versus 1400 on the Zédé.

Both served actively during the war, the first in the adriatic and the second in the Atlantic, and were rebuilt after it. Zédé in 1921-22 with German MAN diesels straight from U-165, 2400 bhp for 15 knots, new replacement bridge, conning tower and additional fuel, while Néréide received a new bridge with more vents for faster dive, and twin revolving periscopes of a new type. They were stricken in 1935-37.

Lagrange profile
Author's profile of the Zédé

Specifications
Displacement: 850/1098 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 74 x 6 x 3.7 m
Propulsion: See notes
Crew: 47
Armament: 2 deck 65 mm guns or 1x 75mm, 1x 47mm, 8 x 450 mm TTs bow, inboard, cradle.

Amphitrite class

Eight boats from Toulon, Cherbourg and Rochefort, designed by Hutter as improved Clorinde. They were launched from june 1914 to April 1916, named Amphitrite, Amarante, Andromaque, Aréthuse, Ariane, Artémis, Astrée and Atalante. Armament was the same as the Clorinde. Astrée and Amarante were completed in Le havre as minelayer submarines in 1918, the first with the Normand-fenaux system.

They displaced more, 440/610 tons and renamed with the addition of "II" when their names were reused on new units. Amarante participated in hydrophone tests, and Ariane was the only one sank, by UC-22. They were stricken from 1928 to 1935.

Amphitrite
Author's profile of the Amphitrite

Specifications
Displacement: 414/609 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 53.9 x 5.4 x 3.3 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric MAN-Schneider, 800/700 hp, 12/13 knots
Crew: 29
Armament: 1 deck 75 mm gun, 8 x 450 mm TTs drop collars.

Bellone class (1914)

Bellone class
An unidentified bellone class submarine in Toulon during the war, possibly departing for the Adriatic

Three boats designed by Hutter under the program 1912 were from arsenal de Rochefort (Bellone), and Toulon (Gorgone and Hermione) launched in december 1915 and march 1917. They were twin-hulled but of coastal type, with eight 450 mm TTs in various places, bow, cradle and drop-collars. They were slightly improved Clorinde-class, Bellone served in the Atlantic and the two others in the adriatic. They were improved after the war for faster dives, with new periscopes and were all discarded in july 1935.

Specifications
Displacement: 523/788 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 60.6 x 5,4 x 3,5 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric Sabaté/Sulzer, 1640/800 hp, 14.7/9 knots
Crew: 38
Armament: 8 x450 mm TTs, 1x 75 mm QF deck gun

Dupuy de Lôme class (1915)

Submarine Dupuy de Lome

This class was authorized under the 1913 program, designed by Hutter and built at the arsenal de Toulon. This was an enlarged version of the Archimede, generally regarded as a good design, the largest and fastest submarine on record. They had a greater buuoyancy and the same machines as Zédé, two Delaunay-Belleville reciprocating steam engines fed by two return-flame Du Temple boilers, and electric motors for a generous 3500 ihp/1640 shp power, and 17/11 knots/ Range was 2350 nm at 10 knots and 120 nm submerged. On trials, De Lôme even reached 19 knots, which was unheard of for a French submarine at that time. Both served until the end of the war with the Morocco flotilla at Gibraltar. They were reconstructed in the interwar, with a new 1200 bhp diesel, Krupp and Körting, anf followed the same line of modernisation as Zédé. Both were stricken in July 1935.

Specifications
Displacement: 833/1287 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 75 x 6.4 x 3,6 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts steam-electric, 3500/1640 hp, 17/13 knots
Crew: 43
Armament: 1 deck 75 mm gun/2 and/or 47 mm, 8 x 450 mm TTs drop collars.

Diane class (1915)

Daphne

Designed by Mr. Simonot under the 1912 program, these Cherbourg-built, twin-hulled submarines were of the Archimede type. They also derved from Zédé, as a slightly more compact version, at 90%. gaining some agility in the process. They were better performers than the Bellone also. Both served during the war, Diane being sunk by an accidental explosion at La pallice, Southern France in January 1918. Daphné after the war was modernised like the Bellone class and stricken in 1935.

Diane
Author's profile of the Diane

Specifications
Displacement: 633/891 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 68 x 5,5 x 3,7 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts Vickers/Sulzer 4-stroke diesels, Electric motors, 1800/1400 hp, 17/11.5 knots
Crew: 43
Armament: 1 deck 75 mm gun, 10 x 450 mm TTs bow, drop collars and external cradles.

Joessel class (1917)

Fulton

This pair was also built at Cherbourg, designed by Simonot as steam submarines to achieve great surface speeds with two geared turbines. This was a first but caused many engineering problems and the solution was scrapped in favor of a pair of Schneider-Carel diesels instead during construction.
Fulton (Q110) was launched 1.4.1917 while Joessel (Q109) was launched 21.7.1917. The turbines were recycled in the sloop Aigrette. On sea trials both subs achieved 17.5 knots. After completion they received further modifications dictated by wartime experience, like a new high conning tower, new bridge and periscopes. They served at the end of WW1 and the interwar, until stricken like all these generations boats in July 1935. A second serie was ordered at Cherbourg, Toulon and Rochefort, six boats of the same design under the 1915 program. They were planned to be laid down on May 1915 but cancelled.

Specifications
Displacement: 870/1247 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 74 x 6,4 x 3,6 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric Schneider-Carel, 2700/1640 hp, 16.5/11 knots
Crew: 53
Armament: 2 deck 75 mm guns, 10 x 450 mm TTs drop collars, bow, ext. cradles.

Lagrange class (1917)

Lagrange

These four submarines, Lagrange, Laplace, Regnault and Romazotti (Q112-114) were designed by M. Hutter under the 1913 and 1914 programs. They were launched at Toulon (Lagrange 31.5.17, Regnault 25.6.24, Romazotti 31.3.18) while Regnault was launhed at Rochefort 12.8.19. Needless to say, they all missed the war but Lagrange (completed Feb. 1918). Plans to have then steam-powered were scrapped as they were also completed with diesels. Their Parsons turbines were recycled into the marne sloops. Postwar they were reconstructed totally and served until 1937.

Lagrange
Author's profile of the Lagrange

Specifications
Displacement: 920/1318 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 75.2 x 6,3 x 3,6 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric Sulzer, 2600/1640 hp, 16.5/11 knots
Range: 4300 @ 10 knots surface, 125 nm @ 5 knots submerged
Crew: 47
Armament: 2 deck 75 mm guns (440 rds), 8 x 450 mm TTs, 10 torpedoes

Armide class (1916)

These were basically requisitioned submarines ordered by foreign countries when the war broke out. All three were built at Schneider, Chalons-sur-Saone. One was ex-Japanese, the others Greeks. They were renamed Amazone, Antigone and Armide (pennant SD1-3), launched 1915 and 1916. These were double-hulled Laubeuf type, with Schneider-Carel diesels, four to six TTs, one 47 or 75 mm gun. They served during WW1 and the interwar, stricken 1932-35.

Armide
Author's profile of the Armide

Specifications
Displacement: 457/670 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 56.2 x 5,2 x 3 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric Schneider-Carel, 2200/900 hp, 17.4/13 knots
Crew: 31
Armament: See notes

O'Byrne class (1919)

Technically they were ordered under the 1915 program and started during wartime, so these entries belongs to this page. All three were being built at Schneider (Chalons) for the Rumanian Navy. They were double-hulled Laubeuf types, like the above, but smaller and slower. Launch dates were 30.9.19 (Henri Fournier), 6.20? (Dupetit-Thouars), 22.5.19 (O'Byrne). They were discarded in 1935.

Specifications
Displacement: 342/513 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 52.4 x 4,7 x 2,7 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric Schneider-Carel, 1020/400 hp, 14/8 knots
Crew: 25
Armament: 1 deck 47 mm gun, 4 x 450 mm TTs bow.

Maurice Callot (1921)

This single unit was built at FC de la Gironde Bordeaux. This was an experimental minelaying type, with the Normand-fenaux system, but originally a laubeuf-type system, double-hulled. Never registered a Q name. Laid down in May 1917 but only launched 26.3.21 due to shortages. She was discarded in 1936, so only served in peacetime during the interwar.

Specifications
Displacement: 931/1298 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 75.5 x 6,7 x 3,5 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric Schneider 2-stroke, 2900/1640 hp, 16.5/10.5 knots
Crew: 48
Armament: 1 deck 75 mm gun, 6 x 450 mm TTs (4 bow, 2 stern, 8T), 27 mines.

Pierre Chailley (1921)

Pierre Chailley
Pierre Chailley - Aldo Fraccaroli Col. (cc)

This single large minelayer type was provided under the 1917 program, built atNormand, Le havre, never gave a Q number. Double-hulled Laubeuf type she was fitted with the Norand-fenaux system sibce the beginning and was large enough to carry and laid 40 mines. This was the prototype for the successful class Saphir of 1928. The Normand-Fenaux system used a simple and reliable system where mines were located in vertical wells along the ballast hull. Smaller than the Callot they were also less powerful and slower but carried more mines, but of the smaller 200kgs/441Ib type so the whole package was ultimately more appealing. First French submarine also to be fitted with a 100mm deck gun.

Specifications
Displacement: 884/1191 tonnes surface/dive
Dimensions: 70 x 7,5 x 4 m
Propulsion: 2 shafts diesel-electric Schneider 2-stroke, 1800/1400 hp, 13.7/8.5 knots
Crew: 44
Armament: 1 deck 100 mm gun, 4x 450 mm TTs (4 bow, 2 trainable), 40 mines.

Captured french submarines of WW1

For some time, the French Navy captured and operated the Greek submarines Delphin and Xiphias in 1916-17, returned to the Greeks in 1918. UB26 scuttled off Le havre was also recovered and repaired, to serve as Roland Morillot from 30.8.17. She was discarded in 1925. After the war, many German submarines were commissioned under the French flag. Ten were commissioned in 1918, such as the renamed Victor Reveille, (U79), Jean Auric (U 108), or René Audry (U 119). 36 more German U-boats were also awarded to the French after peace negociations. For the full record, see the WW2 French submarine section.

Sources

Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906-1921
List of French submarines
French submarine Plongeur
On battleships-cruisers.co.uk 1
On battleships-cruisers.co.uk 2
French submarine Gymnote (Q1)
modelist-konstruktor.org: underwater-ships-against-submarine-ships
Farfadet-submarine-disaster 1905

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs


Facebook Feed


Twitter Feed



Youtube naval encyclopedia Channel

Go to the Playlist
Tank Encyclopedia, the first online tank museum
Plane Encyclopedia - the first online warbirds museum
posters Shop
Poster of the century
Historical Poster - Centennial of the Royal Navy "The Real Thing" - Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now !

Battleship Yamato in VR

❒ Virtual Reality Section