Mitsubishi B1M (1924)

Imperial Japanese Navy, 443 built

The main IJN torpedo bomber of the interwar

The Mitsubishi B1M was a Japanese torpedo bomber of the 1920s. It lasted in service was mire than planned, and contributed to shape Imperial Japanese navy early carrier-borne strikes tactics. It was originally designated the 2MT, and was designed by Mitsubishi's chief designer Herbert Smith and his team, formerly from Sopwith. Development took longer due to the intitial 1MT prototype being a failure as the first Japanese aircraft carrying and launching aerial torpedoes. The 2MT became the B1M, laying the work for other models to follow, until the WW2 "Kate", 3rd generation of the type. Its origins went back to the same program that initiated the 1MF fighter, but the model would ultimately soldiered on for most of the interwar (aslmost until 1937) due to the lack of suitable replacement.


Mitsubishi 1BM

Project development

In 1921, the IJN staff ordered indeed Mitsubishi to develop three types of aircraft: A carrier-based fighter, a carrier-based reconnaissance and a carrier-based torpedo bomber, all three intended for the new airvcraft carrier in construction, IJN Hosho. These planes were supposed to form its first air group, and be ready for the commissioning on the ship planned for 1923-24. Mitsubishi turned to the former designer of the Sopwith company, Engineer Herbert Smith. The latter came in Japan with the prospect of designing not one but all three aircraft, helped by Japanese engineers. Smith brought with him however seven more picked-up British aviation specialists. His "dream team" set to work first on the 1MF.


The mediocre 1MT, sole triplane of the IJN

The first two aircraft, Mitsubishi 1MF fighter and Mitsubishi 2MR reconnaissance aircraft turned out to be very successful and remained in service for a long time. The third, and arguably more difficult torpedo plane to design, was the 1MT1N. Lifting the heavy torpedo proved a daunting task indeed. To allow it to carry such payload, Smith decided to use a triplane scheme. This became the "Type 10" prototype, first and only triplane ever built in Japan. However, such a scheme precluded its use onboard an aicraft carrier, starting with the wings, difficult to work with. The model was way too cumbersome and bulky. Despite favorable reviews however from naval pilots that tested it, the 1MT maneuverability was poor and speed not stellaer. The Imperial Japanese Navy decided to abandon the Type 10 program after building just 20 aircraft. In between, Smith worked on an alternative design base don the stretched-out 1MF mixed with some aspects of the 2MR. This became the Mitsubishi Type 13, a completely remodelled three-seat biplane.

The prototype designated 2MT1, made its first flight in January 1923 at Mitsubishi test airfield close to the factory. It performed "light" tests and agility (no payload yet). Then came a second round of trials with a heavy dummy payload, to test its flying caracteristics, and then the "real thing", a ventral aerial torpedo. It seems whatever the results, the model was officially accepted for service with the Japanese Navy, but with the designation Type 13 from the army, related to the 13th year of the Taishō era Calendar.

This time it was parised by the pilots, having the lifting capacity with some reserve for agility and speed. Moreover, its folding wings authorized its use on an aircraft carrier. It flew later in front of an IJN delegation and impressed the staff, soon receiving approval. Under the designation B1M1, the first batch was accepted into mass production for the Japanese Navy, redesignated Type 13 Carrier Attacker. It had an all-wood construction but was powered by a 450 hp Napier "Lion". In later versions this was a 500 hp Hispano-Suiza, both with a two-blade wooden fixed-pitch propeller.

B1M design


Blueprint, 3 views of the type, modified by the author from the Otori

The Mitsubishi Type 13 was a single-bay biplane of classic 1920s structure with straight struts and fixed, but much renforced undercarriage, standard for the time. The construction called for a tubular framing, with canvas over the sides and belly of the rear section, but the whole upper section of the bay was covered with aluminium. Although the early prototype shared a few caracteristics with the 1MF, like the tail, and the engine hood and canopy, it was much more than a simple stretched-out 1MF. The final plane was much longer and wider, weighting twice as much. The tail skid (no tailwheel) was combined with the arrestor hook for aircraft use. Its reach was limited, but the entire tail skid/hook could be further lowered via a cable-actioned lever.

Its crew comprised a pilot and a navigator, the later doubling as machine-gunner for defense. The observer was also tasked to release the payload at the optimal time. So he was also the bombardier and torpedo servant. This changed with the later version, with a third crewman seated in the same "bathtub" as the rear gunner, but facing forward, so back to back with the gunner.

The large wings were far more design for sustention than speed as on the fighter. They were renforced each by no less than three series of two struts, the inner pair being even doubled for extra rigitity and a pair or half-struts attached from behind the aluminium cover of the bay provided extra rigidity for the central wing section. The ventral wheeltrain was also very large, and butressed by extra torsion bars and coils, but it was also low, allowing extra gap for stable landings, which was cucial for deck landings. They were really sturdy but would never allowed a plane to land with a torpedo or bomb still attached.

Engine
The original engine, used on the prototype and preserie was the trusted Napier Lion engine. Thuis liquid-cooled model was about to deliver and output of 500hp. However the next variants called for a domestically developed 450hp Mitsubishi Hi engine. Although rated woth less horsepower, torque was the same and performances were kept also the same. The Type 13 was repeatedly tested with its heavy payload, a single 18in aerial torpedo, but also in alternative 250kg of bombs, both 125 kgs models attached under the belly.

Armament:
From 1931, the B1M likely used the 45 cm (17.7") Type 91 (1931) Mod 1 torpedo: Weighting 1,728 lbs. (784 kg) it was 208 in (5.275 m) long, with a negative buoyancy of 227 lbs. (103 kg), carrying an explosive charge of 331 lbs, or 150 kg Type 97. It was powered by a Kerosene-air wet-heater system rated for 140 HP, up to 2,200 yards (2,000 m) at 41-43 knots.

The army cousin: Mitsubishi 2MB1

All in all, despite its late entry into service and unusually long career, the B1M was successful enough to be also adopted by the Army air force as the Army Type 87 Light Bomber 2MB1. The latter soldiered during the Sino-Japanese war and was present during the Invasion of Manchuria in 1931, but in 1935 it was considered obsolete relegated to training duties. This close cousin first flew in 1926 and 48 were delivered.

Variants

The Japanese Navy service acepted it initially as the Type 13-1 carrier-borne attack aircraft, but soon the new letter system was adopted and it became the B1M, where "M" stands for Mistubishi and "B" for bomber (or torpede bomber).

-2MT1 (B1M1) or Type 13-1 Carrier-Attacker: This was the prototype and preserie version, which flew with a 500hp Napier Lion engine. and the "old style" tail also seen on the early 1MF fighter. The Navy long formal designations was Type 13-1 Carrier-Attacker. None were still in service in 1930.

-2MT2/2MT3 (B1M1) Having the same Type 13-1 Carrier-Attacker desighation, this model improved on many points, notably a redesigned tail, closer to the 1MF2/3 types. The naval designation 2MT2 and 2MT3 represented minor changes. However production from there was ramped-up with 196 B1M1s delivered total.

-2MT4 Otori This was a prototype twin-float reconnaissance version, to be carried on ships. Three only were for tests, which apparently were not satisfactory, ending the project. The fate of these three models is unknown.

-2MT5 & 3MT1 (B1M2): Second version, fitted with a 500hp Hispano-Suiza V12 engine, built under licence by Mistubishi as the HI. A total of 116 of these 3MT1 (B1M2) were built, with a redesigned tail, reworked rear observer cockpit, reinforced wheeltrain, reworked underbelly launch system and tailhook, and many other details. The 2MT5 Tora itself was a single prototype from which was derived the production 3MT1.

-3MT2 (B1M3): Called also in the navy ordnance "Type 13-2-2 Carrier Attacker", this was the ultimate version, this time a three-seater: The rear cockpit was lenghtened forward in order to accomodate a seated observer facing forward, and the gunner behind. It was also fitted with a revised engine, a 600hp Hispano-Suiza V12. Also the two fixed forward machine guns were judged unnecessary and one was removed. In all, only 88 of these 3MT2s were delivered in 1929-30, but followed by 40 more built by the Hiro Arsenal, so 128 in total, raising the serie to 440 B1Ms. Being delivered so late meant they were still in service during the Shanghai incident, but there were other reasons as well.

It should be noted as former versions were removed from service, they ended on the civilian market and were large enough to attract attention. This led to the ultimate model, the Mitsubishi T-1.2 which in fact encompass all variants of the B1M as surplus civilian conversions. Some were used as postal planes, or for short flights between home islands, each fitted with an enclosed passenger cabin and up to three seats located behind the pilot, with portholes.

Why the B1M soldiered for so long ?


Extract from the Chinese 2015 TV show "Eastern battlefield" (Dōngfāng zhànchǎng) showing notably the event with Robert Short.

The B1M indeed remained in service much longer than initially planned. In fact, the Navy already staring preliminary work on its successor, replacement aircraft for 1927 also by Mitsubishi. But the B2M was delayed time and again, in fact so much that it was not ready to make its first flight before 1932, and initials tests were disappointing. In between the Navy also tested the Yokosuka B3Y which competed against the B2M based on the 7-shi 1933 specifications. But that model also ended as a failure. The IJN was now without suitable aircraft to replace the B1M, which had no alternative but to be kept as long as possible.

The B1M was eventually replaced by the Yokosuka B4Y around 1934-35, which was another biplane, but corresponding to the much later 9-Shi specifications. It was even seen as a stop-gap model, since Nakajima worked on a promising, very modern monoplane: This proved to be the famous B5N 'Kate', entered service in 1938. When the prototype flew, the B1M was still used in training units. So in a sense, the true successor of the B1M was the WW2 B5N...

Although the new B1M was still not impressive in terms of flight performance, the crews loved its reliability and ease of maintenance. The basic design became the basis for various modifications, until the ultimate B1M3. Despite the fact that by the mid-1930s, B1M aircraft were outdated, some of them continued to be used in the Japanese Navy until 1938, les because of outstanding qualities than simply the lack of a significant replacement. All later projects of carrier-based torpedo bombers failed indeed, proving to be of all aicraft types in use in the IJN, the most dificult of all. It should also be noted that despite the clear antagonism between the army and the navy, the Type 13 torpedo bomber demanded that Mitsubishi develop an army version due to the very high cost of the army project Mitsubishi 2MB2 "Washi", developed by the German designer Alexander Baumann. This army version was designated Type 87, or Mitsubishi 2MB1, a light bomber adopted by the Japanese army and soldiering with success in China for many years.

Detailed specs

B1M-1 1924

Crew: 2: Pilot, Observer (3 on B1M3)
Fuselage Lenght9.77 m (32 ft 1 in)
Wingspan3.5 m (48 ft 5 in)
Wing area59 m2 (640 sq ft)
Height3.5 m (11 ft 6 in)
Empty weight:1,442 kg (3,179 lb)
Max takeoff weight:2,697 kg (5,946 lb)
Powerplant:Napier Lion W-12 water-cooled piston engine, 370 kW (500 hp)
Propellers:2-bladed fixed-pitch propeller
Maximum speed:210 km/h (130 mph, 110 kn)
Endurance:2,6 hours
Service ceiling:4,500 m (14,800 ft)
Wing Loading:45.7 kg/m2 (9.4 lb/sq ft)
Power/mass:0.14 kW/kg (0.085 hp/lb)
ArmamentGuns: 2 fixed, 2 rear 7.7mm machine guns, 1 Torpedo, 240 kgs bombs

The B1M in service

The B1M entered service in 1924, 32 flying from the aircraft carriers Kaga and Hōshō during the Shanghai Incident in 1932. The Type 13 flew from the aircraft carriers Kaga and Hosho during the Shanghai Incident, attacking Chinese troops around the city. During one raid on the 22nd of February, a Type 13 from IJN Kaga was shot down by the American contractor Robert M. Short, who was flying a Boeing 218. This was a famous event: This was a famous American air force adviser and demonstration pilot, working with to the Chinese government, and celebrated by the press. The fact he lost his life in this event made it more resounding. He was widely regarded as a hero defending Shanghai against the Japanese onslaught. Arguably he was even more popular than Chennault.

These delays meant that the B1M was still in front line service during the Shanghai Incident of 1932. In January-February 1932, the Type 13 served with the 1st Division based on IJN Hosho and Kaga, taking part in the war with China indeed, leaving some valuable intel on combined carrier-borne tactics against inland objectives. On February 22, 1932, the first B1M was lost in combat, in peculiar circumstances. Three Mitsubishi B1M under the command of Taiyi (senior leit.) Susumu Kotani (Kaga air group) took off from the Kunda airfield, bombing the railway junction, accompanied three A1N fighters. Their usual protective tactic was to occupy an echelon above the bombers, and lagging behind to see pproaching attackers and fell on them. However that day the weather was not good and in the low visibilty they missed a single incoming Chinese Boeing P12-E piloted by American volunteer Robert McCawley Short. He soon shot down the leader plane and killed the navigator Susumu Kotani, seriously wounding the gunner Sasaki. The fighters arrived eventually catched up and shot the fighter. This event showed the importance of staying closer to the bombers.

Four days later, a 15-aircraft formation of B1Ns escorted by Nakajima A1N fighters attacked Qiaosi Airbase (Hangzhou) and the Japanese shot down in a dogfight one Chinese Junkers K 47 fighter, possibly from one B1M. With two machine-guns, after dropping its payload, the B1M could stil perform as a fighter when given crossing the right path of an enemy plane. A single burdt could be enough. The two flexible defensive MG was also a deterrent. By the time of the Shanghai Incident, the Type 13 was already being replaced by the Mitsubishi B2M Type 89. During the ‘China Incident’ in 1937 it had been completely withdrawn from service. From 1929, three surplus B1Ms were converted for civilian use fitted with an enclosed cabin for passengers or cargo, flying practically until WW2 broke out.

References

On the Hosho air group
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing.
Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions.
wiki
navweaps.com IJN aerial torpedoes
B1M on airwar.ru
On the Hosho air group

Mitsubishi B1M of the early type, first batch 1924


B1M-1 IJN onboard Hosho, 1926


B1M-2 onboard IJN Kaga


B1M-3, IJN Akagi 1929


B1M-3 IJN Kaga, 1930


2BM Type 87 of the IJA, China 1932




Mitsubishi B1M-3


Mitsubishi Type 87 (2MB1)


2MT4 Otori design scheme


2MT4 Otori src airwar.ru

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Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Consolidated PBY Catalina
Brewster F2A Buffalo
Curtiss SOC seagull
Douglas SBD Dauntless
Douglas TBD Devastator
Grumman J2F Duck
Grumman F3F
Vought SB2U Vindicator
Vought Kingfisher
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Nakajima A1N
Nakajima A2N
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A Ryusei "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N Navy Type 97 "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N Tenzan "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y Navy Type 96 "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y Suisei "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 "Betty" (1941)
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu Type 4 "Peggy" (1942)
Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 Type 2 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K Tokai-Ren "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M Navy Type 90 "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka Model 43 K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Yokosho Rogou Kougata
Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go
Aichi H9A
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi E16A "Zuiun"
Aichi E13A "pete"
Aichi M6A1 Seiran
Aichi E11A "Laura"
Hiro H4H
Nakajima E2N
Nakajima E3A
Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu "Rex"
Watanabe E9W
Watanabe K8W
Yokosuka K1Y
Yokosuka E1Y
Yokosuka K4Y
Yokosuka H5Y

Italian WW2 air arm CANT 6
CANT 18
CANT 25
CANT 25
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
CANT Z.515
CANT Z.511
CANT Z.515
Caproni Ca.316
Fiat CR.20 Idro
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M3
Macchi M5
Macchi M18
Macchi M24
Macchi M41
Macchi M53
Macchi M71
Piaggio P6
Piaggio P8
Savoia-Marchetti S.55
Savoia-Marchetti S.56
Savoia-Marchetti S.57
Savoia-Marchetti S.59
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62
SIAI S.13
SIAI S.16
SIAI S.67

British Fleet Air Arm
Fairey Swordfish
Fairey III

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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