Shavrov SH-2 (1930)

1930-52: Up to 1200 built.

An amazingly long success story

The Shavrov SH-2, affectionately called "Shavrushka", shares with the Polikarpov U-2 and Antonov An-2 the title of longest serving biplane in aviation history. But she was the only one being tailored as a seaplane, abeit amphibious. He production numbers never reached the scale of the others two but was remarkably long. Anyway, she rendered immense services to the VVS and the Soviet Navy and Air Forces at large, the coast guards and Aeroflot during the interwar and WW2; Some even fought on the Finnish side. Her key assets were her immense sturdiness and a simple and robust engine that lasted decades.

About Shavrov

The latter is not the most famous Russian designer ever, but leaving a mark nonetheless in the aviation landscape for a few years, by designing mostly seaplanes. Vadim Borisovich Shavrov was born October 26 (November 7) 1898 in Moscow, and became an aircraft designer after the civil war. He had his PhD many years after, in 1945, as aviation historian. Outside designing flying boats he redacted a two-volume monograph History of Aircraft Design in the USSR.

Born from an artillery officer in 1914 he entered the St. Petersburg Institute of Railway Engineers. In the Civil War, he worked on topographic expeditions in the Volga region and the North Caucasus. He later returned to the institute's new aviation department and after graduation as appointed to the Russian Voluntary Air Fleet Society ("Dobrolet") as deputy head of the Central Asian lines. By 1925, her worked for the Department of Marine Pilot Aircraft Construction, Krasny Pilot Plant (Aviatrest) by then headed by D. P. Grigorovich (Leningrad, Krasny Pilot plant).

But aside his team work, Shavrov worked on the ROM-1 flying boat. In 1926-27, teaming with V. L. Korvin her joined a small team woking on spare hours on a design later reviewed by the Osoaviakhim, receiving support. The summer of 1929 saw the SH-1 prototype followed by the Sh-2 flying boat reaching production, under supervision of Shavrov alone, hence the name given for the model. Next, he would create the SH-3 to Sh-7 (the latter as a planned replacement in 1940) but they all stayed at prototype stage, leaving the SH-2 his only production model.

In 1955 Shavrov took the head of the design department of OKB-256 under P. V. Tsybin, taking part in the RGSR supersonic seaplane project while studying history of aviation, publishing a massive 3-volumes work and by 1968 had a cameo role as pilot in the film "Two Comrades Were Serving" and apssed out in 1976, buried in the prestigious Donskoy cemetery.

The Shavrov SH-1 (1929)

SH-1 prototype Starting in 1925, development of "hydroaviation" started in Russia (which already had a sizeable naval aviation well before that). The term 'hydro' was coined by the French in 1912 from the Greek "water" was used as "idro" in Spanish and Italian - In the anglo-saxon world those which featured a boat-like fuselage were called "flying boat" or simply "sea boats" and those convertible from standard undercarriage to floats were called "floatplanes".

The USSR carried out researches at the Department of Marine Experimental Aircraft Construction (OMOS), Central Design Bureau in the complex Aviatrest in Leningrad. The "workshop" was the entire Krasny Pilotchik plant ("red pilot factory"), under the direction of D. P. Grigorovich. and V. B. Shavrov in the design team, mostly working on a STOVL prototype.

In a private conversation in early 1926 with his old acquaintance V. L. Korvin-Kerber the idea emerged of the need of a reconnaissance aircraft for polar aviation, an amphibian which could operate on ice from even a small ship and have an extremely short takeoff run. This plane simply did not existed at the time. Shavrov was interested by the challenge, and joined the small team working on it in his spare hours, at Korvin's appartment.

By the fall of 1926, the draft was ready, dhowing a two-seat parasol sesquiplane (large top wing, half wings below attached to the fuselage) flying boat, of wooden construction and propelled by a 40 hp engine mounted above the wing, out of water spray. It was known underpowered at the time and a Soviet 60 hp engine was in development for it in the long run.

In 1928, OMOS was transferred to Moscow and Shavrov managed to present his project (Korvin was jailed at that time) to the technical council of Osoaviakhim, impressed by it and funding a propotype with 4,000 rubles. All the main components and assemblies were made in Korvin's Leningrad apartment, third floor. Despite the working conditions, development was carried out quickly. After initial wind tunnel tests showed no major issue, the Sh-1 was handed over to Osoaviakhim for a first flight test on 21 June 1929, performing well by topping 126 kmph from her puny 63 kW Walter radial engine, promising even better performances with the new engine on development. The Osoaviakhim used this prototype for propaganda flights painted in bright colors. On February 26, 1930, V.P. Chkalov and mechanic Ivanov crashed in bad weather, and the SH-1 was not restored.

The polar amphibian was not Shavrov's idea


The Aviette SK (1926) on which Shavrov worked with A. N. Sedelnikov, V. L. Korvin-Kerber at the Red Pilot Factory.

On the above, before the SH-1, Shavrov worked with the tacit consent of D. P. Grigorovich in his free time with A. N. Sedelnikov, V. L. Korvin-Kerber in the spring of 1926 on the "SK", fitted eventually with a 16 hp Harley engine was wonderfully shaped monocoque fuselage glued from 1.5 mm plywood. It could perform super-slow takeoff and landings at 45 kph and had very desirable flight qualities despite a very weak engine. Shavrov was interested by STOVL at the time.

For the anecdote, it's B. G. Chukhnovsky which first expressed the idea of polar aviation and ice reconnaissance which needed a dedicated a model taking off/landing on ice and water indifferently. In the autumn of 1926 with P. D. Samsonov, V. L. Korvin-Kerber they visited Sevastopol to examine the all-metal Dornier Wal just acquired by the Air Force showed its extreme ruggedness and that it could indeed serve in the Arctic. V. L. Korvin-Kerber saw the drawings of another flying boat by German company Libell, even more attractive with its small aircraft project.

Back to Leningrad, together with B. G. Chukhnovsky, they decided they could create the amphibious aircraft of the Libell design but using solutions from the "Wal". B. G. Chukhnovsky promised he would secure approval and funding from Aviakhim, where he was well acquainted.

Almost immediately, V. L. Korvin-Kerber started work and at the time, a young OMOS employee, V. B. Shavrov was invited. In fact it's him that brought on the table some useful connections in the aviation industry. V. B. Shavrov was still working at Red Pilot for a few months, but managed to acquire his sjill designing the monocoque fuselage of the ROM-1 flying boat, and it showed it. Like the previous SK, the flying boat was designed in free time, from the end of 1926, until the summer of 1927. It was a wooden hydroplane (an abundant material in Russia), and the very first soviet/Russian amphibian.

Design and construction


The SH1 "polar bird" wooden mockup presented in 1928 to secure funds

The SH-1 (the name Shavrov was attributed later as it was created at Shavrov's own appartment) distinctive feature was a pulling configuration (propeller forward) was used, in contrast to the usual "pushers" flying boats of the time. It was a strut-braced "polutoraplan" (sesquiplane) with a lower cantilever wings-floats (the latter were integrated in it) at the waterline. It gave extra lateral stability on water. The aerodynamic features of the wings achieved a maximum lift coefficient at a small inclination angle when hitting water or land. Additional lift was created by floats. These recipe were borrowed from the Libelle design.

In the summer of 1927, a first wooden mockup model was presented at the Polytechnic Institute and thanks to Academician A.N. Krylov, back from Great Britain, he presented the project to the direction at Osoaviakhim. But circumstances have changed at the time. By the autumn of 1927, D. P. Grigorovich sent V. L. Korvin-Kerber on a business trip to Sevastopol, tasked to test the ROM-1 as open sea reconnaissance aircraft. Her was still there in the spring of 1928.

Meanwhile OMOS moved from Leningrad to Moscow and due to disagreement with chief designer Grigorovitch, many key employees left his department, but V. B. Shavrov paradoxically, who disliked hom as well, was the only one sticking with him. By early April with full support of B. G. Chukhnovsky, V. B. Shavrov presented his project to Osoaviakhim, who approved it (and thus allocated his name and not "Korvin-Kerber"). V. L. Korvin-Kerber would later return t help him with the Mechanic N. N. Funtikov to care for the engine and dahsboard.

Sh-1 propeller
The Sh-1 propeller preserved in the family of one of its authors, V. L. Korvin-Kerber, after his death in 1930.

Construction started on April 14, 1928 and the wooden fuselage and wings were all strapped into fabric tailored by V. L. Korvin-Kerber's own wife, Yulia. It fell well in the calender as the Leningrad branch of the Aeroarctic International Society just obtained a study in the far north in the new five-year plan. In August, parts were lowered through the window of the third floor into the courtyard. it was assembled there and prepared for taxiing in front of the Malaya Nevka block. The pilot chosen was L. I. Giks. However on November 5, VL Korvin-Kerber was arrested 2 months D. P. Grigorovich own (false) accusation of sabotage. Their cases were combined but the "Shakhtinsky case" eventually died down due to the lack of proofs. By the end of 1929, they were working at the first aviation "sharaga" in the Central Design Bureau 39 Menzhinsky OGPU.

Design changes for SH-2 production

Left alone, V. B. Shavrov dismantled the plane, transported in the hangar of the test airfield and it was reassembled the next summer, to be tested at sea. On August 31, 1929, pilot B.V. Glagolev and mechanic N.N. Funtikov flew with it to Moscow, taking off from the Neva and after 5 hours, 30 minutes, landed at the Central airfield. It was tested there at the Air Force Research Institute by a commission headed by Air Force Research Institute P.I. Baranov assisted by pilots B.V. Glagolev, M.P. Korovkin and A.V. Chekarev. For production they were all agreeing on a radical increase of the engine power, from 85 to 100 hp. The commission also recommended that the center of gravity was reclaculated due to the new planned engine; The name Sh-2 was attributed.

Aircraft designer A. S. Moskalev observed the work of V. B. Shavrov and was very impressed by him, not knowing the full story behind the model. V. B. Shavrov postponed the construction of the production prototype for a whole year, and convenientely "forgot" about V. L. Korvin-Kerber, but it was recoignised 40 years later in his two-volume book History of Aircraft Designs in the USSR. At the time he distanced himself from an "enemy of the people" and saved the project. In an ironic twist, Viktor Lvovich Korvin-Kerber's appartment was later unexpectedly rewarded as a "House of Specialists" on Lesnoy Prospekt.

The Shavrov Sh-2 was developed from the Sh-1 flying boat prototype designed in Korvin-Kerber's own apartment in his free time, while still team-working at OMOS/Aviatrest. It first flew on 21 June, 1929. The Sh-2 was a slight enlargement of the Sh-1, with some detail improvements as seen above.

SH-1 specs:

The Crew comprised a pilot seated forward, and a mechanic or passenger. The SH-1 hull measured 7.7 m for 3.1 m hight at the tip of her tail. Her Wingspan was 10.7 m and Wing area 24.6 m². Her Weight empty was 535 kg and at normal takeoff reached 790 kg max. She was powered by a "Walter" 85 HP to a top speed of 125 kph and Cruise speed of 104 km/h allowing about 400 km and more than 5h of autonomy while not being able to go further up than 2,470 m. As a prototype no armament of payload was invisioned at that stage.

Design of the SH-2


3d reconstitution of the folded wings (aeroscale.net)

The hull was modelty made of pine wood. The keel and longerons were in ash, and the cover for the fuselage was made of 3 mm (0.11 in) plywood skinning, along 25 frames. Four of theses wete watertight bulkheads in case of a perforation. The bottom was covered with 6 mm plywood (0.23 in), and the entire structure was covered in doped fabric. The cockpit had three seats, and the pilot and passenger sat in tandem in the forward section, both given the same controls, and there was a additional passenger behind or cargo/additional fuel. More storage was provided in the nose and under the seats.

The wings were those of a staggered sesquiplane. The outer wing had a 3 degree dihedral, and could be folded back along the fuselage for easier ship storage. The centre section used aluminium alloy and dead eye were provided forward for hoisting cables. The small cantilevered lower wing also supported the stabilizing floats. There was a cruciform tail, leaf-shaped and reminiscent of De Havilland designs, with horn balanced elevators. The rudder was slightly enlarged compared to the Sh-1 under recommendation, due to the greater speeds and better engine.

The undercarriage was also new, it comprised a retracting gear rotating forward, up ,in an arc or a ral, until the axle was level with the cockpit coaming and pulled into position with cables and springs. It could be swapped for heavy skis for winter operations. A few models had the undercarriage removed entirely and skis fitted permanently. The production went on for an amazing 20 years, stopping in 1955, in between, they were upgraded by being fitted with the more powerful postwar version of the M-11. There were variants with enclosed cabins as well for the aft passenger, enclosed or glassed, or for two stretchers in the ambulance version.

Production (1932-52)

Serial production was ordered at Taganrog Plant No. 31. According other sources, it was in the repair base of the Main Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet (directive pr. UKGVF No. 364 dated June 4, 1931) in Leningrad starting on August 15, 1931. On June 1, 1934, this became the Leningrad Aircraft Repair Workshops (LARM), Civil Air Fleet. The first aircraft left the factory floor on April 1, 1932. The first delivered were configured as air ambulance with a compartment for a stretcher, designed by F. F. Lipgart (16 manufactured). The rest were standard production models, with optional skis also delivered for conversion, mostly on the arctic and baltic.

Exact prduction records are shaky to say the least. It varied among sources, between 300 to 700 and even 1200. Most were apparently made before 1941 as the SH-2 receive lower priority compared to other models and all other Shavrov models were axed (see later). It seems that production was only partial, stopped and restarted at various times: In 1930-1934 for the main bacth, in 1939, in 1942-1945 again, then 1946-1947 (possiblt 700 in all) and in 1951-1952, not 1955 as some sources stated for 1200 total. To be more precise, 270 were produced in 1932-1934 (1932: 30, 1933: 200, 1934: 40. After this, production ceased entirely. Operated aircraft were gradually decommissioned when worn out.

In this regard, the Main Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet decided to rebfurbished and return many decommissioned Sh-2s into service. Restoration and overhaul was carried out by the Leningrad Aircraft Repair Workshops of the Civil Air Fleet (ARM-21). Its simplicity and cheapness was revaluated as well as its cheaper manufacture not using strategic materials, and it was even simpler/cheaper than the Polikarpov U-2. Mass production was resumed in 1939 under the leadership of V. F. Rentel and modernized, further simplifed and given the new M-11D engine, mounted on shock absorbers and with counter struts.

In the summer 1941, 50 of these were being assembled in the workshops. The ARM-21 was evacuated to Irkutsk, in August 1941. On 08/20/1941 it was evacuated to Vologda (where PARM-1 was created) and to Irkutsk to the ARB-403 site. Then, the workshops were relocated to Sverdlovsk, where ARB-404s were organized. In 1943 had the name PARM-79.

During the evacuation, the repair of Sh-2, U-2, R-5 and ANT-9 aircraft continued and assembly was carried out after the repair of G-1 and DB-3 aircraft. Soon there were finished parts for 20 extra Sh-2 sent there for completion in 1942. A New production was organized at the GVF Repair Plant No. 403 and further changes were made to the design mainly due to supply difficultties for some parts now in occupied territory. In total, from 1942 to 1945, 150 new Sh-2s were produced in Irkutsk, 286 repaired/refurbished and modernized.

In 1944 the PARM-79 were returned to Leningrad to Staraya Derevnya, in early 1945 for completion. They received idenfication numbers LARM-21 SUGVF. There are no exact data on the number of Sh-2s produced for all years. It is known that more than 700 of them were built (according to some estimates - from 800 to 1200). The simplicity and high maintainability of the machine (sometimes they went through 4-5 overhauls) provided this machine with a long life.

After the war, the Irkutsk plant delivered the model in large quantities in 1946-1947 and again in 1951-1952. In 1947, prodyction was relocated to Pulkovo. On September 1949 the facility was renamed LERM, and on 18 August 1952, ARM-21 GVF. On July 5, 1968 the workshops were reorganized into Plant No. 21 GA.

In 1948 they were refusbished with captured German equipment while repair of civilian models and engines upgraded were performed with assembly of joint Po-2/Sh-2 established. The modified version used the M-11L engine (115 hp) and later by the M-11K (125 hp), also modified for easier controls with a compressed air cylinder with trimmers on the rudders height and direction. It also had an enclosed cabin among other things.

Engine


Yak-1 UT-1 advanced trainer also powered by the Shvetsov M-11

This was the Shvetsov M-11 radial, 5 cyclinder air-cooled engine. It was designed under a 1923 competition for a new engine for light, trainer aircraft. It was single-row with five aluminum cylinder heads. Like the American Kinner B-5 5-cylinder radial (obtained), the M-11 had individual camshafts for each cylinder operating pushrods. The initial versions were very weak, only lasting for 50 hours before replacing parts due to low tolerances and high vrbrations. The basic M-11 was capable of 100 hp (73 kW), but ot was refined as the M-11D (125 hp/92 kW), and the last was the M-11FR introduced in 1946 (160 hp at 1,900 rpm) fitted with a variable-pitch propeller and many new accessories as well as a floatless carburetor. The ultimate evolution was the MG-50, projected 18 cylinder, two-row radial designed by M.A. Kossov and delivering 600 kW (800 hp)/630 kW (850 hp) in the 1950s. This engine also powered the Anbo II, Gribovsky G-15, G-20, G-21, G-23, G-27, the Kharkiv KhAI-3, Laz-7M, LWD Junak, MiG-8 Utka, Polikarpov Po-2, PZL S-4 Kania, Shcherbakov Shche-2, Yakovlev UT-1, UT-2, Yak-6, Yak-12 and Yak-18.

Armament

The Shavrov SH-2 was mainly a civilian aicraft, and when pressed into milityary service, painted in green livery for the winter war, still unarmed, many received a rear pintle mount light MG. To operate it, the mechanic/passenger seat was turned backwards, or he was given a simple turning stool. No known installation of small bomb rack under the lower wings is known or shown on any photos, not even the mounted defensive armament. It seems it operated only for liaison/transport only.

Specifications Shavrov SH-2

Crew: 3: Pilot, Gunner, Observer
Dimensions: Length: 8.2 m (27 ft 11 in)
Wingspan: 13 m (43 ft 8 in)
Height:
Wing area: 24.7 m2 (265.87 sq ft)
Weight, Max Take off:937 kg (2066 lb)
Weight, Fully Loaded:660 kg (1455 lb)
Propulsion:
Top speed:Top speed: 138 mph (222 km/h, 120 kn)
Cruise speed: 139 km/h 86 mph
Service ceiling: 3,850 m (12650 ft)
Rate of climb: 5,000 ft (1,524 m) in 5 minutes 20 seconds
Endurance: 1,300 km (808 miles), 5h+
Armament:Optional rear 1x .303 cal (7.7 mm) aft

Service 1930-1959

Interwar and civilian service

The Sh-2 served throughout the Soviet Union, from the Baltic to the Black sea and Pacific as well as from major rivers and a few in the arctic region as initially intended, often painted with bright colors, with yellow and orange patterns. In 1933 the Sh-2 was used for ice reconnaissance during the Chelyuskin steamer expedition, based on board. It was piloted by M.S. Babushkin. After the ship was strabded, the Sh-2 was unloaded on ice and flew to Vankarem.

It was mainly used an a utility transport by the Aeroflot in various liveries depending on the line. It was used for liaison and as a trainer also by the army on small quantities, but also for fishery protection duties, by the coast guard, NKVD, never the Navy. It was also used for frontier patrol also by the NKVD. They supported Arctic operations and 16 were built under the designation Sh-2S as air ambulances carrying one or two stretcher patients. In 1939 Aeroflot built additional Sh-2s from available spares and later the type was reinstated in production. As well as use for the civil roles indicated, the Sh-2 was flown by the V-VS as a general-purpose aircraft. A number of later machines had a glazed crew cabin and other refinements, becoming redesignated Sh-2bis most had improved M-11L engines.

WW2 service

By April 1, 1941, there were 32 serviceable models, 12 not in flying conditions with M-11s yet to be fitted in civilian departments. Another 2 unfliable were in service with the NKVD. The situation changed with the start of the Soviet-Finnish War in 1939 already, as the landscape was well adapted to a small amphibian model for operational communications between units and transport of injured personal. They proved very useful in swampy area, rivers and lakes dotting Finland. It seems it was only "leased" by the Aeroflot to the Army wherever it flew, rarely seen with proper military marking, although many were photographed with red stars. Given the halp-hazard production, they operated in local units until 1945 for their tradtional role, never offensive.

In Finnish hands

In August 1942, two Sh-2S (USSR-X-217 and USSR-X-370) were captured by the Finns near Petrozavodsk, reused by the Finnish Air Force from October 1942 to September 1944. They kept their original olive green livery but had pale blue underbelly and wings, svatiskas, and the classic yellow underwing tip as standardized for the axis in this theater. Their fate is unknown, but photos exists dated up to the end of the continuation war.

Postwar service & legacy

Surviving ones are in the following museums: The Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic, in St. Petersburg, and the Historic Aviation Restoration Museum in Maryland Highs (Missouri, USA) - see later. The Youth Aviation Center in Urai, created a flying copy built on 0.75: 1 scale, first demonstrated at the SLA-89 in Riga. She was made by enthusiasts with no prior experience. They sed a small 4-cylinder Praga engine with a 75 hp output, forced its downsizing. It first flew by Sheffer Yu. P., obtained the main prizes at SLA-89. The same team next reconstructed this time a more reastlitic Sh-2, demonstrated at the MAKS-95, MAKS-97 exhibitions and Gelendzhik-96 Gidroaviasalon as well as other air shows. None original survived. The full replica created in USSR by cadets of Egorevsky aviation school of civil aircraft under the direction of teachers, from 1984 to 1986 was purchased in the 1990s, and is now in the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum in Creve Coeur, Missouri, U.S.A.

Shavrov's later models

Shavrov SH-3/4


The prototype in construction


Known sketch of the prototype

Unfortunately little survived from both prototypes. The Shavrov Sh-3 was a paper project for a single-engined light amphibious aircraft also used for transport. The programme was abandoned as the prototype was nearing completion in 1936 while 90%, due to an administrative decision. Its specifications were dimensions of 7.80 m (36 ft 7 in) x 14.00 m (46 ft 11 in) (24 m2 (258.33 sq ft)), Empty weight of 720 kg (1,587 lb) and 1,070 kg (2,359 lb) gross. She was to be powered by a Cirrus Hermes , 89 kW (120 hp). It was a very modern all-metal floatplane with two large floats underwing. Both integrated wheels for amphibious operation. As for the SH-4 it's only mention as another project, also cancelled. Almost nothing is known about it.

Last Shavrov planned replacement: The SH-7




Two photos of the prototype

The Sh-7 was a six-seater amphibious flying boat designed by V. B. Shavrov intended to communicate between polar stations and doing ice reconnaissance from ships as performing other tasks in the northern regions of the USSR. Designed in eatly 1939, she was built and tested in 1940. Tests were conducted by pilot E. O. Fedorenko were successful. It was decided to launch mass production of the Sh-7at the Glavsevmorput repair plant, in the summer of 1941 after the German invasion, there were massive reorganization plans in all sectors and many production orders were cancelled to concentre ron a few models only. Sadly, the promising SH-7 was axed as well. The prototype neverthess served in WW2, transporting mail until completely worn out; Its fate is uncertain.

This martly metal-clad model was a parasol sesquiplane, still with a top center wing-mounted engine. It had a crew of 2 but can carry 4 in its fuselage, or carry a 350 kg payload. 9.4 m long for a 13m wingspan and 23.3 m2 wing aera, it had a wing airfoil profile NACA-23016 (tip 23012). Its Empty weight was 1,230 kg, with a maximum takeoff weight of 1,900 kg and could carry 320 kg of fuel and oil in its internal tanks. Its Power plant was the PD MG-31F rated 330 hp and driving a two-bladed wooden propeller. Wing loadingw as 81 kg/m2. Top speed was 218 km/h with a normal ferry range of 920 km, ceiling of 3000 m, and takeoff run on a flat surface of 215 m and run length of 107 m. It was armed with a defensive TT-1 mount for a ShKAS machine gun (300 rounds) aft.

Books

Петров Г. Ф. Гидросамолёты и экранопланы России. 1910 — 1999. — М.: Русское авиационное акционерное общество (РУСАВИА), 2000. — С. 222. — 248 с.
Шавров, В. Б. История конструкций самолётов в СССР до 1938 г. — 3-е. — М.: Машиностроение, 1985. — 752 с.
С. Малик. Самолет-амфибия Ш-2 // Моделист-конструктор : журнал. — 1976. — № 6. — С. 23-28.
А. Б. Григорьев. Альбатросы: Из истории гидроавиации. — М.: Машиностроение, 1989. — 270 с.
Игорь Костенко. Историческая серия «ТМ»: Крылатая амфибия // Техника — молодёжи : журнал. — 1978. — № 6. — С. 46-47. Архивировано 4 марта 2016 года.
Маслов М. Амфибия Ш-2 и другие самолёты Вадима Шаврова. — М.: "Цейхгауз", 2008. — 48 с. — ISBN 978-5-9771-0063-2.

Links

some foorage of the Sh2
airwar.ru
armedconflicts.com
eaaforums.org
secretprojects.co.uk
ram-home.com
airpages.ru
wikipedia.org/wiki/Shavrov_Sh-2
Wiki Ru Sh3
Sh-2 on aviastar.org
about the sha-3 on aviastar
aviarmor.net
scalemodels.ru
amyat.narod.ru
museum.ru
e-reading-lib.com

The model corner

Its Drawings for modeling were published in the russian magazine "Model Designer". Kits were produced by the Ukrainian Amodel (1:72, plastic injetion) and the Oryol publishing house (1:33, paper model). General query on scalemates
SH-2 on scalemates.com/
super-hobby.co.uk
On britmodeller.com
modelingmadness.com

Refs

basilzolotov.com
britmodeller.com
www.airwar.ru
www.airliners.net

Gallery

Author's illustrations: Types and liveries


Shavrov-SH-2


Flying Ambulance


Equipped with skis for arctic and winter operations


Propaganda flights model of the NKVD


Green model with skis


Aerofolot model in Military use 1941


Finnish model 1942

Additional photos


shavrov-sh-2-plan


Shavrov_Sh-2_display-US


Fuselage construction Sh1 1928


Wing-construction Sh1 1928


Sh2-scan


Central-construction-construction-Sh1-1928


Fuselage-underconstr-Sh-1_1928


Shavrov_Sh-2_СССР_К8_Ambulance


Shavrov_Sh-2_Monino


sh2-design-diff


dsignSH2-3v


sh2bgHD


designSh2-pubrus


Sh-2cockpitatYegorievskTechSchool


shavrov-sh-2-desgn-cockp


sh2-orig-bp


diffSh1Sh2-ft


Sh2-plans


sh2-det-plans


Shavrov_Sh-2_cockpit


sh2specs

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
Seaplanes
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)



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