Herzherzog Karl class battleships (1902)

Austro-Hungarian Navy ensign Erzherzog Karl, Ferdinand Max, Friedrich (1902)

Herzerzog Ferdinand Max
The previous Herzherzog Ferdinand Max in 1900, former famous Ironclad distinguished at the battle of Lissa in 1865.

KuK battleships still on budget

As soon at they were allowed larger budgets, the Admiralty shipbuildings's director Friedrich Popper was found ready to develop a series of three ships that were significantly larger than the Habsburgs. Unfortunately, Popper still was limited in its choices because of the narrow construction shapes of STT, the only major shipbuilder on the coast, and its own budgets did not allowed to expand facilities.

As a result, these three units, heavier by 2,000 tons to the previous Habsburg, were still very compact, and therefore well protected. But their artillery was limited again, to 40-caliber Krupp 240 mm cannons, considered sub-standard by the time (or armoured cruiser level). The three Herzerzogs ("archduke") were thus once more, even with the benefit of an extra gun, - which was the least given their increase in tonnage - still lower than their counterparts from other nations. The class was therefore, again, outclassed, outranged and outgunned.


Their armor was weaker at the central section of the belt, on the turrets, the casemates, but it was still higher than the decks and command tower thickness. However, the available space below the waterline (7.51 m draft) authorized the installation of compact yet powerful machines, allowing these "archdukes" to reach 20.5 knots, better than most battleships of her time. This allow them to act a bit like armoured cruisers. Fighting cruisers of all tonnage and fleeing battleships. Their secondary armament, on the other hand, was much more powerful than on the Habsburgs, as these ships went from 12 x 6 in (152 mm) guns to 12 x 7.5 in (190 mm), which well their main 240 mm battery. The caliber was still sufficiently different to be able to tell the difference seeing their repective waterplumes through the rangefinders and adjust the shot accordingly. The secondary armament, also from Škoda, were mounted in eight single casemates on each side and two twin turrets, they had a 20,000 metres (22,000 yd) range and a muzzle velocity of 800 mps (2,600 ft/s) and a three rpm rate of fire.

Once again, their tertiary armament was emblematic of pre-dreadnoughts, with 70 mm Škoda guns (3 in), 47 mm Vickers QF guns declined in 33 and 44 caliber, 37 mm Vickers AA revolver guns and 8 mm Skoda machine guns. All this arsenal was devoted to fighting torpedo boats. In 1916, three Škoda 70-millimeter anti-aircraft guns were added to all ships, replacing the previous Vickers models that dated back from 1910. The torpedo tubes were also sub-standatd at 450 mm (457 or even 533 mm were more frequent) and rarely used. They were fitted above the waterline, on either side.

Career

The three battleships formed together the 3rd line division, making some sorties of coastal bombardment after the declaration of war, but the occurrence of a bad encounter with the allied fleet in the Adriatic forced them to stay idle at Pola harbour for most of the war. At the time of Italy's declaration of war on May 23, 1915, the three Herzerzogs went out together with the rest of the fleet to carry out a massive shelling of the Italian coast. The ardmiralty however renounced the suicidal attempt to send them to the Dardanelles to support the Turks. Albeit inactive until the capitulation, they were kept always ready, and so were never send in drydock for some bottom-scrapping. Captured by the Yugoslavs, they became, as a result of the peace treaty, war damage compensation to UK which when seeing their poor state immediately resold them to Italian shipbeakers in 1920.

Herzherzog Ferdinand Max

At the outbreak of World War I, Erzherzog Ferdinand Max was in the 3rd division of the Austrian-Hungarian battle-line fleet as said above, mobilized at the eve of the war to support the SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau fleeing through the Mediterranean. When the Austrian ships passed Brindisi they were recalled. Erzherzog Ferdinand Max shelled Ancona (24 May 1915) on Italian gun-batteries and the harbour. A mutiny erupted on 1 February 1918 in Cattaro, which included the crews of Sankt Georg and Kaiser Karl VI. Two days later the Herzherzog squadron arrived to suppress the mutiny.

The rebellious ships were later decommissioned, their crews jailed, and the squadron took their place. On 11 June, Admiral Miklos Horthy planned a a massive push on the Otranto Barrage with the three Herzherzog plus the four Tegetthoffs and Novara-class cruisers however the previous night, on 10 June, Szent István en route to Cattaro was torpedoed and sunk by Italian MAS and Horthy called off the whole operation. At the end of the war, SMS Erzherzog Karl-class battleships was handed over to the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs before her transfer to Great Britain as war reparation, resold and scrapped in 1921.

Herzherzog Karl


After assisting the flight of SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau, SMS Hrz. Karl took part in the shelling of Ancona, shelling about 24 rounds of 240 mm AP shells at signal and semaphore stations and 74 smaller rounds to gun-batteries and infrastructures. After the mutiny of Cattaro (see above), she was posted permanently there after helping quelling the mutineers. She was inactive although mobilized for a main sortie planned against Otranto barrage, cancelled after one dreadnought was sunk during the preceding night by MTBs. She spent the rest of the war at Pola (Pula), protected by heavy nettings. After being taken over by the Yugoslavs she was ceded to France as war reparation but ran aground at Bizerte en route to Toulon and was broken up in situ after she it was found impossble to tow her.

Herzherzog Friedrich


Also part of the 3rd division of the Austrian-Hungarian battlefleet she also sailed to assist SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau past brindisi and went back. She also took part in the bombardment of Ancona and was later sent to Cattaro to quel a mutiny and was based there until june 1918 when it was plan to send her unit to Otranto; but this was never to be and the ship sat idle at Pola for the remainder of the war. Ceded as a war reparation to France in 1920, she was scrapped in 1921.

Herzerzog Ferdinand class specifications

Dimensions126,2 x 21,8 x 7,5 m ()
Displacement10472T standard (10,640 long tons)
Crew700
Propulsion2 shafts 2 VTE 4 cyl., 16 Belleville boilers, 18,000 ihp
Speed20.5 knots (38.0 km/h; 23.6 mph) - 20.7 trials
Armament4 x 240mm/40 (9.4 in), 12 x 190mm/42 (7.5 in), 12 x 70mm/45 SFK (2.8 in), 6 x 47mm/44/33 (1.9in), 4 x 37mm (1.5 in), 4 x8mm (0.3 in) MGs, 2 x 450 mm TTs (17.7 in)
ArmourWaterline Belt 220 (8.3 in), turrets 240 (9.4 in), casemates 210 (5.9 in), decks 55 (2.2 in), Conning Tower 220 mm (8.7 in), bulkheads 200mm (7.9 in)

Author's illustration of the Herzherzog Karl in 1915

Src/ Read More

Erzherzog_Karl-class on Wikipedia
modelshipgallery Erzherzog Ferdinand Max Model by Martin Deuretsbacher
russiannavy.net - Various photos of the KuK Marine
kuk-marine-museum.net

On fr.naval-encyclopedia.com
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Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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