Minor cold war & Modern Navies

☫ 41 countries around the world: Africa, Asia, Oceania, South America

What is the definition of a “minor navy” ?
Surely there is a “top tier”, which is most often assimilated to a “blue water navy”. And it is most often assorted with a true aircraft carrier (not an assault ship), which gave us a limited club (USN, and Russian Navy, British, French, Italian and Spanish Navies, and in Asia the PLAN, JSDMF, Indian and Thai Navies). Then came “regional navies” sometimes flagged as “green water” navies, which in high tier have guided missile destroyers and assault ships (like Turkey) while the Bundesmarine have not, and they could still make a projection of power due to large ships with logistic for oceanic operations such as anti-piracy missions in the red sea. And these is the lower tier, which could defend its EEZ and do limited projection of powers nearby but not much esle, which is the object of the present chapter.

And there is at the bottom what most calls a “brown water” navy. The name suggest essentially a riverine fleet. It’s especially true of the country had still a limited coastal area but restricted budget and/or is landlocked and only has a complement to just a “police force” for its riverine traffic. This is true also for large lakes, like the Tanganyka in Africa. Still between the low tier regional naval power to the small riverine force, enters most nations on the planet. They are classed by alphabetical order. It must be said that 44 countries in the world (on 195 recoignised ones worldwide) are truly landlocked. Let’s cite Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Czechia, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, in Europe alone, but also Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Somaliland, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, Slovakia, South Ossetia, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Transnistria, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vatican, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In population, 475,818,737 so 6% roughly of the world’s population, showing superbly that the bulk of humanity lives close to the sea. Many of these only have a token riverine police force or nothing at all, even with a small river going through, nike Nepal. These are absent of the list but could be added next year.

About this page:
I will complete these fleets according to a monthly schedule, one after the other in the following years, and add more along the way. The ones not present are of course to be looked for in the main menu.

Algerian Navy

The Algerian Naval Force (القوات البحرية الجزائرية) is the naval branch of the Algerian military, founded after the Independence in 1963, but existing in various guises from 1516 to 1827. This navy operated from bases along the country’s 1,440 km (890 mi) coastline. Primary mission is to defend Algeria’s territorial waters and EEZ, fishery areas and strategic geological assets (potential oil extraction) against foreign intrusions. There is no dedicated coast guard and all maritime safety missions are tasked by the Navy, with a wide range of ships between a 9000 tonnes LHD down to small patrol boats. Projection of forces comprises an amphibious component (three main vessels) plus a corps of “fusiliers marins” (Marines), an air components (16 helicopters), 20 to 25 Frigates and corvettes, a conventional deterrence with six submarines, making the Algerian a top-tier player in the Western Mediterranean, and “blue-green” water navy.

Due to weapons procurement during the war of independence just as other Algerian military branches, Soviet assistance shaped its navyfor ships types and structure during the Cold War, but more recently, Algeria started to seek for other sources for equipment, including major ships: Germany, China, Italy, France, UK, Spain, Japan, Poland and Norway…
Algeria also invested its own shipbuilding capacity. Based on this, Algerian built its first domestic ships, the Djebel Chenoua class corvettes in 2002, but during the cold war procurement was almost exclusively Soviet. This article thus will be split in two, the cold war and modern navies, plus plans.

The Algerian Navy in the cold war

The Algerian armed forces (including a fourth service, the National Gendarmerie) are formidable and well-equipped, much military effort having been devoted to the 150,000-man army, the fourth strongest in Africa, with a reputation and traditions based on winning the prolonged guerrilla war leading to independence in 1962. Algeria’s merchant marine, boosted like much else by the country’s recent oil wealth, expanded from seventy-five ships (239,81 5grt) in 1974 to 130 vessels (1,218,621 grt) in 1980.

The navy, which began with a pair of Egyptian (ex-US) coastal minesweepers, has been gradually expanded and modernised in the past 25 years, personnel being increased from 3000 to 6000, with about 9000 reservists, and it is now probably stronger and certainly more efficient than the Libyan Navy. Previously a force of large patrol and fast attack craft, it was reinforced 1n 1980 by the first of two Soviet missile corvettes and a ‘Koni’ class frigate, giving some cruising capability. From January 1982 a Soviet ‘Romeo’ class submarine gave training to Algerian crews at Mers-el-Kebir, and in 1987-88 two ‘Kilo’ class submarines were acquired from the Soviet Union to replace the two ‘Romeos’ acquired earlier.

Despite receiving further Soviet equipment, and regular visits from the Soviet fleet, Algeria did not provide the USSR with base facilities. Since the early 1980s, Algeria has started to build its own small surface vessels, but lacks the funds to buy the larger replacement vessels it urgently requires. ‘The main bases along the 800-mile coast are Mers-el-Kebir, Algiers, Arzew, Philippeville, La Senia and Annaba (Bone).

3 Koni class frigates (1980): Built at Zelenodosk SY, launched 1979, pennants 901-903, Murat Reis, Rais Kellicen, Rais Korfu. Still in service today.
2 Romeo class submarines (delivered 1982-83). From 1995, battery-charging boats and pierside training hulks.
2 Kilo class submarines Delivered 1987-88. The sail has a mount for Strela SAM MANPAD aft (30 in reserve). Extant.
3 Nanuchka II class corvettes: Built at Petrovksky, Leningrad, launched 1979, delivered 1980-81 as Rais Hamidou, Salah Reis and Rais Ali, pennants 801-803. Extant
c14 Kebir class OPVs (see below)
12 OSA I/II class FACs: Transfers: 3 1967, 9 1976-81 numb.644-651, one damaged, one destroyed explosion 1981. Stricken 2000s.
6 Komar class FACs: Transferred 1966 as 671-676, stricken 1995.
12 P6 class FAC(Torpedo): Transferred 1963-68, discarded 1975 to 1984, 2 Coast Guard, 2 training.
6 SO-I class OPVs: Transferred 1965-67 P651-656, three had 2x TTs from P6s. Discarded 1985-88
6 Hainan class OPVs: Transferred 1990 and used by the coast guards.
2 BYMS type Minesweepers: Djebel Aures, Sidi Fradj, from Egypt 1962, Aures wrecked off Algiers 1963, Fradje discarded 1971.
2 T43 class minesweepers: Transferred 1968, discarded 1984-85
1 Polocny class transferred 1976, N°555
1 Poluchat class Torpedo recovery vessel
1 Zhuk class 1981 CPC.
16 CPS 1976 Italian built for the Coast Guard. Discarded;

The Algerian Navy today and plans

Current list in 2023:

Kalaat Beni Hammed in 1984

-2 Kilo, 4 Kilo-M class subs
-Kalaat Béni Abbès (San Giorgio class LSD ordered 2011, com. 2015)
-2 Kalaat Beni Hammed class landing ship, UK built, com. 1984
-2 Erradii class, German MEKO 2000 Frigates com. 2016: Erradii, El Moudamir
-3 Adhafer class frigates, Chinese 2880t stealth corvettes, com. 2015: Adhafer, El Fatih, Ezzadjer
-3 Koni class (see above) modernized in 2011: Mourad Rais, Rais Kellik, Rais Korfou
-3 Nanuchka II class corvettes, modernized 2012: Ras Hamidou, Salah Reis, Reis Ali
-4 Djebel Chenoua class corvettes (algerian built, com. 2002, see below ): Djebel Chenoua, El Chihab, El Kirch, Hassan Barbiear
-1(6) El Moutassadi class corvettes (Chinese 1500t Type 056 class): Sources differs 1 or 6 delivered, no names but lead ship.
-3 Steregushchiy class corvettes on order (to be delivered 2022).
-3 El-Kasseh class mine countermeasure ships (Italian Lerici class, com. 2016)
-8 Osa II-class missile boats (possibly in reserve today, still listed)
-14 Kebir-class OPVs (UK built, com. 1982, by Booke Marine)
-41 Denebi class OPVs (Fr Ocea-class patrol boats, com. 2008-2021)
-12 El Mounkid class CPVs (Algerian built wt Spanish & assistance design, com. 2016)
-El Idrissi survey ship 540t 1980 (Japan built Matsukara Zosen)
-El Masseh survey ship (Fr Ocea Yd OSV-95 type) com. 2021
-Soummam TS (Chinese built 5,500 tonnes com 2006)
-EL Mellah Polish built sailing vessel Gdansk 2006.
-El Mourafik 600t salvage vessel Chinese built 1990
-El Mounjid class High Seas tugs (Norway built 3,200 tonnes Type UT 515 CD 2012)

Naval Air Force:
-10 Westland Super Lynx, ship and land borne, ASW helicopters
-5 Agusta-Westland AW101 for SAR helicopters
-3 Agusta-Westland AW139 utility helicopters

Future plans:
-Acquisition of TYPE 054A 2+ frigates 2020s
-Acquisition of 4-6 AIP Submarines in replacement to the Kilos, late 2020s.
-3 Three corvettes C28A +3 more locally. Thales electronics mounted in Algeria, Hudong Zhonghua Shipyard

Kalaat Béni Abbès (2014)

Modified San Giorgio class: Ordered 2011 +one option. Delivered 2015. 9,000 tonnes, Improved San Giorgio Landing and Logistic Support Ship. The BDSL can accommodate 3 landing craft mechanized, 3 small landing craft vehicle personnel, 1 large landing craft personnel, 2 semi-rigid boats 15 armoured vehicles in hangar, helideck, 6 spots, crew 150, 400 troops. Armament: Aster 15 missiles, 1x OTO Melara 76 mm Super Rapido, bow; 2x 25 mm RWS.

Erradi class Frigates (2015)

Two MEKO A-200AN frigates: Erradii (910) and El Moudamir (911) ordered from ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, then ADM Kiel shipyard in 2013 plus option for two more in 2014 and is fitted with the following:
-Oto Melara 127/64 LW 127 mm main gun
-MSI-Defence 30 mm cannons
-Denel Dynamics Umkhonto-IR surface-to-air missiles
-Saab/Diehl Defence RBS-15 Mk3 anti-ship missiles
-Rheinmetall Defence MASS softkill decoy launchers
-Saab Sea Giraffe AMB 3-D surveillance radar
-Saab CEROS 200 radar/electro-optical fire control directors
-Thales UMS4132 Kingklip sonar
CODOG with GE turbine or CODAG-WARP (WAter jet and Refined Propellers) propulsion like the 200SAN

Djebel Chenoua-class corvettes

Djebel Chenoua, El Chihab, El Kirch, Hassan Barbiear

First large Algerian built vessels. Next ones are the Alusafe 2000 speedboats and potentially in the future, chinese design corvettes C28A.
The Djebel Chenoua-class corvettes are of domestic design and assembly, developed in ERCN Mers el-Kebir shipyard near Oran, built in the 1980s. They were specialized in ASW and SAR operations, lightly armed until equipped with four C-802 missiles made in China, derived from the French Exocet (120 km range, auto guidance). It is completed by a Russian AK-176 76 mm main gun and Gatling-type AK-630 30 mm for air defense aft.
Specs: 550 tons FL, 58.4 x 8.5 x 2.59m (191.6 x 27.9 x 8.5 ft), 3× MTU 20V-538-TB92 diesels, 31 knots RA 1.000 Nmi (1.852 km) Crew 52, carried 2 Rigid-hulled inflatable boat
Attack radar Type 363A/S, Acquisition radar Type 374G, Optronic director Type 88C, 2 × Decoy launchers.

El Kirch in 2006


J. Gardiner, Conway’s all the world’s fighting ships 1947-95
mdn.dz/ official site

Azerbaijani Navy

The Azerbaijani Naval Forces wer created back in August 5, 1919, as the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic established a naval force, based on remnants of the Russian Imperial fleet of the Caspian Sea. To remind, Azerbaijan was at first part of Caucasian Albania and Persian empires while in the 19th century as part of Qajar Iran, the country was claimed by Russia after the Russo-Persian wars of 1804–1813 and 1826–1828. The treaties of Gulistan in 1813 and Turkmenchay in 1828 precised borders with what was called Qajar Iran and fell under the Caucasus Viceroyalty.
By the late 19th century a raise of nationalism saw the grow of Azerbaijani national identity. Revolts ended with the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed as an independent state from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic in 1918, helped by the revolution and collapse of the Russian Empire.

Erdogan, 1919 former Russian vessel.

This small navy had only 6 ships. However soon Soviet rule was established in Azerbaijan, and the navy was transferred under the Soviet Navy supervision. The country lived on as a republic of the USSR but no longer control of its defence, until 1991 and the collapse of the Soviet Union.

During the cold war, AZERBAIJAN A naval force was set up in July 1991, based at Baku on the Caspian Sea. It had been decided that half of the former Soviet Caspian Sea flotilla would be divided between Russia and Azerbaijan, with the other half to be shared later between Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. Other units came from the KGB Border Guards. The following vessels were reported extant in 1995:
-One ‘Petya II’ class frigate, 404 (ex-SKR-16), transferred 1992.
-One ‘Polnocny B’ class medium landing ship, transferred August 1992.
-Three ‘Polnocny A’ class medium landing ships, transferred August 1992 from the Caspian flotilla. Believed to be in poor condition.
-One ‘T 4’ class landing craft transferred July 1992.
-Two “Osa II’ class fast attack craft (missile), transferred August 1992, one believed to have been a training vessel prior to transfer.
-One “Zhuk’ class coastal patrol craft.
-Two ‘Stenka’ class fast attack craft (torpedo). Transferred July 1992 from KGB Border Guards. Likely that sonar and ASW TT removed.
-Three ‘Sonya’ class coastal minesweepers transferred August 1992.
-Two ‘Yevgenya’ inshore minesweepers transferred 1992.

The Azerbaijani fleet of the Soviet Navy was divided between Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation. By July 1992, Azerbaijani ships saw ceremonies with the raising of the Azerbaijani Flag in the Caspian Sea. The 1996 Presidential Decree by Heydar Aliyev marked August 5 as national “navy day”. Reinforced thanks to a rsisng budget favoured by the country’s rveneus from petroleum, this fleet is now second strongest navy in the Caspian Sea, after the Russian fleet flotilla.
Jane’s Fighting Ships precised a Coast Guard was formed in July 2002, requisitioning vessels from the Caspian Flotilla and Border Guard. In 1995 Russian overall control was re-established for “maintenance and support” although independence is still nominal. The Navy today is commanded by Captain Rafig Asgarov.

Naval Bases and installations:

-Baku (Puta) Naval Base: Shipyard close to Puta, Qaradagh. Puta is the largest military facility in the Caspian Sea, built from October 2010. Main support, HQ, academic center are all located at the same place, with arsenal, drydocks and repair Plant of the Navy. The old Soviet Naval base in Baku, dilapidated after the fall of USSR, had been converted into a arts centre.
Zığ base: Azeri Marines infantry HQ.


  • Main Headquarters:
  • Surface Ship Brigade
    Water Area Protection Division
    Division of Landing Ships
    Division of Minesweepers
    Division of Search and Rescue Vessels
    Training Courts Division

  • Brigade of Patrol Ships
  • Marine Infantry
  • 641st Naval Special Operations Brigade
    Sea Sabotage and Reconnaissance Brigade

  • Reserve
  • Azerbaijan Coast Guard
    Patrol Ship Brigade

  • Mobilization reserve:
  • Azerbaijan Merchant Fleet

  • Educational establishments
  • Faculty of the Navy, Azerbaijan Higher Military Academy (the former Azerbaijan Higher Naval Academy) – training of officers of the fleet and naval units of the border troops
    Training Center of the Azerbaijani Navy – training of warrant officers and foremen of the contract service.

Strenght Today:

4 submarines, 1 frigate, 13+ patrol vessels, 6 landing craft, 7 mine warfare ships:
-Soviet Triton-2m and Triton-1 (Project 907) submarines: 4 in service
-Soviet Petya-class frigate, ARG Gusar(G121) modernised by USA and Turkey.

ARG Gusar(G121)

Ex-Grisha class boat. Replacing a former ‘Petya II’ class frigate, 404 (ex-SKR-16), transferred 1992.

Azeri OPVs

-5 Stenka-class patrol boat
-3 Osa-class fast attack craft (missile)
-2 Svetlyak-class patrol boat
-2 AB-25 class patrol craft: AB-34 (P-134) and AB-35 (P-135) transferred in 2000
-1 Point-class cutter, (S-201 – ex-USCGS Point Brower) from US
In addition, negociations are ongoing to acquire the Kılıç-class fast attack craft with Turkey.

OPVs in the military parade off Baku

US Point-class Cutter S-201

Azeri landing ships

6 Polnocny-class landing ship: 2 Polnocny-A and 4 Polnocny-B

Azeri Minesweepers

2 Sonya-class minesweeper
5 Yevgenya-class minesweeper
Note: more infos on these when creating the portal page on Soviet cold war minesweepers.

Azeri Naval Aviation

-3 CASA/IPTN CN-235 HC-144A Maritime patrol planes, twin-turboprop
-2 Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin, SAR and maritime patrol
-1 Eurocopter AS332 Super Puma transport heli

Cooperation programs:

In 2006, the U.S. Government donated three motorboats to the Azerbaijani Navy, together with an agreement to refurbish Azerbaijani warships; By May 19, 2006, Azerbaijani and Turkish Navy held a joint military exercise for the security of oil and gas pipelines, in Baku to ensure the safety of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline to provide Caspian oil to Turkey an to terminals for export. The exercises consisted in the clearance of mines on the seabed and counter-terrorism, maritime and air operations.
In 2007, a new agreement was signed between the Azerbaijani Navy and U.S. company to provide advanced laser marksmanship systems and training.
Lastly, the Caspian Guard Initiative was signed as a framework program to coordinate activities in Azerbaijan-Kazakhstan with the U.S. Central Command and other agencies for Caspian security. This also includes counter-terrorism, work to prevent nuclear proliferation, drug and human trafficking, under the EUCOM command.


eurasianet.org azerbaijan-inaugurates-new-caspian-naval-base
mod.gov.az/ pdf/

Bahraini Navy

The Royal Bahraini Naval Force (Arabic: القوات البحرية الملكية البحرينية, abbreviated RBNF), was founded in 1979, following an independence on 15 August 1971. Prior to that the country was claimed both by Saudi Arabia and Iran, and was a quasi-protectorate of Britain. The oil-rich country took part in WW2 on the side of the allies. Thew navy grew until comprising today of 700 personnel (crews only), 35 ships and two helicopters. It comprises today one single frigate, the former U.S. Oliver Hazard Perry-class RBNS Sabha.
Before even the creation of the navy in 1979 indeed, to protect the country from Iran after the revolution, the United States and Bahrain signed an agreement on 23 December 1971 allowing the USN “Middle East Force” to use the former British base. The very first warship arrived on 20 March. The flagship RBNS Sabha was acquired on 9 July 1997.
RBNS Sabha took part in the invasion of Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom.

Bahrain consists of a group of low-lying islands situated about twenty miles off the coast of Saudi Arabia. The largest of these is Bahrain, on which the capital, Manama, is situated at the northern end. The population by 1991 estimate was 516,000. A friendship treaty was signed between Britain and Bahrain after independence in 1971.
By 1992 naval personnel had increased to 650 officers and ratings. There are also about 250 men serving in the Coast Guard patrol force. During the 1980s Bahraini naval forces were increased significantly. New acquisitions include two fast helicopter-capable missile armed fast corvettes of the Lurssen ‘FPB 62’ type, commissioned in 1987-88, and four fast attack craft of the Lurssen “TNC 45’ type which entered service in pairs in 1984 and 1986-89.

080417-N-3165S-121 At sea (Apr. 17) — RBNS Sabha sails in formation with the other ships participating in Operation Arabian Shark ’08. Operation Arabian Shark ’08 was a joint exercise, focusing on anti-submarine warfare, between the navies of the U.S., Bahrain, and Pakistan. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Ryan Steinhour. (RELEASED)


Mina Salman Naval Base: Currently shared with the USN 5th Fleet, as ship/sub logistic support, and deom 1980s a cargo facility.
Manama Naval Base: Regional key US Navy installation, former HMS Juffair. The navy shipyard is large wand well provided for various drydock operations and is shared with several other neighbouring countries.
These acquisitions significantly increased the capabilities of the navy bevond its former role as a small coastal patrol force. This build-up can be seen as a success story for Lurssen, as all ships and craft of any fighting value were designed and built by them. During the early 1990s there were reports of the proposed procurement of up to three air cushion minehunters, but nothing has come of this so far. Bahrain continues to play host to Western naval forces in the Gulf. It was also a sanctuary for surviving Kuwaiti warships which fled that country during the Iraqi invasion.

Cold War Ships list

-2 Lürssen FPB 62 missile corvettes (1987): Al Manama, Al Muharraq
-2 Lürssen FPB 38 FACs (1981): Al Riffa, Hawar
-4 Lürssen TNC 45 FACs (1984): Ahmad el Fateh Al Jaberi, Abdul Rahman el Fadel, Al Tameerlah
-2 Swift FPB 20 FACs: Al Jarim, Al Jasrah
-4 LCU (US design from Swiftships, Morgan city): Ajirah, Mashtan, Rubodh, Suwad. 100t fuel, 88t water, bow ramp, 15t crane.

Coast Guard (Ministry of interior command)

-3 Fairey Marine ‘Tracker’ class (26t full load, 64ft, 28kts, 1—20mm): Deraa 1, Deraa 2, Deraa 3: Deraa 1 bought 1974, in service since 1975. Two others bought 1980. Deraa 2 stricken 1990, remainder extant 1995.
-Two Fairey Marine ‘Spear’ class (10t full load, 29ft, 26kts, 2 MG, 3 men): Saham (4) and Khataf (5) bought 1974, in service since 1975.
-Two Vosper type (32t, 56ft, 29kts): Howar (3) and Roubodh, Singapore-built 1977.
-Three small Vosper type (6.3t, 36ft, 27kts): Al Bayneh, Funnan and Quaimas, Singapore-built 1977. All three deleted 1992.
-One 50ft Cheverton type (9t, 22kts): Mashtan (6) UK-built 1976. Deleted 1993.
-Three 27ft Cheverton type (3.3t, 15kts): Noon (15), Askar (16), and Suwad (17) built 1977. All deleted 1993.
-Wasp type GRP patrol boat (103t full load, 98ft 5in oa, 25kts, 1-30mm, 27.62mm MG): Al Muharrag; built Souters, Cowes; in service 1985. Extant 1995.
-Four Halmatic class (31.5t full load, 66ft oa, 25kts, 2-7.62mm MG): Deraa 2, 6, 7, 8, all in service 1995.
-Two Wasp 20m class (36t full load, 65ft 6in, 24.5kts): Deraa 4 and 5; built Souters, Cowes; GRP hull, in service 1983. Extant 1995.
-Three Wasp 11m class (7.25t, 36ft, 24kts): Saham 1, 2, 3, built by Souter, Cowes; in service 1983. All deleted 1993.
-Six Halmatic class boats (17t, 47ft 3in, 27kts): Saif 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; GRP hull, in service 1990-91. Extant 1995.
-Four Fairey ‘Sword’ class patrol boats (15t, 45ft oa, 28kts): Saif 1, 2, 3, 4 Purchased 1980. All extant 1995.

-One ‘Loadmaster’ class landing craft, Safra (7) UK-built 1976 and commisSoned December 1977.
-One utility hovercraft built by Tropimere, UK, 1977. .
-One Fairey Marine landing craft (150t, 74ft oa): Safra 2 (40) commissioned 980, on loan to the navy. Extant 1995.
-One Halmatic support craft (165t, 85ft, 13kts): Safra 3, commissioned 992. Extant 1995,

The Barhaini fleet today

-2 Frigates (former OH Perry class): RBNS Sabha, later RBNS Khalid bin Ali (1997) armed with Harpoon SSMs and a MBB BO-105 helicopter, SM-1MR SAM
-2 Al-Manama class Corvettes (1988, see above)
-1 River-class OPV Batch 1b: RBNS Al-Zubara (2020, ex-HMS Clyde)
-5 Cyclone-class Patrol crafts (US built, 2020)
-4 Ahmed Al Fateh class FACs (1984, see above) upgraded with a new weapon control system.
-2 Al Riffa class FPB 38 PCs (1982, see above)
-2 Al Jarim Swiftships 65 PBs (1982, see above)
-2 Swiftships 35 FPBs (FPV35s (2021)
-7 Mark V Special Operations Craft (2018–19)
-2 Vigor Response-Boat Mediums (RB-M) (2019)
-6 BMT Group 18m patrol boat (UK design Built in Turkey, 2013, 6+ option)
-2 Wasp-11, 1 Wasp-20, 2 Wasp-30 PBs
-4 VT Group VT-Halmatic 20 (Qatar built)
-6 VT Group VT-Halmatic 160 (Qatar built) —
-4 Fairey Marine Swordsman (UK, 2020)
-4 Al Hamra class ADSB Steel Landing Craft (UAE built) 2009, 42m and 16m models.
-4 LCU-1466 (ex US)
-1 Fairey Marine LCU
-1 Arab Shipbuilding and Repair Yard Co. (Bahrain, 2016) 34.5m

Al-Manama class corvettes

These are small, versatile missile corvettes capable of carrying a helicopter, ordered in February 1984. They were launched in 1986-87. The big after superstructure, topped with a landing platform, includes a helicopter hangar incorporating a lift. The Aerospatiale SA 365F Dauphin 2 helicopter is armed with AS 15TT SSM (all weather missiles tracked by radar rather than by a tail flare). Fitted with CSEE Panda Mk2 optical director. Magazine capacity is as follows: 400 rounds 76mm, 4400 rounds 40mm and 5000 rounds 20mm ammunition and eight AS 15TT SSM for helicopter launch. These corvettes can cruise at a continuous speed of 32kts with 16,000bhp engine MCR. They are much more capable than the standard fast attack craft and can serve as leaders for FAC squadrons providing over-horizon targeting for anti-ship missiles, using the embarked helicopter. Very similar ships serve in the navy of the United Arab Emirates.
536/632 t, 63 x 9.3 x 2.9m, 4 shafts MTU 20V538 TB92 diesels 18,740 bhp, 34.5 kts Range 4000 nm/16 kts. 4 MM40 Exocet SSM, 1x76mm OTO Melara, 2x 40mm Breda, 2x20mm Oerlikon GAM-BO1, CSEE Dagaie chaff RL, 1 helicopter. Radar PEAB Sea Giraffe, Racal Decca 1226, PEAB 9LV331, ESM/ECM Racal Decca Cutlass/Cygnus.

Al-Riffa class FACs

2 ordered 1979, planned to have a 40 mm/70 Bofors and commissioned August-Nov. 1981.
188/205t, 38.6 x 7 x 2.2m, 2 shafts MTU 20V 539 TB91 diesels 9500 bhp 34 kts. RA 550 nm/31 kts or 1100 nm/16 kts. Twin 40mm/70 Breda-Bofors Compatto, 2x20mm GAM 601 Oerlikon, mines, dagaie chaff RL, 5x50mm RFLon 40mm, 2×3 pdr saluting guns. Radar CSEE Lynx, Philips 9LV100G Philips 9GR600 Decca 1226.

Ahmad El Fateh class FACs

The first pair was ordered in Germany in 1979, second in May 1985 to a standard design. Launhed 1983-84 and 1986-88, close to models in UAE service. CSEE Panda optical director, carried 250 rds 40 mm, 6000 rds 7.62mm and can carry mines. Machinery reported to be capable of 15600 bhp and 41 kts
228/259t or 270t, 44.9/46.9 x 7/7.3 x 2.5/3m, 4 shafts MTU 16V538 TBI92 diesels 12.820 bhp nominal 40 kts. Range 1500 nm/15 kts, 500nm/38.5 kts.
Armed with 4 MM 40 Exocet SSM, 1x 76mm OTO Melara, 2×40/70 mm Breda, 3x LMGs. Radar PEAB LV223 Racad Decca 1226, ECM Racal Cygnus and ESM Decca RDLABC, Dagaie Chaff RL.

Al Jarim class FACs

Tow fast attack fcrafts of aluminium contruction by Swiftships Morgan City in the USA, commissioned in February 1982 and extant.
33t, 1932 x 5.6 x 2m, 2 shafts Detroit 12V-71TVA diesels 1200 bjp 30 kts. 1x 20mm/93 Oerlikon GAM BO1, radar Decca 110

Bangladesh Navy

The Navy is one of the youngest worldwide. It was born not after the independence and partition of India in 1947, leading to three entities based on religion and geography: India proper, surrounded by West and East Pakistan (Bengal), the latter becoming independent in 1971. The Bangladesh’s 1971 liberation war against Pakistan was supported by India. The creation was sanctioned in July, but the country started with very little assets, the small “Eastern Pakistani fleet”. Official name is বাংলাদেশ নৌবাহিনী, “Bangladesh Nou Bahini”. Since Bangladesh is a Republic, Ships are simply prefixed BNS in English, standing for “Bangladesh Navy Ship”.

BNS Ali Haider in 1990, en Ex-British Leopard class Frigate Type 41 acquired in 1978. Her sister BNS Abu Bakr was acquired in 1982 (conways).

Birth in 1971: Existing assets

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh was proclaimed in what had been East Pakistan in April 1971. This was followed first by civil war and then in December by the Third Indo-Pakistan War, which resulted in the complete independence of Bangladesh. Although four Soviet ‘Vanya’ class minesweepers operated during 1972-74 in Bangladesh coastal waters to clear Chittagong of mines and wrecks these were not incorporated in the Bangladesh Navy, but returned to the USSR. The navy came into being with its own niver craft in 1972, and was formed around four old British fngates and a number. of transferred gunboats. There was also a small force of river gunboats.
On 9 November 1971 was created the first naval fleet (six small patrol vessels) which raided the Pakistani fleet, until mistakenly hit and sunk by the Indian Air Force on 10 December 1971. There was also a major raid on Mongla seaport. Postwar, it was assessed through various sources and report that the young navy had 334 sailors in service, and 22 KiA.

In all, some 45 operations were led, and between naval raids, many unconventional commando operations and general guerrilla style land/coastal/riverine warfare. The Navy was bolstered at first by defecting Bengali sailors, notably eight from Pakistan Navy submarine PNS Mangro under construction in France at the time. Well experiences and motiovated they created the core of the future navy, formed officers and manage to recruit more naval personnel until enough were able to wage war over 11 sectors, each with its own Commander with above Sector 10 for the whole coastal area, which in time supervised the orthers.
Ports and harbours needed to be guarded againt any reprisals by the Pakistani later, and sea lines of communication kept open. On the other hand the main objectove was soon for the for the bengalu themselves to prey on Pakistani sea lanes, and communication, fighting also against Pakistani river ports, seaports. Operation Jackpot became the largest and most successful of all as they manage to mine the Pasur River Channel and raiding the Pakistan Army by progressing inland. The embryonic Navy was late recoignised as a major player in the war of independence.
Postwar, the small initial naval staff relized soon that additional naval infrastructure was required, in addition to the one at Dakha reserved for the initial Bengal Fleet. A major addition were two ex-Royal Navy frigates (BNS Umar Farooq and BNS Ali Haider) in 1976-1978 completed in 1982 by BNS Abu Bakr, the meaty core of the Navy, which estended rather to the bottom, with a growingly larger fleet of smaller vessels, notably large patrol crafts.

Bases & Organization

Bases are Chittagong (HQ), Dhaka, Khulna, Juldia and Kaptai. According to the 2030 Forces Goal plans, extensions of the Navy in the 2010s were accompanied by efforts crowned by the opening of a new base, BNS Sher-e-Bangla, at Rabanabad, Patuakhali, built as the largest naval base, with submarine berthing, aviation facilities. BNS Sheikh Hasina was a submarine base commissioned 19 March 2023 at Pekua and another base, BNS Sheikh Mujib, was commissioned in Khilkhet, Dhaka.

1990-2000s Extensions

Bangladesh lacked the money back in 1995 to acquire new ships except for river gunboats. This changed however gradually over the next decades, and the Navy grew exponentially, notably with now a sizeable frigate fleet and missile corvettes/FACs acquired in the 2000s, but no submarines, which could be its major conventional deterrent. That is until 2017 and the acquisition of two Ming class, Type 053G, the Nabajatra class. Volunteer personnel numbered approximately 7,600 back in 1993. Today it’s 25,081 active duty personnel assisted by 2,500 civilians.

The Nabajatra class, a Chinese version of the Soviet Romeo class.

Albeit small, the country managed to bolster the fleet (today considered a green water navy, regional), in order at least to protected the country’s 118,813 square kilometres (45,874 sq mi) of maritime territorial area, defend harbours, bases and economic zones of interest. The fishery industry is notably vital for the population, allowed by ideal conditions in the delta. But the navy recenty was and is still involved in disaster management, humanitarian missions abroad, counter terrorism and global peacekeeping.

Significant dates and actions:

In 1993 the Bangladesh Navy was declared ready for UN Peacekeeping Operations the first by 2005, to Sudan as Force Riverine Unit (FRU). In 2010 it was deployed in Lebanon (UNIFIL) with BNS Osman and BNS Madhumati. In 2008 the Bangladesh–Myanmar naval standoff happened over disputed territory in the northeastern Bay of Bengal, both navies sortied in force and stood in cold confrontation, but the crisis (which started of course over discovered and untapped natural oil and gas reserves, ended after diplomatic negotiations. In 2012, these boundary disputes were solved at at an international tribunal.
The Navy took also part in regular internatioal exercises such as CARAT with the USN since 2011, and the MILAN multinational naval exercise (Andaman Islands) from 2010, as well as AMAN, in the Arabian Sea, by the Pakistan Navy from 2009. Exercise Ferocious Falcon was a Crisis Management Exercise at Doha in Qatar by November 2012. Some ships also took part in naval exhibtions.

U.S. Coast Guard Vice Adm. Paul F. Zukunft, Pacific Area commander and Chief of Naval Staff for the Bangladesh navy, Vice Adm. Muhammad Farid Habib sign the official paperwork to transfer the Coast Guard Cutter Jarvis to the Bangladesh navy during a decommissioning and transfer ceremony on Coast Guard Island in Alameda, Calif., Thursday, May 23, 213. The Jarvis was commissioned in 1972 and became the BNS Somudro Joy. U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 2nd Class Pamela J. Boehland

Relief efforts, humanitarian deployments:
In 2011, the Bangladesh Navy’s rescue and medical team and Bangladesh Army flew to Japan to assist the aftermath of the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. In 2013, BNS Somudra Joy landed humanitarian assistance and sent a medical team to the Philippines after another disaster.
The Bangladesh Navy also took part in the search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, renewed by May 2014 after debris were found in the Bay of Bengal. In 2014, the Water Crisis in Maldives saw BNS Somudra Joy arrving first, with 100 tonnes of bottled water…

The Bangladesh Navy in 1990

-Frigate Umar Farook (Salisbury class, acquired 1976)
-Ali Haider class (Leopard class frigates, acquired 1982)
-Osman (Jianghu II class frigate, acquired 1989)
-4 Duranta class FACs (Missiles) (Hoku class, acquired 1983)
-4 P4 class FACs (Torpedo) (Acquired 1983, discarded 1989)
-4 Durdarsha class FACs (Missiles) (Huangfeng class, Acquired 1988)
-4 Huchuan class FACs (Missile) transferred 1988 replacing the P4s.
-2 Karnapurli class Large Patrol Crafts (Kraljevica class, transferred 1975, BU 1988)
-2 Padma class Large Patrol Crafts (Akshay class, ex-India, transferred 1973-74)
-Bishkali (ex-PNS Jessore, sunk) Large Patrol Craft, salvaged, repaired, renamed 1971
-Shamjala: First dmestic large patrol craft built 1981-82.
-8 Shaheed class large patrol craft (Shanghai II type, transferred 1974-82)
-2 Durjoy class Large Patrol Crafts (Hainan class, transferred 1982-85)
-2 Meghna class CPCs (Singapore built, 410 tons, comm. 1986)
-5 Pabna class river patrol boats (1972-77, first Bangladesh, Dhaka-built warships)
-1 BNS Salam, Type 021-class gun boat comm. 1988, sunk 1991
-4 ex-Chinese Yuchuan Landing crafts, transferred 1986
-3 83t Bangladesh built landing crafts 1988
-1 BNFD Sundarban class Floating drydock, ex Yugoslavia, acquired 1980, extant

The Bangladesh Navy today: Modern assets

The prow of BNS Bijoy, Large Patrol Craft (cc)

-1 Frigate BNS Bangabandhu (Uslan class, S Korean built, comm. 2001)
-2 BNS Umar Farooq class frigates (Type 053H3 Jiangwei II class, comm. 2020)
-2 BNS Abu Bakr class frigates (Type 053H2 Jianghu-III class, comm. 2014)
-2 BNS Somudra Joy coast guard frigates (ex US Hamilton class High endurance cutter, comm. 2013)
-4 BNS Shadhinota class corvettes (Type 056 Shadhinota class, chinese built, comm. 2016)
-2 BNS Bijoy class corvettes (Castle class, improved, acquired 2011)
-5 BNS Sangu class patrol vessel (Island class, comm. 2004)
-4 Durjoy class LPC (see above, 2 more built locally, extant)
-BNS Madhumati, Korean built Sea Dragon class LPC, comm. 1998
-9 Padma class CPCs (see above, extant)
-2 Meghna class CPCs (see above, extant)
-Padna class CPC in construction from 2019 at Khulna Shipyard.
-4 Durdharsha class FACs (Type 021-class missile boat, see above, extant)
-1 BNS Barkat, Haizhui-class submarine chaser, comm. 1996, replacing BNS Salam, lost 1991.
-4 BNS Titash class SK built Chamsuri class Patrol crafts/gunboats comm. 2000-2004
-1 BNS Sagar, type 010 minehunter, comm. 1995
-4 Saikat class Minesweepers (Brit. conv. River class, transferred 1994)
-6 LCM-6s, ex-US, transferred 1992
-4 LCU BNS Dolphin class, locally built, delivered 2023
-2 BNS Swandwip class LCs, locally built 2015
-2 BNS Shah Poran class ex US LCUs 1992
-1 BNS Shah Amanat class ex Danish LCU 1990
-4 BNS LCM 101, Yuch’in or Yuchuan class LCMs 1986, extant (see above)
-2 BN LCT 103 class, Locally built 2015
-3 L1011 class LVCPs by Khulna Shipyard.
-8 X12 Fast patrol craft, Indonesian design, in construction
-6 US built Metal Shark Boats
-16 Defender-class boat
-6 research vessels: BNS Anushandhan (Roebuck), 2 Darshak class, BNS Agradoot, 2 Jarip boats.
-2 Resplenishment ships, Khan Jahan Ali, Imam Ghazzali
-3 Fleet/Harbour tenders
-1 BNS Shah Jalal diving support tender
-8 fleet Tugboats, 1 Sahayak class Repair ship, 1 Balaban class floating crane

Bangladesh Coast Guard:

BNS Somudro Joy (F-28) being commissioned for transfer to the Bangladesh Navy, Pearl Harbor 2013

Presentation to come

-4 CGS Syed Nazrul (PL 71) Leader class large cutters
-8 Sobuj Bangla class Inshore PVs
-1 CGS Ruposhi Bangla (P20)
-2 Kutubdia class and 2 CGS Shetgang class FPVs
-4 CGS Tawfique class retransferred from the Navy, Shanghai II type
-5 Pabna class PBs, same.
-6 Atrai class harbour patrol boats (HPBs)
-10 X-12 fast patrol craft
-7 Sea Horse class Riverine PVs
-17 Metal shark boat HSB (High Speed Boats)
-5 Defender-class boat HSB
-3 Sebatori class ambulance boats
-6 Typhoon boat HSB
-2 Stingray boat HSB
-8 Tornado boat HSB
-19 Dolphin boat HSB
-3 Hurricane boat HSB
-23 Long range boats
-25 Rescue boats
In construction:
2 Inshore patrol vessel, 1 Self-propelled floating crane (BCGFC Shakti) 2 turgboats (BCGT Protay class); 4 Flat deck pontoons, 6 High speed boat (unnamed)

Plans for 2030 and beyond

By 2009, the government adopted the long-term modernisation plan “Forces Goal 2030” with a third of military hardware procured. It started with two refurbished Type 053H2 (Jianghu III) frigates in 2014, two ex-US Coast Guard High Endurance Cutters in 2015, and ex-RN survey vessel, two ex-Royal Navy Castle-class OPVs converted to guided missile corvettes in 2011 but also two Type 056 corvettes in 2016, two more ordered in July 2015, Two Durjoy-class LPCs by 2013, two more with extra ASW in 2017, 5 Padma-class OPVs in 2013 as well as many locally built LCUs/LCTs riverine and coastal patrol vessels.
Bengali Naval Aviation is born on 14 July 2011 with a few Agusta-Westland AW109 helicopters purchased, then two 228NG MPA in 2013. But the greatest leap forward in deterrence capabilities was the acquisition of its first two submarine, off-the-shelf, the Type 035G (Ming class) by March 2017.


en.wikipedia.org/ Bangladesh Navy ships

Bolivian Navy

The Bolivian Navy (Armada Boliviana) emerged not at first from the independence in 1825, but rather from the 1866 Boundary Treaty signed between Chile and Bolivia to ensure a sea access to the country. Bolivia created a small fleet to take part in the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) but was defeated by Chile allongside Peru so the Bolivian coastline was retaken. However recovering this became a matter of honor and it had ramifications up to the present day’s Bolivian politics and trade.
Nevertheless, the largely mountainous contry still maintains a navy on the Lake Titicaca plus its 5,000 miles of navigable rivers. There is no shortage of patrols to intercept smugglers, or supplying remote rural areas as a public service, rescuing people and livestock as floods happenes, and its personal today trains with the Argentine Navy, which included deployment under UN in Haiti.
The 1960s dispute with Chile abou the Rio Lanca and Pacific access did not prevented the creations in January 1963 of the River and Lake Force (Fuerza Fluvial y Lacustre) under the MoD, starting with just four US boats, 1,800 personnel from the Bolivian Army. A “furstrated brown navy” it became the “Bolivian Naval Force” (Fuerza Naval Boliviana) in January 1966 and then “Bolivian Navy” (Armada Boliviana) separated from the armed forces. There were 2600 personal in 1982, 5000 in 1992 and about the same today, 173 vessels all based on Lake Titicaca.

The Boston Whaler LP fast patrol boat (here from the Hellenic Navy) is the most common Bolivian riverine patroller.

From there, they patrols tributaries to the Amazon and take part in preventing drug trafficking across frontiers, while Lake Titicaca, shares a border with Peru. In 2010, Peru offered a 99 years concession with dock facilities, free-trade zone; leaving the possibility to Bolivia to have an annex for the Bolivian navy school on the Pacific.


Bolivian PBs credits armada.mil.bo

The network was created to cover all major Bolivian inland waterways, didvided into Naval Districts:
DN1 Naval District “BENI”
DN2 Naval District “MAMORA”
DN3 Naval District “MADERA”
DN4 Naval District “TITICACA”
DN6 Naval District “COBIJA”
AN 1 (naval service base) “COCHABAMBA”
Special Operatio: TF “Blue Devils” (“Diablos Azules”), SINDA (Naval Intel Service), Immediate Response Group GRIN, High Altitude Diving Training Center and Command Training Center Amphibians

Bolivian Marines

The FNB Marine was created following the establishment of the Marine Battalion Almirante Grau in 1982, 600 men based on Tiquina Naval Base, Lake Titicaca. Later it became Marine Battalion Independence at Chua Cocani and this force includes paramilitaries. Seven naval infantry battalions were created over the years:
1st District “BENI”: I Marine Battalion “Bagué”
2nd District “MAMORA”: II Marine Battalion “Tocopilla”
3rd District “MADERA”: III Marine Battalion “Mejillones”
DN4 Titicaca: IV Marine Battalion “Alianza”, 6th Mechanized Marine Battalion “Independence”
DN5 “SANTA CRUZ DE LA SIERRA”: V Marine Battalion Calama
DN6 “COBIJA”: VII Marine Battalion “Columna Porvenir” and National Marine Security Corps

Bolivian Riverine Police

The Policía Militar Naval (PMN) mirrors the Military Police, tasked of Important Persons Protection, Physical Security, Patrol Facilities, Signals or naval protocol. These units are situated at AN 4 “La Paz” with 1st Naval Police Battalion, AN 1 “COCHABAMBA” with 2nd Naval Police Battalion “Quiver”, AN 2 “SANTA CRUZ” for the 3rd Naval Police Battalion, while DN4 Titicaca hosts the 4th Naval Police Battalion. In addition there are MP companies in the Naval Districts main bases.

Author’s rendition of the Comandante Araudia


To patrol 12,000 miles, the Bolivian Navy acquired the 9000 grt Libertador Bolivar since 1977 as transport. In 1995 there were 30 riverine patrol crafts in operations, including 24 on Lake Titicaca, with two ex-US PBR mark 2. As of today, it operates the ex-US PR-51, Santa Cruz de la Sierra Class, 6 Capitan Bretel (Chinese Type 928 YC) class crafts, 4 Lake Class and 38 Boston Whaler Piranha LP, also ex-US. but also 8 Boston Whaler Piranha LP riverine assault boats Mk.1.

For various services, and locally built are three Servicio Industrial de la Marina (SIMA) Riverine hospital ships and a 226 ton PIASS Itinerant platform, 2 Hydrocarbon transporters, 2 Tankers, one transport and the TS Libertador Bolivar seen above, a masted barque and a single 55 feet Hatteras patrol vessel. It also had a sole Cessna 402 acquired in 2011 for air patrols.


observers.france24.com/ Bolivia landlocked sea navy
wired.com/ bolivian-navy/
nytimes.com bolivia.html
warblogging.com riverboats used warfare today/

Cambodian Navy

The Royal Cambodian Navy (កងទ័ពជើងទឹក ”Naval Army”) is part of Royal Cambodian Armed Forces under MoD direction and estimated 4,000 active personnel today, with a fleet of 228 boats/ships active under command of Admiral Tea Vinh. It started as the Khmer National Navy, originally an extension of the Khmer Royal Army, but it became separate in 1954. This was a pure “green navy”, performing coastal & riverine patrols and using internal waterways for internal security. In 1967 it reached a total of 1,400, with 200 as Naval Infantry.

For context, the ancient and once Imperial, later Khmer Kingdom, is bordered by Thailand (northwest), Laos (north), Vietnam (east) with a maritime façade as the Gulf of Thailand (southwest), capital Phnom Penh. When the country was an Empire directed from the capital Angkor (802 AD), its fleet grew accoprdingly, although we have little informations about ther types used, mostly riverine types, catamaran-like and rowed. It was Southeast Asia’s largest empire in the 12th century but declined in a series of wars with neighbours, and fell eventually to the Ayutthaya Kingdom while the capital was abandoned in 1432. In 1863, the country fell to French colonization, a protectorate with the installed king Norodom. As the French feared a contagion of insurgency as war raged in neighbouring Indochina (Vietnam-Laos-Thailand), the country was gained full independence in 1953, after 90 years of foreign domination, seeing the creation of the Navy as well as the other armed forces.

In the cold war

Cambodia (now known as Kampuchea) became a French protectorate in 1867 and a French colony in 1887. She became an independent kingdom within the French Union in 1949 and became truly independent in 1954. The Marine Royal Khmer was set up on 20 April 1954 with French assistance. The Vietcong made use of eastern Cambodia and Prince Norodom Sihanouk tried to steer a neutral course. This meant that the navy received very few ships from abroad and the country lacked the money or inclination to purchase any.

There were border incidents in the late 1960s with Thailand and South Vietnam and in May 1970 the Americans and South Vietnamese invaded East Cambodia to eradicate the Vietcong. Sihanouk was overthrown and a pro-Western military government took over, renaming the navy, Marine National Khmer. American aid was lavished on the armed forces, including the navy, but the indigenous Khmer Rouge pushed them back and besieged the capital, Phnom Penh, from 1973 until, the river lifeline cut, it surrendered in April 1975. At that juncture the navy totalled 11,000 men including 4000 marines, all 18-month conscripts.

Most of the major warships fled to Thailand or the Philippines, two MTBs were sunk during the American operations to recapture the freighter Mayaguez, and most of the remaining ships were sunk or discarded during the Khmer Rouge dictatorship or the subsequent Vietnamese invasion. The continuing three-way civil war has retarded the country’s recovery and the navy relies on vessels transferred trom the USSR in the mid-1980s.

Ex-French EDIC type landing craft
French LST 606, built by Franco-Belge in 1968 69, was transferred to Cambodia on completion in August 1969, and renumbered T 916. She was discarded in 1979.
Ex-US landing crafts:
Two ex-USN LCT 6, transferred to France in 1951 for service in Indo-China, were transferred by the French to Cambodia in 1956 57. They were deleted in c1973 75, Two ex-USN LCU 501 Type were transferred first to France then to Cambodia at about the same time. Two more were transferred on 31 May 1962, and two more in November 1972. Four were deleted in 1979, An ex USN LCU 1466 Type was also transferred in October 1969, 7° 979 (ex-USN LCU 1577) was sunk by a mine on 5 May 1970. The remainder were either repossessed by the USN or deleted berween 1973 -75, In the carly 1970s twenty ex-USN LCM 6 and twenty-three exUSN ATC (converted LCM 6 or 8) were also transferred and suffered the same fate.
Ex-US PC class large patrol craft:
Two ex-USN PCs, transferred to the French Navy in 1951 for use in IndoChina, were transferred to the Cambodian Navy in 1955-56. They were E 311 (ex-Flamberge, ex-USS PC 1086), and E 312 (ex-L’Inconstant, ex-USS PC 1171). E 311 fled to Thailand on 16 May 1975 and has been scrapped. E 312 fled to the Philippines on 21 May 1975, and was incorporated into the Philippines Navy in December 1976 as Negros Onental.
Ex-Yugoslav Type 108 fast attack craft (torpedo):
Two were presented to Cambodia in 1965, and renumbered VR 1 and VR 2. Both sunk by US aircraft on 13 May 1975 during the Mayaguez incident.
Ex-US LSIL class landing craft (support gunboats):
-P 111 (ex-USS LSIL 9039, ex-LSIL 875) and P 112 (ex-Medecin Capitaine Le Gall, ex-USS LSIL unknown number) had been USN rearmed large infantry landing craft transferred to the French Navy in 1951 for service in Indo-China. The French transferred them to Cambodia in 1957. Both escaped to the Philippines on 17 Apil 1975, and P 111 was incorporated in the Philippines Navy on 17 November 1977 as Marindugque.
Ex-US patrol gunboat:
US PGM 70 was transferred to Cambodia under MDAP in 1964. She was deleted during 1973-75.
Ex-Soviet “TURYA I” class patrol craft:
Three delivered 1984-85 without torpedo tubes. Extant 1995.
Ex-Soviet “STENKA” class patrol craft:
Four delivered 1985 87, Two cannibalised for spares, remainder extant 1995.
Ex-Soviet “T 4” class landing craft:
Two transferred 1984-85, Both extant 1995.
Ex-British harbour defence motor launches (HDML):
Three RN HDMLs, among twenty-six transferred to the Free French Navy in 1943, were transferred by the French to Cambodia. VP 762 (ex-VP 42, ex-HDML 1457) was transferred in 1956; VP 748 (ex-HDML 1223) and VP 749 (ex-HDML 1229) followed a year later. VP 2/2 (ex-748) was the only one to survive the Khmer Rouge takeover. Stricken by 1995.
-Three ex-Chinese “Yulin” type coastal patrol boats: Transferred to Cambodia in January 1968 and renumbered VP 1, 2, 3. No longer in service in 1995.
-Two ex-USN AVR type, 17 ex-USN ‘Swift’ class PCF and 65 ex-USN PBR Mk I and Mk 2 river patrol craft were transferred to Cambodia in 1972-74. Several were sunk in 1973~75 and others reclaimed by the USN. Only two PBR reported extant 1995.

Strenght Today

111020-N-NJ145-032 SIHANOUKVILLE, Cambodia (Oct. 20, 2011) Royal Cambodian Navy officers stand alongside U.S. Navy members during the opening ceremonies for Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Cambodia 2011.  CARAT is a series of bilateral exercises held annually in Southeast Asia to strengthen relationships and enhance force readiness. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communications Specialist 1st Class Robert Clowney/Released)

The navy possesses 15 patrol craft and 5 “fast attack” patrol craft plus about 200 motorised and manual canoes. For seagoing action in August 2005 China transferred 5 patrol boats. In 2007 a further 10 (worth $100,000,000) were added to this. They were donated by China to help counter piracy in the region as well as transnational crime, smuggling and for future Chinese oil installations. In 2007, Cambodia reported 3,000 sailors under the flag and a force of 2,000 Marine infantry.
The lack of infrastructure is however a problem: Many officers of the Royal Cambodian Navy were trained, and continue to do so at the Vietnam Naval Academy.
There are current plans to increase the fleet’s strenght, with assistance from China, but also Germany, Vietnam, Indonesia, South Korea, and Japan.
Naval bases inclused the Headquarters located in Chroy Changvar and Ream Naval Base, with all installations and facilities, dokcyard and workshops for the patrol ships maintenance.
This is however a small regional green water navy still today, unable to “project power” beside its limited maritime EEZ, and without any missile-armed sea-going vessel.

121024-N-NJ145-024 GULF OF THAILAND (Oct. 24, 2012) Royal Cambodian Navy patrol crafts (PC 1141 and PC 1142) participating in the at sea phase with USS Vandegrift (FFG 48), during Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Cambodia 2012. CARAT is a series of bilateral military exercises between the U.S. Navy and the armed forces of Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Timor Leste. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communications Specialist 1st Class Robert Clowney/Released)
HQ Chroy Changvar:

-3x ASPB: pennants #2903, 2904, 2905, Inherited from the KPRN.
-3x Koh Kong-class (Koh Kong, Koh Sdach, Koh Ampil) #2101 2102 2103 Albatroz-class acquired in 2015.
-2x Large Patrol Craft Turya-class Project 206M #1121 #1122 inherited from the KPRN. Decomm. 2015.
-2x Small Landing Craft LCM-6 type (#2402 2406) Inherited from the KPRN, status unknown.

Sihanoukville, Kingdom of Cambodia – 75 members of the Royal Cambodian military including infantry cadets form the Royal Cambodian war college, visit the amphibious assault ship USS Essex (LHD 2)to learn basic damage control and tour the ship,(Nov 28, 2007). Essex and the embarked 31st MEU arrived in Sihanoukville, Kingdom of Cambodia, Nov 26, for a scheduled port visit that gives Sailors and Marines the opportunity to participate in friendship-building community relations events, medical and dental projects and professional exchanges. These friendship-building events are being conducted with the cooperation of Cambodian military and the Kingdom of Cambodia. The visit also provides Sailors and Marines the opportunity to meet local citizens and experience the customs and traditions of the Cambodian people. Essex is the lead ship of the only forward-deployed U.S. Expeditionary Strike Group and serves as the flagship for CTF 76, the Navy’s only forward-deployed amphibious force commander. Task Force 76 is headquartered at White Beach Naval Facility, Okinawa, Japan, with a detachment in Sasebo, Japan. U.S. Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class (AW) Jeffrey Ballge (Released)..
Ream Naval Base:

-2x Koh Yor-class Project 1400ME Russ. Zhuk class (Koh Yor, Koh Tunsay #1101 1102) inherited from the KPRN. In 1975 three units had been transferred from the Soviet Union. In 1988 a fourth was returned by Vietnam. Used for riverine patrol, they are active.
-2x Koh Pothi-class Swift-class Mk. III (Koh Pothi, Koh Seh #1103 1104) inherited from the KPRN, Khmer Rouge, captured from the US and Khmer Navy.
-2x Koh Chhlam-class FPB 21-class (Koh Chhlam, Koh Rong #1105 1106) acquired by the RCN in 1997.
-3x Koh Ruesay-class (Koh Ruesay, Koh Py, Koh Krabey #1107 1108 1109) donated by China.
-2x Shershen-class Large Patrol Craft Project 206-class (#1123 1124) donated by Vietnam, TT removed as DC racks. 1 ex-Vietnamese, one ex-USSR donated by Vietnam in 1998. Due to refurbishment before transfer, more active units in the Cambodian navy. Decommissioned 2015.
-4x Koh Polowai-class Project 02059 (Koh Polowai, Koh Tang, Koh Pring, Koh Via #1131 1132 1133 1134) inherited from the KPRN. 5 boats transferred 1985–1987. Rearmed with twin 40mm Bofors L/60 guns forward and ZU-23-2 aft, replacing the AK-230 turrets. Torpedo tubes removed.
-4x Koh Svay-class (Koh Svay, Koh Kras, Koh Krasar, Koh Tbal #1141 1142 1143 1144) donated by China.
-1x Yuch’in-class Type 069 Large Landing Craft #1401 donated by China*.
-1x LCM-8 Inherited from the KPRN. Unknown pennant, likely in reserve.
*Specs Type 069: 86 tonnes FL, Dimensions 24.8 x 5.2 x 1.3 m, 2 x Type 12V 150C diesels 600 hp (450 kW) 11.5 knots RA 450 nm, 150 troops, crew 12 armed with 2×2 14.5 mm HMG.

A Shershen class boat. They were among the best Cambodian coastal vessels in the cold war.


navy.mil.kh/ Official
Khmer National Navy
en.wikipedia.org Royal_Cambodian_Navy
on navypedia.org/
The Royal Cambodian Navy ByJames Goldrick, Jack McCaffrie

edition.cnn.com 2023/ cambodia ream naval base analysis
What’s Happening At Cambodia’s Ream Naval Base?
Breaking down Cambodia’s naval base controversy
US, Royal Cambodian Forces Combine for Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Cambodia 2016state.gov Public Designation of Cambodian Officials Due to Involvement in Significant Corruption
phnompenhpost.com/ japanese navy plans sihanoukville stop

MONDOLKIRI patrol craft (1985-1987)
1107 patrol boats (2007)
KAOH CHHLAM patrol boats (1997)
P121 patrol boats (1972-1973)
41 patrol boats (1985-1988)
2101 patrol boats (2015)
VP1 coastal patrol boats (1964-1968/1968)
1141 patrol craft (2007)
1401 landing craft (1970s/2007)

Comoros Navy

A Yamayuri class patrol craft
There is no “navy” of the Comoros per se, but a small coast guard force. Comoros are Indian Ocean islands, located off the southeastern African coast, in between there and Madagascar’s northern tip. It was independent from France in 1975 and started to constitute its armed forces. The Comorian Armed Forces (“Armée nationale de développement”) consist of a small 500 strong standing army and 500 strong police forces. There is a defense treaty with France for protecting its territorial waters and training Comorian military personnel as well as ensuring air surveillance. France also maintains a small troop presence there at government request and small Naval base plus its Foreign Legion Detachment (DLEM), in Mayotte island.
One recent aspect is massive immigration from Africa and the problems with local population at Mayotte. There is no such problem with Comoros, whereas Mayotte choosed to stay with France (as DOM-TOM) or “ovesea territory” and thus, offering de facto EU citizenship. This had toned down the revendication of Comoros over Mayotte. It should be added that Azali Assoumani, President of the Comoros and Chair of the African Union made a strong rapprochement with Russian President Vladimir Putin recently.

Comorian Coast Guard (2010)

France provides the bulk of Comoros naval assets by its own means. Still was transferred in 1976 the former LCT 9061 to carry troops, hardware and civilian personal between islands, which was the former RN WW2 HMS Butrress, LCT(8) 4099. It’s probably retired now. Two Japanese Maritime Safety Agency vessels of the Yamayuri class were transferred in October 1981 as patrol boats Kasthala and Ntringhuin still active today.

Due to the lack of a national navy, converted civilian boats were used in the 2008 operation against Mohamed Bacar, president of Anjouan. 2 supply ships are chartered by the army. A third, the coaster Taurus, was destroyed in a fire on the night of Saturday March 2008.
The two Yamayuri type patrol boats displaces 27 tonnes for 18 meters long. They are armed with 2 Browning M2HB 12.7 mm machine guns. Current status unknown.
There is a single gendarmerie boat, Barracuda inflatable type.
The former British landing craft tank (1943) displaced 657t for 70.48 m long, 11.90 m wide was withdrawn from service before 2000.
On January 2, 2010, the Comorian president announced the creation of the Coast Guard as an independent branch.

The associated aviation is managed by the air force, there is no naval air service. It consists of a single Cessna 402 for transport, the presidential L-410 Turbolet, one Aérospatiale Corvette as VIP transport, two Mil Mi-14PZh, one Eurocopter AS350 Écureuil and five SIAI-Marchetti SF.260 trainers and patrollers.


Conway’s all the world’s fighting ships 1947-95, page 70.
en.wikipedia.org Army of National Development

Costa Rica Coast Guard

Another very small “navy”, Costa Rica is in reality a coast guard, or brown water navy called the Guardia Civil. This is a gendarmerie force for limited national defense and internal security, riverine. It is however the largest branch of the Fuerza Pública and perhaps the best equipped and trained with between 15,000 and 10,000 Civil Guards and in the 1990s some 27,000 active troops
The Civil Guard was founded in 1949, combining all three service branches (army, air force, navy) as well as the national police and coast guard and although having a limited military capacity its primary role is and remains internal security. It started with 10,000 until the mid-1970s and then rose to 45,000, taking gradually more military roles.

Costa Rica Guardia Civil in the cold war

The Civil Guard was gthered in seven provincial companies with about 40% stationed at the capital of San José. There was an attempted invasion from Nicaragua in 1955 which urged the need of a sufficient deterrence and albeit the abolition of its military between 1950 and 1970 Costa Rica was paid 1.8 million USD in military aid then 113,000 USD in surplus equipment to maintain its integrity and allow US training in its waters and help any intrusion towards strategically important Panama Canal.

The Civil Guard Coast Guard from 1949 had a single 90-foot launch for both coasts, Carribean and Pacific, and a rescue tug on the Caribbean, three small boats for general purposes arrived in the mid-1950s and in 1980 six launches (100 ton, five of 36 tons).

Organization: Seven batallion size were created at Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas and San José plus the Presidential Guard, Northern Border Security Battalion, a COIN or Counterinsurgency Battalion and the Special Intervention Unit (Unidad Especial de Intervención) in the mid-1980s and is between 60 and 80 men strong.
The main naval operating base is Limón on the Carribean coast. On the Pacific, Potrero, Coco, Panama, Purto Castilla, Puerto Soley in Guanacaste Province and well-placed and covered Golfito on the Puntarenas province. However infrastructures are under-developed to sustain a larger fleet and the economy is largely dependent on tourism.
In total with these meagre assets, the force is supposed to patrol and police some 19,653 square miles of coastline, not countring rivers, such as the Rio Chico and Rio Chiquito Nuevo, the latter being a large and important waterway for internal transport coast to coast.

According to Conways 1995, page 71, the force had ten patrol crafts:

Although Costa Rica possesses both Pacific and Caribbean coastlines and covers an area of some 19,653 square miles, she has no military forces of any significance. The Civil Guard, numbering about 1200 men, 1s responsible along with a police force of some 3000 for internal security, the Army having been abolished in 1948. In an area of politcal upheaval and uncertainty (Costa Rica is bordered by Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south) the country remains stable and operates only ten patrol craft. These include a 105ft ‘Swift’ class fast patrol boat, five smaller 65ft ‘Swift’ class patrol boats, all six built in 1979 and three coastal patrol craft built in the mid-1950s (10t), one ex-USCG ‘Cape’ class craft and one ex-USCG ‘Point class craft. There are also two 36ft and one 42ft ‘Swift’ inshore patrol craft. Conways all the world’s fighting ships 1947-1995

Legacy: The torpedo boat Branilio Garillo Built at Yarrow, Poplar in 1890 and similar to TB50. 15t, 18.3 x 2.82 x 1.07m, 1 VTE, 1 loco boiler 230 shp, 17 kts, 47mm/40 Hotchkiss gun and single bow TT 356mm TT. Discarded in 1920, likely preserved.
-NO401 patrol launches (1950s): 401-403, 40ft type 10m patrol boats, stricken early 1980s
-ISLA DEL COCO patrol boat (1978): 118t OPV built at Swiftships, Morgan City as 105ft Commercial Cruiser class, 3 MGs, 1 mortar.
-CABO VELAS patrol boats (1978-1979): SP656-59 Cabo Velasn Isla Uvita, Cabo Blanco, Punta Burica, Swiftships 65ft Commercial Cruiser class, same.
-PUNTARENA patrol launch (1986): Renamed Donna Margarita and Primera Dama, from Swiftships, Morgan Cityn 42ft design, same as above.
-TELAMANCA patrol launches (1986): SP361 Telamanca (later Puerto Quepos), Cariari, Swiftships US 36ft design in Aluminium, 1 cal.50, 1 cal.30 plus mortar.
-ASTRONAUTA FRANKLIN CHANG patrol boat (1958/1989): Former USCG Yard Curtis Bay SP951 cutter, Cape-class.

Costa Rica Guardia Civil today

Libertador Juan Rafael Mora Poras

In 1996, the Ministry of Public Security was established to controlling the Fuerza Pública, reorganized to replace the Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard and Frontier Guards, this new single corps under the MoD with a geographic command basis including counter-narcotics and border patrol. It seems only 250 personal strong today with civilian harbours and a few yards.
The Coastguard only had few patrol boats to police rivers and two coasts, but in case it could be reinforced by reservists with a global pool of some 10,000 and operate requisitions.
Coast Guard, Caribbean coast:
-1 large patrol boat
-5 small patrol boats
-1 rescue Tug
Coast Guard, Pacific coast:
-3 small patrol launches

COLONEL ALFONSO MONGE patrol boats (Built 1991-2001): Col. A. Monge, Santa Maria, Juan Rafael Mora, Pancha Carrasco, ex USCG Point-class cutters, 2 discarded 2002.
JUAN RAFAEL MORA PORAS patrol boats (Built at Bollinger, Lockport 1991-1992): J. R. Mora Poras, General Jose M. Canas, Rodrigo Carrazo, ex USCG USCG Island-class cutters.

Air section:
After the 1955 invasion, P-51 fighters donated by the US arrived but they were not used long and there was no dedicated air asset for naval purpose, rather it is mission-based with one Beech C-45, one Cessna 170, two Cessna 180’s and three Cessna U-17′ then three DHC-3 Otters and two Bell 47 helicopters acquired over time but no proper militar aircraft or helicopter until the 1970s acquisition of second-hand ex-US two Sikorsky S-58s, one FH-1100, two Hughes 269C’s and two Bell UH-1Bs and in 1980 the civilian park was augmented by a single Piper Seneca, two Piper Aztecs and three Piper Cherokees.


en.wikipedia.org/ Costa Rican Civil Guard
on laststandonzombieisland.com
on dialogo-americas.com/
on navypedia.org/
ticotimes.net/ us-donates 19 million to costa rica coast guard
news.co.cr patrol-ships donated costa rica sailed out from baltimore
airandsurface.com coast-guard-in-costa-rica/
navaltoday.com 2018 transfers

Croatian Navy

The Croatian Navy is abbreviated HRM standing for Hrvatska ratna mornarica, formed in 1991 from the former Yugoslav Navy after breakup of Yugoslavia and Croatian War of Independence. It operates today a force of 30 vessels between the Flotilla and Coast Guard for a total of 1,363 personal as of 2020. It is a green water navy and major Adriatic naval power but only possesses five missile boats and a dozen of shore-base missile launchers, not including mobile ones. The HQ is based in Split and its Patron is St Nicholas.

A sort history 1991-2024

Historically, the navy existed already in the 9th century as part of the Duchy fleet, later a Kingdom, battling Independent City States and maintaining its control on the easter Adriatic coast and trade relations with Venice. In fact the first Croat naval victory dates back when duke Branimir defeated a Venetian expedition on September 18, 887 (now Croatian Navy Day). Relations were complicated to say the leas with the Serenissima, and relatiatory raids were led by duke Domagoj and king Petar Krešimir IV. There was a larger Royal Croatian-Dalmatian operating 12-15 galleys under Louis I in the 14th century. But ultimately Venice established control on the Croatian coast until 1797. The sailors operated afterwards withing the Austro-Hungarian Navy until 1918, and under the new established unified Yugoslav Navy from 1918 and until 1941 Italian and later German invasions. A Croatian Navy was re-established by the Germans in 1942 and operated with the axis until 1945, then was disbanded. The new Yugoslav Popular Republic under Tito re-established the Yugoslav Navy which was active until 1991.

The only ship flying for a short time a Croatian flag in 1918 was in Pula with the “Pula”, on October 31st, 1918, with crews saluting the flag.

During the Austria-Hungarian era, it’s Croatia that control most of the Adriatic coast accessible to the Empire, and thus, its deputies had some leeway in the parliament. The large Royal Habsburg arsenal and naval shipyard were established in Kraljevica as far back as 1729 and over two centuties and until WW1 were developed naval bases, schools, shipyards, then a headquarter and naval academy in Pula and Rijeka respectively. Pula (Pola) became the main military fleet port for the Austro-Hungarian Navy –KuK Kriegsmarine– and its emblem included the Croatian coat of arms. Most officers came from Croatia such as the grand admiral Maximilian Njegovan. In the 1870s, it’s a Croatian officers that pioneered the torpedo, refined later by Robert Whitehead in its Croatian workshop. In 1885, 45% of sailors and lower officers were Croatians but the Empire retook control of the fleet and so only 10.3% of upper echelon as well as the naval staff were from Croatia and with the rapid expansion of the fleet, this went down to 30 and 10%. In addition to be barred from upper écheclons, Croats were often see as simple stokers and deck hands, set aside due to their ignorance of the German language.

naval ensign of Croatia

By late October 1918, the Empire started to fall apart as war drew to its end, and to appease insurgency, emperor Charles handed the Navy over to the Zagreb People’s Council. Vuković became rear admiral and fleet commander and the new united State of Slovenes, Croats and Serb’s flag on 31 October 1918. It was raised on the bulk of the fleet, notably the flagship SMS Viribus Unitis causing Italy’s rage, as well as ship in Kotor until Entente navies promptly recaptured them all, later to be divided as war prizes. There was in fact an operation led against Viribus Unitis (“With United Forces”) before an agreement was made and the intact, powerful battleship (armed with nine 12-inches main guns) renamed “Jugoslavija” after being acquired on 31 October 1918 and sunk the following day on 1 November 1918 by Italian divers.
The newly formed Yugoslav Navy in 1920 was thus reduced to a few vessels.

Dubrovnik captured in Kotor, in company of three Beograd class destroyers (Bundesarchiv). She was partially camouflaged (shielded by Beograd which was far more artistically camouflaged) with broom-made dark green bands to mix with the surrounding.

Croatian officers and sailors went on manning most of the ships of the new Royal Yugoslav Navy until WW2. They were a majorit for example in the flagship cruiser (Former Geman) Dalmacija and large destroyer Dubrovnik. The Axis invasion of Yugoslavia put an end to the Navy, which was captured and recommissioned by the Regia Marina. Meanwhile under occupation, Croatian partisans started a guerilla Navy with all sorts of captured vessels in 1942 against Italian and German forced along the shore, and a largest faction later started to cooperate closely with the Royal Navy. After the war, a new Socialist Yugoslav Navy was headquertered at Split with shipyards and arsenals in Šibenik, Split, Kraljevica, Rijeka and Pula.

Post-1991 Croatian Navy

The new Socialist Yugoslav Navy stayed independent and it showed in its procurement and composition, as the country never was part of the Warsaw Pact. The 1947 Navy was equipped with an amazing mix, an ex-Yugoslavian sub and Italian CB plus a Flutto class, a former Flower class corvette, pre-WWI torpedo boats and Orjen class or Higgins MTBs, ex talian and German minesweepers and landing crafts. Its flagship was again a destroyer, Split, this time built at home at Rijeka yard on French Plans and US weaponry and electronics… The Navy also acquired in 1956 two ex W class destroyers, obtained in 1980 two ex-Soviet Koni class frigates, and built its own Kotor class (two ships) and uniquely built three classes of submarines at home, the Sujetska (1959), Heroj (1967), Sava (1977) Una (1985) and lora (1990s) classes plus a number of “spec ops” midgets. This was its main adriatic deterrence. Local industries were capable of providing also the bulk of its coastal assets, wether they were FACs and large patrol crafts.

In 1990 the Croatians decided to establish their independent state, for the second time in the twentieth century. Despite Serbian opposition (both political and military) independence was declared in July 1991, but was acknowledged by most European states only six months later, The Croatian Navy was established in September 1991 and onc of its main tasks was to secure the coastline, as almost all former Yugoslavian coast and naval bases (such as Split, Sibenik, Pola and Ploce) were on Croatian territory and were taken over.
The first ships of the Croatian Navy were two fast attack craft (missile) and a torpedo boat found in Kraljevica. Since then more exYugoslavian ships have been captured and entered Croatian service, including two brand new missile corvettes of the Kralj class and a landing ship of the Silba class, all three begun for the former Yugoslavian Navy and completed by the Croatians. Also a number of river craft were armed and converted to form a makeshift river flotilla.

RTOP-42 Dubrovnik at Lora naval base

In 1991, after the federal Yugoslav armed forces sided with Serbia (Milošević) and started operations against the Croatian government, ethnically Croat naval officers and NCOs led by admiral Sveto Letica defected and started the creation of a Croatian Navy. They managed to create coastal artillery batteries forcing Yugoslav ships incursions in territorial waters. Soon also was created a commando multiplying actions, managing to seize naval equipment and no less than 35 vessels. In this process, they sunk three Yugoslav patrol boat in action, two minesweepers. The Croatian Navy thus did its part in the Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995) with its most prized possession being a stock of RBS-15B missiles.

In 1995 the Croatian Navy had 1080 personnel and controlled less than 20% of the former Yugoslavian Navy. On the other hand the Croatians took over almost all what was left of Yugoslavia’s pre-war merchant shipping. Out of 462 vessels of 3,293,447t gross reported in 1992, the Croatians in 1994 had 224 vessels of 192,682t, while the new Yugoslavia had to be satisfied with just nine ships of 2351t. To also put things in perspective, its needs were to be adequate to defend a coastal area of 1,777.3 kilometres (1,104.4 mi).

Ex-Yugoslavian ‘UNA’ class midget submarine:
Soca, taken over by Croatia in 1991.
Modified ‘UNA’ class midget submarines, probably modified Una class boats, lengthened to fit auxiliary diesel engine for charging batteries. Two laid down in Brodosplit in 1993. Diving depth 656ft (200m). Extant 1995.
Displacement: 98t submerged
Dimensions: 73ft 8in x 8ft 9in x 11ft 2in 22.5m x 2.7m x 3.4m
Machinery: Electric motors = 6kts
Armament: 2 Mala (R2) class SDVs or mines
Complement: 7

Ex-Yugoslavian ‘MALA’ class swimmer delivery vehicles:
Two captured by Croatia in 1992.

Ex-Yugoslavian “Type 201” fast attack craft (torpedo)
Class: Vukovar (51) Partizan III, ‘Shershen’ class boat built locally under licence in late 1960s, was taken over by the Croatian Navy in 1991 and renamed. Another of the class — Strelko — was heavily damaged when taken over in 1991 and beyond repair.

Ex-Soviet ‘OSA I’ class fast attack craft (missile)
Class: Dubrovnik (41, ex-Mitar Acev), Velimir Skorpik (42). Two of the class were taken over in 1991 by Croatians. The former was badly damaged, but repaired at Sibenik.

Ex-Yugoslavian ‘KONCAR’ (type 240) class fast attack craft (missile)
Viado Cvetkovtc was taken over by the Croatian Navy in 1991 and renamed Sibenic (no 21). She was followed possibly by another one.

KRALJ (Type 400) class fast attack craft (missile):
Class: Kralj Petar Kresimir IV (11, 1993, ex-Sergej Masera), 12 (1994). Laid down for Yugoslavian Navy in Kraljevica Shipyard as Kobra (Type 400) class and taken over in 1991 while on stocks. Kralj Kresiymir was launched 21 March 1992 and badly damaged in July 1993 when a missile accidentally exploded during loading. The mine rails can be substituted for further two missile launchers.
Displacement: 385t full load
Dimensions: 175ft 9in x 27ft 9in x 7ft 5in 53.6m x & 5m x 2.3m
Machinery: 3 shafts, 3 M504B 2 diesels, 12500hp = 36kts. Range 1500nm at 20kts
Armament: 4 Saab RBS15 SSM (2×2), 1-57mm Bofors, 1-30mm AK630, 2-20 Oerlikon, 6 mines
Sensors: Radar Racal BT502, BEAB 91V249, Racal 1290A; sonar RIZ PP 10M
Complement: 33

Ex-Yugoslavian MIRNA class patrol craft
Class: Biokovac (64), Hrvatska Kostajnica (63, ex-Cer), Solta (62, ex-Kozolo)
Taken over by Croatian Navy in 1991. When captured two of them were damaged (one by missile, another by torpedo), but they were eventually repaired.

Ex-French ‘SIRIUS’ class coastal minehunter:
Vukov Klanac, with upper deck heavily damaged in an air raid in autumn 1991, was taken over by the Croatians. Repaired and commissioned in Croatian Navy.

British ‘HAM’ class inshore minesweeper
“Iz” taken over by Croatia in 1991.
Ex-Yugoslavian ‘DTM 221’ class landing craft fuses 217 was taken over by Croatia in 1990 and renamed Jastreb. She was followed by 501 and two others in 1991.
Ex-Yugoslavian “Type 21’ landing craft: Four boats were captured in 1991 and commissioned with the Croatian Navy. Two more were damaged, but possibly also repaired and commissioned. Ex-Yugoslavian “Type 22’ landing craft Former Yugoslavian DJC 622 624 were taken over by the Croatians in 1991, , ae Dern Ms – are Ex-Yugoslavian ‘SILBA’ class landing ship/minelayer
Class: Cetina (81), Former Yugoslavian Ran was launched by Croatian Navy on 10 July 1992 in the Brodosplit Yard and commissioned into Croatian Navy on 19 February 1993.

The Croatian Navy today

USS Vicksburg and German oiler Spessart in Adriatic manoeuvers escorted by Croatian FACs in 2015

In 2004 Croatia joined NATO, and new guidelines plus standardization brough a radical transformation. In 2007 personnel and vessels were dispatched to the newly created Coast Guard, still using assets of the Navy, no fully separated. The new Croatian navy acqired two former Helsinki class missile boats (FNS Oulu and FNS Kotka), renamed Vukovar and Dubrovnik, in service by December, 2008. Spare parts and three MTU engines came with this order, at a rather symbolic €9 million (offset deal for the acquisition of Patria AMV). Active from June, 2009 they were overhauled for “interception duties” by 2020.
There were also the Končar class missile boats. Šibenik was overhauled with new turbine engines and radars to be maintained until 2020. The Kralj class ships were scheduled for a €20 million overhaul, cancelled with the acquisition of the Helsinki class boats. RTOP-11 eventually obtained an auster overhaul/engine upgrade for €5 million and RTOP-12 followed.
As for the stock of RBS-15 missiles it was decided of an upgrade in 2014 for 20 units, completed by 2018 with successful live firing in 2015 and 2016, the first of such exercises since 1994.

Ongoing or Future plans:
-Overhaul of the Kralj class fast attack craft at 70 million Croatian Kuna
-Overhaul and upgrade of Helsinki class for interception duties.
-Overhaul of training ship Andrija Mohorovičić (2024).
-Five brand new Omiš class patrol boats built for Coast Guard to replace the Mirna class. Cost 380 million Croatian Kuna. First laid down September 2015, delivered in 2018. Four in construction at Brodosplit shipyard.
-Salvage ship Faust Vrančić upgraded 2020 in Norway for ecological operations.


The flotilla is tasked for anti-ship and anti-submarine warfare, minelaying and mine countermeasures but also anti-terrorist activities and VIP transport. Its main HQ is in Lora naval base, Split. -Surface Action Squadron: 5 missile boats, 3 coastal mobile RBS-15 stations. See the lost below. Also two Cetina-class minelayer/landing ships took part in NATO’s “Trident Juncture” in Spain, 2015.
-Mine Countermeasures Squadron: Single mine-hunter (LM-51) and two REMUS autonomous underwater vehicles.
-Support Squadron with various tugs and auxiliaries split between harbours and bases.
Naval infantry company based at Ploče
Split Naval Base: The Lora Naval Base, north of Split includes naval barracks and is tasked of all logistic support for the Pula (North Detachment) and Ploče (South) and hosts the Naval Training Center and medical center.
Sea Surveillance Battalion: It is organized to manage four Enhanced Peregrine naval radar posts at Lastovo, Dugi Otok, Mljet and Vis and nine GEM SC-2050XS naval radar posts at Savudrija, Brijuni, Mali Lošinj, Dugi Otok, Žirje, Vis, Lastovo, Mljet and Molunat as well as signals and communications.
Naval Academy: Rijeka unit, “Maršal Tito” Split academy for cadets, and NCO/petty officers training school in Šibenik.
Now all recruits must transit from the Croatian Military Academy in Zagreb and receive their specific naval education and training at Lora naval base, Split. From 2016 the Split University proposes and undergraduate 4-year program in naval engineering and seamanship.

Active ships list:

FAC Petar Kresimir

FAC Sibenik

Minelayer Krka
-Končar class FACs: Šibenik RTOP-21
-Helsinki class FACs: Dubrovnik, Vukovar RTOP-41/42
-Kralj class FACs: Kralj Petar Krešimir, Kralj Dmitar Zvonimir (RTOP-11-12)
-Mirna class OPVs (1980): Novigrad, Šolta, Cavtat, Hrvatska Kostajnica (OB-01-04)
-Omiš class (OB-31, 2018, 2020+) new class of 5 designed by Marine and Energy Solutions DIV d.o.o. Zagreb, Brodosplit.
-Training ship: Moma class, Andrija Mohorovičić (BŠ-72) 1972, still active
-Rescue vessel: Spasilac class Faust Vrančić (BS-73), 1974, same
-180t Minehunter orčula (LM-51, 2006)
-540 tonnes lba class Landing ship & minelayers: Cetina, Krka (DBM-81-82, 1993)
-Landing ship & assault ships Type 11 DJB-104 (1977) Type 22 DJB-106, DJB-107 (1978) and PDS-713
-310t Auxiliary cargo Meduza PT-71 (1956)
-Government’s yachts Učka, Čista Velika
-Launches: Diving support launch MRB-83, MRB-51, Transport-ceremonial launch Krasnica
-Harbour tugboat LR-71, LR-73
-Sailboats Salona 37 & 45 Katarina Zrinska, Kraljica Jelena

Croatian Coast Guard

Cavtat of the Mirna class
The Coast Guard (2007) is tasked of traditional EEZ and fishery protection, environmental protection, tankers and ballast waters control as well as anti-terrorist activities and anti-narcotics/trafficking patrols. It is placed under the jurisdiction in the Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone on the Adriatic continental shelf and high seas. It comprises the following:
-Training ship BŠ-72 Andrija Mohorovičić (takes part in Operation Triton off Sicily)
1st Coast Guard Squadron (Split): Mirna class patrol boats and other smaller ships
2nd Coast Guard Squadron (Pula) northern Adriatic: two Mirna-class patrol boats and other smaller ships.
Naval Air force: Four detached Air Force Mil Mi-8MTV-1 helicopters based at Divulje airfield, two Pilatus PC-9 based at Zemunik Air Base for SAR and support/patrol.


Official Website
navaltoday.com 2018 omis
navalpost.com/ omis-class
en.wikipedia.org Croatian_Navy

Cuban Navy

Rio Dalmuji, a home-built converted trawler, missile and helicopter ship.

There is no “cuban navy” per se before the Castrist revolution of 1959-60. It is estimated that its Pre-Columbian era started with the first human colonies settling in around 6000 BC alongside the migrations to the south americas. The earliest civilisation were the Arawakan-speaking ancestors of the Taino people. Famously the island was discovered by Christopher Columbus on 27 October 1492, landing in its northeastern coast the following day; but he did not settled in, whereas 1511 saw the first Spanish settlement, founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, at Baracoa. Other followed and it became the Captaincy General of Cuba, one of the most profitable assets of the Spanish Empire for centuries. Fast forward to the events of 1898, there was a Cuban insurgency against Spanish rule already brewing in the 1870s but it really began to grow in the 1890s. US agenda at the time and the brutal repression in the Islands reported by a “yellow press” took another dimension when USS Maine was sunk in La Habana, when dispatched to safeguard US interest in the city. What followed after smome time was a declaration of war and the first US expeditions, both in the Philippines and Cuba.

La havana in 1851, engraving

Fast forward and Cuba gained semi-independence in 1902, under the Republic of Cuba (1902–1959). It was a protectorate in which US companies soon replaced the former Spanish planters. Growing discontent after the military coup and under the brutal regime of Fulgencio Batista from 1933. During WW2 Cuba, which operated four old gunboats, lost six merchant ships but claimed the German submarine U-176.

Ramon Grau San Martin was elected president in 1944, but Batista returned with a coup (suported by the US) in 1952. Various organization attempted an armed uprizing, but the most famous started with Fidel Casto’s 80 supporters landing from the yacht Granma. In 1958 his July 26th Movement emerged as the leading revolutionary group, supported by the US embargo. Heentered the Patital Havana on 8 January 1959.

Guantanamo Base in 1862

The liberal Manuel Urrutia Lleó became provisional president, however soon Castro’s legalization of the Communist Party, hundreds of executions of Batista agents started to degrade relations between countries, but the Agrarian Reform Law really took the cake leading the US to imposed a range of sanctions between 1960 and 1964, with in between the famous “Cuban Crisis”, the deployment of soviet strategic medium range ballistic missiles in Cuba after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. This trigerred an embargo, which pitted against dangerously closely Soviet submarines and US escorts.
Eventually Soviet-US contacts and an agreement led to desescalation. The missiles were retired (to the dismay of Castro) in exchange of similar retirement of Turkey’s missiles, and the lift of the embargo. Ever since however, the Castrists regime has been seen as a threat to US interests in the Carribean. Now how about the Cuba navy in the cold war ?

Map of the Cuban missiles in 1962, US Intel

Soviet Cargo carrying for Komar class missile fast attack craft to Cuba during the embargo in 1962 (US DoD).

Soviet cargo carrying P4 fast attack crafts to Cuba, same.

Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria

Initially, Cuba was provided a lot of Soviet armament, for its land systems (tanks and AFVs), artillery, small arms and advanced SAM systems. The FAR or Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias was a collection of organizations, the Revolutionary Army, Revolutionary Navy, Revolutionary Air and Air Defense Force, paramilitary bodies such as Territorial Troops Militia, Youth Labor Army, Defense and Production Brigades, Civil Defense Organization and National Reserves Institution. For the remainder of the cold war the Castrist regime indeed feared a new US operation. The FAR led operations in Africa against “Imperialist interests” and former colonial powers, notably in Angola.
Today the CRN (Cuban Revolutionary Navy) whih took its roots in the former Spanish-controlled naval forces created in 1909, is 3500 personal strong, c30-35 vessels including missile-launching ones and submarines, “special weapons” and marines, batallions and regiments, plus a small naval aviation contingent. It’s a green water navy, but with some regional importance, as one of the strongest in the Carribean. It’s procurement remained ex-Soviet or even North Korean.

The MGR in 1990

The pre-Castro Cuban Navy was totally dependent upon the United States. Since independence at the turn of the century, Cuba, politically and militarily, had been dominated by American policies. The ficet reflected this. In 1959 the Cuban Navy was composed of exUS warships, most of which had been built during the Second World War. Many of these were comparatively larger types such as Tacoma class frigates; their equipment was old and the ships were not well maintained. Many of these ships were built as ASW platforms and much of the US training aid was in this speciality. This force was illsuited for a war against Castro’s guerrilla forces and reflected the ultra-conservative doctrines of both the Juan Batista military and the American advisers, although the Cuban Navy had a history of political involvement. The assumption and resumption of power by Juan Batista brought with it purges of the officer corps of all services and a resulting loyalty to the regime — as well as a lack of military professionalism and poor leadership.

During the years immediately preceding Fidel Castro’s emergence the navy was increasingly restless, and accordingly harassed by the Batista forces. Like all Latin American navies, the Cuban Navy was conservative. Officers were generally from the middle or lower upper class. Naturally, a group with this background must come to odds with the Castro leadership. In July 1959, Raul Castro, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, assigned thirty-six politically indoctrinated army officers to the navy. In September the Marine Corps was ordered to be dissolved. The cohesiveness of the navy was diluted by assigning personnel, including ships’ crews, to various construction projects, mainly the improvement of transit facilities.

Cuban Foxtrot class sub, photo taken in the 1980s. This decade saw the Cuban Navy assuredly being the largest East Indies Navies by far.

The new Cuban Navy was as dependent upon the Soviet Union as the old one had been upon the United States. Since 1962 the backbone of the fleet has been guided missile patrol boats. In fact, these were the first such craft in the Western Hemisphere. These missile boats have been supplemented by other patrol craft. Soviet naval aid took on far greater dimensions with the transfer of submarines, beginning in 1979 and continued with Soviet financial aid. A ‘Koni’ class frigate was transferred in 1981, with two more following in 1984 and 1988.

Cuba’s greatest maritime asset is her strategic location. The long-rumoured Soviet submarine base at Cienfuegos brought this painfully into focus. This key location married to Fidel Castro’s professed desire to export revolution and his willingness to act as a Soviet surrogate, made the Cuban Navy one of the most important in the Western Hemisphere, despite its relatively small size. Main naval bases are at Canasi, Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel and Punta Ballenatos; 13,500 officers and men, including 1,000 marines, serve with the Cuban Navy and there is a three-year period of national service.
Currently probably all acquisitions of new material for the navy will be stopped owing to the country’s grave economic crisis, and difficulties will be encountered with maintenance of the existing ex-Soviet equipment, as no aid from Russia is expected. All this will undoubtedly lower the level of efficiency of the naval forces.

Fleet strenght in 1947:
-Cuba (sloop) (10.8.14) 2,055t Discarded 1971
-Patria (sloop) (10.8.11) 1,200t Discarded 1955, she operated as training ship until the end of her service.
-Baire (gunboat) 1906 500t, discarded 1948
There were also a number of coast guard patrol craft:
-The Cuban-built Leoncto Prado (80t, 1946)
-Ex-US type Camaguey Habana, Las Villas, Oriente and Pinar del Rio
-45t ex-US Coast Guard GC 11 14, 22, 32 34.
-Donativo (130t, 1932), Matanzas (80t, 1912).
-Three US-built Vosper type MTBs (R 4/R 43) were employed as air-sea rescue vessels.

Ex-Soviet KONI (Pr. 1159) class frigates:
350, 353, 356: Three ‘Koni’ (Type 1159) frigates were transferred on 24 September 1981, 8 February 1984 and 10 April 1988 respectively. These ships are said to have no names, however the name Marie] was mentioned in connection with the first unit. They are similar to the Algerian version of the type with continuous superstructure. Two of them are usually based at Mariel. These are the most important units of the small Cuban Navy, extant 1995.

Ex-Soviet FOXTROT (PR. 641)
Submarines Class: 725, 727, 729: Three large patrol submarines of Soviet Project 641, transferred in 1979, 1980 and 1984 respectively.
Submarines No 725 and 727 were under refit at Havana as of 1991.

Ex-Whiskey class
The Cuban navy also received one ‘Whiskey’ (Type 613) submarine in 1979, non-operational; used as battery charging station.

Ex-Soviet ‘POLNOCNY B’ (Type 771):
Landing ships Class: 690, 691 ; ; Two ‘Polnocny B’ (Type 771) landing ships built by Stocznia Polnocna in Gdansk, Poland were transferred by the Soviet Navy in September and December 1982. Extant 1995.

Ex-Polish ‘EICHSTADEN’ (Type 709):
Landing crafts, Two LCPs of Polish Type 709 transferred from Poland in 1990, probably to replace the last craft of the Soviet ‘T 4’ class. Cuba operates seven ‘T 4’ class LCMs which are used for harbour duties.

Ex-US TACOMA class patrol escorts Class:
Antonto Maceo (ex-Peoria, 1947), Jose Marti (ex-Eugene, 1947), Maximo Gomez (ex-Grand Island, 1947)
All units modernised 1956 at Key West, Florida; all discarded 1975. Fose Mart fitted as a flagship and sunk as a target 1975, Ex-US PCE class patrol escort Class (transfer date): ; Caribe (ex-PCE 872, 1947), Siboney (ex-PCE 893, 1947) Both units modernised 1956 at Key West, Florida. Caribe had box deckhouse removed 1953. Discarded 1976 and 1973 respectively.

Ex-Soviet ‘PAUK IT’ (Type 1241.2) class corvette:
One ‘Pauk IT’ clase corvette built by Varodav SY, transferred in May 1990, More Transfer of following units slowed of halted probably due to the financial difficulties of both parties. Similar to the ships serving in Indian Navy, extant, 2 in 1995, 1981,

Ex-Soviet ‘KOMAR’ (Type 183-R) class fast attack craft (missile):
Eighteen units transferred twelve tn 1962, four during 1963 66, two in 1967; Four discarded in 1979. Nine deleted 1982 84 and the rest by 1990

Ex-Soviet ‘OSA I (Type 205) class fast attack craft (missile):
Transferred owo in 1972, two in 1973 and wwo in 1974, One unit deleted tn 1981. Five extant 1995

A port beam view of a Soviet built Osa II Class Cuban small guided missile motorboat (PTG) underway.

Ex-Soviet ‘OSA IP (Type 205-M) fast attack craft (missile):
Thirteen units traneferred – two in 1976, one in 1978, four in 1979, two in 1981 and four in 1982. All units extant 1995.

Ex-US PC type submarine chaser:
Ex-Tribesman, ex-PC 790. Acquired from Honduras in 1956 and rearmed; sank at dock, Isle de Pines, 17 April 1961 during an abortive coup.

Ex-Soviet ‘KRONSTADT’ (Type 122-bis) class:
Six Large patrol crafts towed by merchant ships to Cuba in February 1962; two units discarded in 1979 and the other four in 1984.

Ex-Soviet ‘SO 1’ (Type 210-M) class large patrol craft:
Twelve units; six transferred in 1964 and six in 1967; qwo discarded 1979, one in 1981, three in 1984, nwo in 1985, two in 1990 and two by 1992.

Ex-Soviet ‘P 6’ (Type 183) class fast attack craft:
Twelve units towed by merchant ships to Cuba in 1962; six units discarded 1979; six discarded 1985. Depth charge and mine carrying capabilities.

Ex-Soviet ‘P 4’ class fast attack craft (torpedo):
Twelve units wansferred 1962-64. Seven deleted in 1984, five in 1985. Ex-Soviet ‘TURYA’ (Type 206-M) fast attack craft (hydrofoil) Class: 101, 102, 108, 112, 130, 165, 178, 180, 193.
Two units rransferred in 1979, two in 1980, two in 1981, two in 1983 and the last one in November 1983. Fitted with four torpedo tubes. All extant 1995.

Ex-Soviet ZHUK (Type 199) class coastal patrol craft:
A total of forty of these small patrol craft were transferred from Soviet Union since 1971, the last in 1989. Few have been deleted since. About twenty-seven extant 1995. Used by Coast Guard, pennant numbers painted in red.

Ex-Soviet STENKA (Type 205-E) class fast attack craft (patrol):
Two of these craft were wansferred from the USSR in February 1985 and one in August 1985. Similar to the units used by KGB, but with TTs and sonar removed. Extant 1995.

Ex-Soviet SONYA (Type 1265) class minesweepers:
Two units transferred in August and December 1980, two in January and December 1985. Pennant numbers 560, 561, 571, 578. Extant 1995.

Ex-Soviet YEVGENYA (Type 1258) class minesweepers:
Class: 501-504, 507-509, 501-514, 538. Two transferred 1977, one 1978, two 1980, two 1981, one 1982, four 1984, organized into squadrons, extant 1995.

Ex-Polish K8 (Type 361T):
One transferred 1978, apparently in such state she was discarded in 1982.

The MGR Today

In 1988, the Cuban Navy boasted 12,000 men, three submarines, two modern guided-missile frigates, one intel vessel, and a large number of patrol craft, minesweepers but these fleet had been decommissioned or sunk as artificial reefs. By 2007, the Cuban Navy was down to just 3,000 strong (550 Navy Infantry) and its missile force reduced to just a single Pauk-class corvette and six Osa-II. The main reason were US economic sanctions and the regime’s poor economic management in general, leading to drastic budget reduction as well as a more recent normalisation of relations with the US from On 17 December 2014 Obama’s re-establishement of diplomatic relations, but it was reverted under the Trump adm. and reinforced under Biden. China is today the major partner for Cuba and could well provide its future naval assets if the economy’s recovering. Previously 10%, the armed forces represents now 2.9% of its GDP.

Cuban naval air wing today is composed of two MI-14 Haze ASW helicopters. src

The Cuban Navy created its own missile systems: The Bandera (copy of the Styx missiles) and Remulgadas, as well as the Frontera self-propelled coastal defence multiple rocket launcher. The Navy today’s missions are mostly drug smuggling and illegal immigration prevention. Indeed her dwindling naval presence enabled traffickers to use its territorial waters or airspace.

-2 Rio Damuji-class frigates:
Former armed fishing trawlers, Spanish-built stern trawlers, locally reshaped to have a helicopter landing deck and weaponry, 3,200 tons. 1× 57 mm (former tank gun), 2 Styx (Silkworm) surface-to-surface missiles, 1× 12.7 mm machine gun, 2× 25 mm autocannons.
-1 Delfin-class submarine:
2 torpedo launchers, possibly North Korean Yugo-class derived design.
-1 Pauk II-class fast patrol corvette:
495 tons, 1× 76 mm gun, 4 anti-submarine torpedo tubes, 2 anti-submarine weapon rocket launcher
-6 former Osa II-class PFM missile boats
-3 Sonya-class minesweepers
-5 Yevgenya-class minesweeper
-1 Intelligence collection vessel

Port quarter view of a Cuban intelligence collector (AGI) Isla De La Juventud. src

Border Guards:

Cuban Zhuk class Cabo Verde, US Intel DoD src
2x Stenka class patrol boats 4 boats aquired in 1985, only gun-armed.
12x Zhuk patrol craft, with SPG-9 mounted on front of the twin 30mm guns.

Rumored special ops assets:

According to HI Sutton (http://www.hisutton.com/) working in OSINT, outside the Delfin, the navy’s best underwater assets could be a serie of unmanned pontoons carrying a single torpedo tube. Made for harbour operations, painted black,very low on water and using a creeping or electric engine.
In 2013 were reevaled also a serie of spec ops minisubs, comparable to the SEAL Delivery Vehicles (SDVs)
Also recently satelite images revealed a mystery improvised torpedo boat, speedboat with torpedoes.

Marine Ground forces:

(to come)
Cuban Marine PT-76 amphibious light tank
2x amphibious assault battalions.
1x coastal defense field artillery regiment
1x coastal defense missile artillery regiment
1x light armored battalion (amphibious)
Assets: 122 mm M-1931/3 artillery 130 mm M-46 artillery, 152 mm M-1937 artillery, 10x SSC-3 surface-to-surface missile systems, c18–24 Remulgadas coastal defense surface multiple missile launchers, 20 Bandera coastal defense surface multiple missile launchers, 12 RBU-6000 Frontera coastal defense multiple rocket launchers, c18–22 PT-76 light tanks.

Cuban parade in honor of RN HMS Wave Knight RFA arrving in La Havana src


forbes.com Cuban special weapons
Cuba’s swimmer delivery vehicle
Delfin Class Submarine
news.usni.org tag cuban-navy
globalsecurity.org cuban unit
globalsecurity.org/ cuban navy
cubapolidata.com cafr_airforce.html
theatlantic.com/ cuba-havanas-military-machine
image forbes.com spec ops cuban navy
granma.cu/ un-baluarte-sobre-el-mar
minfar.gob.cu grados-militares
globalsecurity.org rio-damuji.htm
The Decline of the Cuban Armed Forces
Cuban Revolutionary Navy

Djibouti Navy

The Marine Nationale Djiboutienne, or in Somali Ciidanka Badda Jabuuti had today the responsibility of protecting 314-kilometre (195 mi) of seaboard, protect its territorial waters and assist in land operations. For this, it has 1,500 Active Personnel, 24 Patrol Vessels, 2 Transports and 3 Landing crafts.
The Djiboutian Navy was created in April 1979. The country’s origin gioes back to the land of punt, and siege of two sultanates. In the 19th century, treaties turned it into the French Somaliland colony, superseded Zeila as ort for southern Ethiopia and Ogaden. In 1967, was renamed the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas and in 1977 the people voted for independence. The Republic of Djibouti then established its armed forces based on a commerce-strong economy, and multihetnic population not devoid of internal tensions. Not a microstate, it still the smallest in Africa with a population of 920,000.
It’s strategic location is what made all important, perhaps like Suez, Gibraltar and Panama, as it is located near some of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. It is controlling access both to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. This is also a key refuelling and transshipment center, main container port for Ethiopia and the whole of east africa, and a rapidly rising commercial hub, as well as for many foreign military bases, taking territory loans.
The cold war was a short period for this navy (1979-91), and at first still relied on the French Naval bases and its forces (land, naval, air) for protection. There was a French minesweeping flotilla based here from November 1980. In 1985 France donated two 35t “Mousa Ali” class patrol boats, and later five Iraqi built speedboats were acquired and other small crafts for a navy personal of just 90.

Djiboutian Navy Today

Initially comprising the naval Gendarmerie describe above, focused on port safety and security, traffic monitoring it was soon tasked of patrolling territorial waters which is an area of plateau and light, warm waters favouring marine life and bountiful fish stocks, quite an important staple for the rather barren region. An active fisheries industry was setup, employing a large part of the population. It seems unlike dysfunctional Somaliland which lacked the means to defend its fishing area (explaining in a large part foreign plundering and later piracy), the better protected or framed Djibouti managed to carry out the mission, with help of the US. This was linked to its increased military presence (see below).
The greatest fleet extension was in 2006 enabling a patrol density over longer distances with ships large enough to remain at sea long enough. Cooperation with the US and Yemeni navies was also done to maintain safety and security in these strategic Sea Lanes and the navy is still upgrading.

Damen Transport Adj Ali M Houmen sailing side by side with JMSDF JS Ikazuchi during an exercise on 12 Nov 2013

Main bases are located in Djibouti City, Obock, Tadjoura, Khôr ʽAngar, and Maskali Island. The first is by far the best equipped with both a large container port with important intermodal hubs, and a substantial military base, arsenal with shipyards and drydocks. The naval industry however is capable only to deliver a range of fishing vessels and trawlers, but not developed enough yet to produce domestic patrol boats, which are for now all foreign built.
In addition of patrolling the EEZ, the navy’s tasks are the maintenance, preservation and the provision of naval services to work with other state departments, notably search and rescue (SAR), maritime resources protection, including natural ones as well diplomatic sea transport support.
It is definitely a green water navy, without any large vessel, missiles or submarines, not even OPVs. 34 Patrol crafts, two transports and three landing crafts provides its core.

Cutlass Express 2013 exercizes with the USN, Djiboutian Predator class Patrol Boat


-6x Metal Shark 28 Defiant (US)
-4x Defender-class boat (US)
-4x 44-foot motor lifeboat SAR (US)
-6x 35-tonne Swari-class Patrol Vessels (US)
-4x 27-meter Predator Class Patrol Boat (China)
-2x Damen FCS 5009 Transport vessels (South Africa)
-2x EDIC landing craft (France)
-1x LSM 66m landing craft (South Africa)

Djiboutian Bases

French Forces remained present in Djibouti after independence, under a provisional protocol of June 1977 for a defense agreement. In 2001 a greater disengagement was signed under cooperation treaty by 21 December 2011, active from 2014, in which France still reaffirmed its commitment. Camp Lemonnier, the largest French regional base was leased to the United States Central Command from September 2002, renewed in 2014 until 2034. But more interesting, the country hosts the world’s largest overseas Chinese support base and only overseas Japanese military base (JMSDF) as well as an Italian National Support Military Base. The inter-naval cooperation against piracy in nearby waters trigerred more exercizes and support (mostly from the US base) of a large array of mulinational ships.
Hosting of foreign military bases also plays an important part in the country’s economy with the US paying it $63 million yearly for Camp Lemonnier, France and Japan $30 million, China $20 million contributing to 5% of Djibouti’s GDP (US$2.3 billion 2017), but Chinese expansion here is probably the most spectacular and only matched by its increasing presence in the South China sea and spratleys. The middle Empire understood all too well the location’s strategic importance to guarantee security of its trade and assets. The country is probably not done with an increased military presence, and the recent Houthi attacks in the red sea from October 2023 to March 2024 only increased local activity.


Conway’s all the worlds fighting ships 1947-95 p.82
en.wikipedia.org Djiboutian_Navy
Camp Lemonnier
Japan Self-Defense Force Base Djibouti
commons.wikimedia.org Djiboutian_Navy
thediplomat.com china-officially-sets-up…
US warns airmen to beware of laser attacks near China’s military base in Djibouti

Dominican Republic Navy

The Armada de Republica Dominicana (ARD) founded 1844, is one of the three armed branches of the country, located in the Carribean. It is a green water navy, with 11,200 personnel and 34 ships today, mostly cutters and CPVs.
The Dominican Republic gained its independence from Haiti on February 27, 1844 and at the same time the army and navy were created, the latter on 15 April 1844. Its first forces constsited in three schooners: Separación Dominicana (flagship), María Chica and Leonor. The Junta Central Gubernativa which created it through the Naval Act of 1844 and they were at war the very same day at the Battle of Tortuguero led by Admiral Juan Bautista Cambiaso, the tutelary figure of the Navy. They managed to sink six Haitian ships that day and did their part in the independence.

Santo Domingo in 1850

The Naval forces played a very small role in the Dominican civil war of 1857/58 with the Government ships bombarding Matanzas on September 11, 1857, the rebel corvette Desolación capturing several coastal schooners of the insdurgents. Navy in 1866 consisted only of the CiC of Santo Domingo, General of the Navy Simón Corso HQ and staff, with the the schooner Capotillo under command of Navy General Juan Alejandro Acosta. Smaller ships were present at the secondary ports of Samaná, Azua, Puerto Plata and Montecristi.
After the revolution and overthrow of President Báez, the navy was unified and by January 1869, General Gregorio Luperón acquired the steamship Telégrafo, seeing action in the six-year government of Báez.

The schooner Separacion.

Fast forward an by 1893, Ulises Heureaux became president and ordered an important restructuration of the Navy. An Academy was created, Spanish artillery, navigation and machinery instructors hired, under Lieutenant of the Royal Spanish Navy Luis Martínez Viñalet and later Gerardo Jansen. Her led the first official dipolmatic voyags to Europe, Hamburg, loaded with sugar. She later became a warship as “Capotillo” and later “Montecristi”. By April 18, 1893, President Heureaux and Florville Hyppolite of Haiti made an official joined exercise at Manzanillos Bay after decades of hostilities.
Conway’s does not even mention the Dominican Navy for its 1865-1905 book, but does on the 1906-21 volume page 414.
In 1900, the Dominican Navy allegedly operated two “cruisers” Presidente and the Independencia in the wiki page in spanish. They were based in Santo Domingo close to Command. In reality these were three gunboats, and not cruisers to international standards. “Restauracion” was a 1000t 1896 launched ship armed with four 4.7 in guns stricken c1916. Independencia was another, launched 1894, 322tons only t small guns and stricken 1916 and Presidente was rebuilt in 1898 so actually she was even older. She also had four small guns, caliber unknown. She too was stricken c1916.

In 1917, the Navy indeed was reduced to just a staff of 42 for the “cruiser” Independencia and the two gunboats, retired by the Executive Order No. 47 of April 7, 1917. Indeed at that time, the Armed Forces were dissolved, the Dominican “National Guard” created as replacement. Until 1933 the Navy worked as anational guard detachment, all members havinh a khaki uniform with yellow shoes and khaki tie. The ships in use are uncertain, but they were under command of Colonel McLughlin.
That year the head of the Ministry of War Don Teódulo Pina Chevalier deplored:

“We lack a Navy, and Your purpose is plausible. Excellence in reestablishing it, since the geographical conditions of our country demand it. This Secretary of State has no doubt that Your Excellency With its vibrant spirit of progress and always attentive to the urgent needs of the Republic, it will manage in the near future to restore our extinct Navy, and even surpass it, for the defense of our seas, ports and national coasts.”

On January 15, 1934, the wooden-hulled Coast Guard cutters GC-1 and GC-2 and later GC-3, arrived in the country to monitor alcohol smugglers since the Prohibition Law was extended to the Carribean.
In 1937, a reform separated officers of the Navy and the Army under Order No. 93, of July 14, 1937. By February 1938 17 Officers and 86 Enlisted personel became the base for a new National Navy.
In WW2, the country remained neutral.

On April 10, 1943, the Navy Command was created, headed by Major Manuel A. Perdomo, former assistant of Colonel McLughlin, which stayed in office until 1947.
In September 1943, the 27 de Febrero Naval Base was built to take charge of a U.S. Naval Assistance Mission under Coast Guard Commander Hilton. They indeed feared that Trujillo would maintain a pro-Hitler tance and even possibly resupply U-Boats. The Base, mostly funded by the US, was was inaugurated in 1944 under supervision of the Army since while naval officers were training in the USA. They returned with three Sub-hunters donated by the US under command of Lt. Didiez Burgos, Rafael Arvelo and César de Windt Lavandier. By May 1944 the Navy School was opened at the Las Calderas Naval Base under Ramón Didiez Burgos.

By Decree No. 4169 of February 10, 1947, the Navy was reorganized as an independent branch agains, with its own General Staff, under Frigate Captain Ramón Didiez Burgos.
The National Navy Command was commanded Major Manuel R. Perdomo from Las Calderas Naval Base and Beata Island Post. This operated a flotilla of ten Coast Guard, three Auxiliary Boats, a Training Schooner, a Frigate, Corvette and Naval Corps staff 322 strong. Lt. César De Windt Lavandier later became Undersecretary of State for the Navy.

Ships’s list 1946-65

-The Frigate was Presidente trujillo, an ex-River class surplus, Canadian built, transferred in 1946. She was later reconverted as presidential yacht and renamed Mello in 1962, still active until 1980.
-The Corvette was an ex-Flower class Canadian surplus HMCS Lachute, renamed Colon, also transferred in 1946. Many publications pointed Cristobal Conon as full name. Like her sister Presidente Trujillo, she was still active in 1980.

During the late 1940s under Trujillo and until his assassination in 1961, the Navy acquired more ships:
-The ex H class destroyer Duarte (1962), ex Trujillo (1948), ex Hotspur (1936) purchased from the RN on the mothballs in Nov. 1948. Discarded 1972.
-The ex F class destroyer Sanchez (1962), ex Generalissimo (1948), ex Fame (1935) purchased in February 1949. Discarded 1968.
-The ex Asheville class frigate Juan Pablo Duarte (1962), ex Natchez, ex Annan, purchased in July 1947 but lost in 1958.
-2x Ex-US TACOMA class frigates: Capitan General Pedvo Santana (ex Presidente Peynado, tr. September 1947, discarded 1979), Gregorio Luperon, ex-Knoxville, transferred September 1947, discarded 1979, Both renamed in 1962. Deleted 1982.
-5x Ex-Canadian ‘FLOWER’ class corvettes: Genanio Jamen (ex-Peterborough, 1947, discarded 1972), Juan Alexandro Acosta (ov-Lotanbourg, 1947, discarded 1978), Juan Bautista Cambiaso ex Bellecilles 1947, discarded 1972), Juan Bautista Maggiolo (ex Riviere du Loup, 1947, discarded 1972), un unnamed vessel for spares (ex-Asbestos, 1947, Jost en route from Canada). One additional unit, Cristobal Colon, had been transferred in 1946 and is listed among those ships on hand in 1947, She was discarded in 1978. They carried the pennant nos C 104, C 102, C 103, C 105 and C 101 respectively.
-3 Ex-US LSM type landing ship: Sinto (ex-LSM 483, March 1958, deleted 1989), two more transferred 1946-47, served auxiliary capacity as San Rafael and Antares, former discarded in 1960 and the latter was sold in 1959.
-3x LCIL types: BDI 101 and 102 transferred 1948, stricken 1957. One acquired from the merchant service in 1952, renamed Pararso and served until 1960.
-2x LCT(6) transferred in 1948 and served as 17 de Julio and Maria Josefina until stricken in 1956.
-2x LCU built locally by the Astilleros Navales Dominicanos in 1957: Enrigutllo (ex-17 de Julio), and Samana. The latter was lost in heavy weather, but replaced by a similar ship of the same name, extant 1995.
-3 Ex-US PC type submarine chasers: Patria (ex-Capitan Wenceslao Arvelo, ex-PC 1207, 1947, discarded 1962), Constitucion (ex-Cibas, ex-PC 1497, 1947, discarded 1968), 27 de Febrero (ex-PC 613, 1947, discarded 1968). Two renamed in 1962. Pennant nos P 102, P 103, P 101.
-3x Ex-US COHOES class corvettes Class: Cambiaso (P 207, ex-Euah, 29.9.76), Separacion (P 208, ex-Passaconaway, 29.9.76), Calderas (P 209, ex-Passaic, 29.9.76).
Former net tenders, but later armed with 2-3in and 3-20mm guns and used as patrol craft. Pennant nos P 207-209. All extant by 1995.
-2x Ex-US ADMIRABLE class corvettes: Prestol Botello (BM 454, ex-Separacion, 13.1.65), Tortuguero (BM 455, ex-Signet, 13.1.65). Originally minesweepers. Both extant 1995.
-3x Ex-US Coast Guard 165B class large patrol craft: Independencia (ex-Icarus, 1948, deleted 1993), Libertad (ex-Rafael Atoa, €x-Thetis, 1948, deleted 1993), Restauracion (ex-Galathea 1948, deleted 1993): Argo class 165ft cutters (335ft full load), armed with a 3in, a 40mm and a 20mm AA. Libertad was renamed in 1962, –
-1x US PGM 71 class large patrol craft: Betelgeuse (ex-US PGM 77), pennant number GC 102, built by Petersen, USA and transferred under the Military Aid Programme (14 January 1966). Extant 1992.
-1x large patrol craft: Capitan Alsina (ex-RL 101) GC 105, built in 1944 and acquired in 1957 (100t, 1000bhp = 17kts, 2-20mm), extant 1995.
-4x Bellamx class coastal patrol craft: Procion (GC 103), Aldebaran (GC 104), Bellarix (GC 106) and Capella (GC 108) delivered by Sewart in 1967—68 and 1972 (60t, 896bhp = 18.7kts, 3-12.7mm), extant 1995.
-2x Swiftships 110ft class large patrol craft: Canopus (GC 107) and Orton (GC 109) delivered by Swiftships in 1984 (93.5t, 1530bhp = 23kts, 140mm, 2-12.7mm), extant 1995. Canopus renamed Cristobal Colon.

By 1950 the Dominican Navy had become the most powerful in the Caribbean, 3,000 personal strong and a Marine battalion. However by 1965 the naval inventory steadily declined. She was dethoned much later in the 1980s by the Cuban Navy as numero uno in the West Indies.

In March 1957, the “San Cristóbal” Naval Training Center was created whereas the “24 de Octubre” Naval Academy and Naval Training Section were retransferred to the Las Calderas Naval Base.
On August 2, 1958, Naval Command offices were moved to the Armed Forces pavilion. In 1965, during the rebellion the Navy adopted a neutral position until some point.
This Dominican Civil War saw the Navy divided between revolutionary and loyalists after coup d’état in September 1963. The frigate Mella (ex Pdt. trujillo) shelled the National Palace with the Air Force. Meanwhile the elite “Hombres Ranas” (Frogmen) under Commander Ramon Montes Arache fogh to have the democratically elected president back in office while other commanders seized the Las Calderas Naval Base. The uprizings and instability in the US backyard under the monroe doctrine led to a nited States occupation in 1965–1966 to restore order.
As of 1989, the Navy had approximately 4,300 personnel still with a battalion of marines. The Navy headquarters was relocated at the 27 de Febrero Naval Base in Santo Domingo and support base at Las Calderas and at Haina with shipyard facilities.

Today, the Dominican navy is organized over three areas and main bases:
Base Naval 27 de Febrero: Santo Domingo, housing the Chief of Staff and Naval Academy “Vice-Admiral Cesar de Windt Lavandier”.
Base Naval de Las Calderas: Peravia Province, largest and best equipped, with theBahia Las Calderas Naval Shipyard (ANABALCA) used for the maintenance of the fleet and civilian vessels. It was also seen building tugs, barges, and pilot boats but is unable to built larger military grade vessels which are still imported.
Base Naval Boca Chica: Located 35 km east of Santo Domingo.

Ships’s list today

Patrullero P301
1x seagoing buoy tender (Mesquite class): PA-301 Almirante Didiez Burgos, US built. Flagship of the Dominican Navy, transferred by USCG in 2001. Used for coastal patrol, navigational aid maintenance, midshipman cruises, humanitarian assistance, exercises, troop transport as well as sea refueling. Two M-2 0.5 HMG, 2x Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, 2x M60, 3-inch/50 gun. Renamed Almirante from Juan Alejandro Acosta.
1x White-class coastal buoy tender: PM-203 Tortuguero, PM-204 Capotillo. Transferred from USCG in 1999 and in 2002. Used for the same as above. Armed with 2x M2 0.50 cal. HMG
Coast Guard Division:
3x Point-class cutters: GC-101 Aries, GC-105 Antares, GC-110 Sirius. Armed with two M2 0.50 cal. HMG
4x Seawart-class patrol boat: GC-103 Procion, GC-104 Aldebarán, GC-106 Bellatrix, GC-108 Capella. Acquired between 1968 and 1971. Modernized 2003 and 2005. Used notably for anti-narcotics operations. Three M-2 0.50 cal. HMG.
2x Swiftships 110′-class patrol boats: GC-107 Canopus, GC-109 Orión. Built 1984. Modernized 2003, 2005. 2x M2 0.50 cal. HMG, 1x Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, 1x M60
1x Swiftships 35-meter patrol boat: GC-112 Altair, built 2003. 2x M2 0.50 cal., 1x Oerlikon 20 mm cannon.
1x Swiftships 36 meter: GC-111 Centaurus, Built 1976, former research vessel for University of Delaware, acquired 2017.
1x Defiant-class patrol vessel: 102 Betelgeuse. Made by Metal sharks shipbuilders.
Salvage and Rescue Unit:

-4x Damen Stan Patrol 1500-class: LR-151 Hamal, LR-152 Vega, LR-153 Deneb, LR-154 Acamar. Built locally by Astilleros CIRAMAR in 2004. M16 rifles, M60.
-13x 32′-37′ Justice Boston whaler-class boats: LI-155 Castor, LI-156 Pollux, LI-157 Atria, LI-158 Shaula, LI-159 Enif, LI-161 Elnath, LI-162 Polaris, LI-163 Nunki, LI-164 Dubhe, LI-165 Regulus, LI-166 Denebola, L-167 Acrux, LI-168 Rigel, LI-169 Algenib, LI-170 Becrux: Go-fast interdiction boats, armed with M60 or 3x M60
Auxiliary Vessels Division:

-2x Damen Stan 2608-class tug: RM-2 Guarionex, RM-3 Guaroa. Build under licence at CIRAMAR. Operated on lease by SVITZER Dominicana.
1x LCU-1600-class LD-31 Neyba
1x Floating dock DF-1, Operated by CIRAMAR.
Training Division:
1x Three-masted barquentine BE-01 Juan Bautista Cambiaso (Bulgaria, Helena, launched 29 August 2009 in Varna). She can accommodate up to 37 midshipmen. Acquired 2018. 54 metres (177 ft 2 in) long with a beam of 8 metres (26 ft 3 in).
Air Component:
The navy operated also two Bell OH-58 Kiowa OH-58/A (Retired) and a single Piper PA-34 Seneca PA-34-200T still in service.

The Dominican Schoolship Juan Bautista Cambiaso

Dominican Naval Auxiliary Corps:
A civilian force used for search operations, rescue and environmental protection. Created in 2009 and composed of professional volunteers, operating private boats, barges and aircraft for the Navy, in order to assist with non-military activities and safety at sea. Four centers across the country.
Naval Commandos:
Special Operations component used for emergency situations: Unconventional warfare, hostage rescue, counter-terrorism, Boardings, amphibious operations and paradrops. In addition to small arms and portar, operates zodiac boats and RHIBs. Some were engaged in Operation Iraqi Freedom.. They were caught under mortar attacks but suffered no casualties and served in the Plus Ultra Brigade under Spanish command, Southern Iraq.
Marine Infantry Command:
Created also in 2008: Amphibious and landing operations, One Marine Battalion.


youtube.com @ArmadadeRepublicaDominicana
web.archive.org/ senadores y diputados enfrentados aprueban bajar generales de 300 a 40

Equadorian Navy

The Ecuadorian Navy (Armada del Ecuador) is a green water navy tasked of the surveillance and protection of national waters, over a coastline of 2,237 km which and a plateau reaching far into the Pacific Ocean. For this, personal of 9,400 and 36 ships are necessary. All ships are prefixed B.A.E. (Buque de la Armada del Ecuador) and for the smaller, LAE (Lancha de la Armada del Ecuador).

History up to the cold war

The Ecuadorian Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana initially) was created in 1823 as part of the “Gran Colombian fleet”. Under President Eloy Alfaro (1906–1911) it was reinforced by the torpedo ship Libertador Bolívar, and it was hope to rebuilt the navy. In 1832, the Ecuadorian Congress created and funded the Ecuadorian Maritime Department. On 25 July 1941, the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War saw the national gunboat Abdón Calderón (Rafael Morán Valverde) fighting at sea the Peruvian destroyer Almirante Villar, in the Jambeli channel. The duel was indecisive until the gunboat took refuge in the channels, unharmed while the other side claimed victory but the Peruvian destroyer apparently suffered damage. Anyway, Puerto Bolivar fell to the Peruvian troops two days later, ending the war.

Equadorian navy in the cold war

Until the acquisition of Guayas in 1947, Ecuador possessed a few yachts and small coast guard units. Although Ecuador acquired a few frigate-sized units, most of the equipment remained obsolescent until the mid-1970s. Beginning in 1975, Ecuador began to acquire first class fighting units for the first time, Naval patrol boats are employed primarily for Ecuador’s 200-mile coastal zone and it is a common occurrence for American fishing boats to be held up and fined. This action affected the transfer of ships from the US, in particular, the Gearing class destrover Southerland in 1981, During the past decade the Ecuadorian Navy was much reinforced by the acquisition of two ex-British Leander class frigates, which however are in need of armament update.

These ships are well complemented by six Italianbuilt missile corvettes of the Esmeraldas class. Naval bases are at Guayaquil, Manta, San Lorenzo and the Galapagos Islands, Guayaquil being the main base. The Galapagos Islands are also the base for Ecuador’s naval infantry (about 1900 men); 600 officers and men are employed by the navy and national service is selective.
Ex-US GEARING class destroyer:
-YO PRESIDENTE Consolidated) 1.9.78 Deleted 1991
-ELOY ALFARO (Orange, ex-Holder) FRAM I reconstruction but ASROC removed before transfer, overhauled at Norfolk Shipbuilding, Virginia, 1978-79.
-US TACOMA class frigate El GUAYAS Aug. 1947 Discarded 1975 (ex-Covington)
-Ex-British ‘HUNT’ class (Type 1) frigates . PRESIDENTE (Scotts) tr. 18.10.54, Discarded lo7g
ALFARO N (ex-Quantock), PRESIDENTE (Swan Hunter, tr. 18.10.54), discarded 1978, VELASCO IBARRA (ex-Meynell), all three refitted by J Samuel White, Cowes, Isle of Wight. Comm. August 1955 and August 1955 respectively
-British LEANDER class frigates PRESIDENTE, Vickers 17.8.62 25.4.91 Extant 1995, ELOY ALFAR (ex-Penelope), MORAN 31.10.65 25.4.9, Extant 1995 (ex-Danyoe Dockyard, extant 1995) Devonport. Destroyer acquired from UK in 1991 as replacement for discarded 1989 destroyer escort, Both are Batch 2 Exocet conversions with their Seacat and Torpedo tubes removed before transfer. The were the biggest units of Ecuadorian Navy despite being 30 years old.
-Ex-US CHARLES LAWRENCE class destroyer escort Class: Moran Valverde (ex-Veinticinco de Julio, ex-Enright) transferred 14 July 1967; purchased 30 August 1978. Constructed as a destroyer escort, this unit was converted to a high speed transport while in US service; she could carry 162 troops. Ecuador employed her primarily as an escort and she carried the pennant no xxxxx. She had a small helicopter deck added in the late 1970s. Deleted 1989, BU.
West German Type 209 (Type 1300) class submarines: SS 12 HUANCAVILVA (Howaldtswerke, 18.3.77, Extant 1995 Kiel), SS 11 SHYRI (Howaldtswerke, 8.10.76 Extant 1995 Kiel) Similar to units sold to Greece, Turkey, Argentina and Peru, both ordered in 1974, completed 1 June 1978 and 16 March 1978 respectively. Like Greek Glavkos class. New pennant S 101 and S 102. Refitted in Germany in 1983 and 1984.
-Ex-US LST type tank landing ship One unit, Hualcopo (ex-Summit County, LST 1148) transferred in February 1977 (1650t, 11.6kts, built by Chicago Bridge). Pennant no T 61. Extant 1995.
-Ex-US LSM type landing ship Two units, Jambelli and Tarqui, transferred in 1958 (513t, 12.5kts, built 1945). Pennant nos T 51 and T 52. Deleted 1983, 1987.
Ecuador also operates six British Rotork ‘Sea trucks’, LF 91-96.
-Esmeraldas class design: Italian modified ESMERALDAS class corvettes
CM 14 ELORO CNR Tirreno 9.2.81 Extant 1995
CM 11 ESMERALDAS CNR Tirreno 1.10.80 Extant 1995
CM 15 GALAPAGOS CNR Tirreno 4.7.81 Extant 1995
CM 16 LOJA CNR Tirreno 272.82 Extant 1995
CM 13 LOS RIOS CNR Tirreno 272.81 Extant 1995
CM 12 MANABI CNR Tirreno 9.2.81 Extant 1995
The Esmeralda class corvettes were ordered in 1978, Generally similar to the Wadi M’ragh class built for Libya. Laid down and completed: CM 11 (27.9.79, 7.8.82), CM 12 (19.2.80, 21.6.83), CM 13 (5.12.79, 9.10.83) CM 14 (20.3.80, 11.12.83), CM 15 (4.12.80, 26.5.84), CM 16 (25.3.81, 26.5.84). El Oro was out of commission for two years from 1985 after a bad fire. Fitted with combat data system Selenia IPN 10. There is a helicopter landing deck but no hangar. Very powerful and useful units well armed against surface and aerial threats.
Displacement: 605t standard; 685t full load
Dimensions: 189ft 7in pp, 204ft Sin oa x 30ft 6in x 9ft 3in max 57.8m, 62.3m x 9.3m x 2.8m
Machinery: 4 shafts, 4 MTU 20V956 TB92 diesels, 24,400bhp = 37kts. Range 1200nm/4000nm at 31 kts/18kts
Armament: 6 MM40 Exocet SSM (2×3), 1 Albatros SAM (1×4), 1-76mm OTO Melara Compact, 2-40mm (1×2) 6324mm Mk 32 ASW TT (2×3), 1 light helicopter
Sensors: Radar SMA 3RM-20, RAN-105, Orion 10X; sonar Diodon; ECM Gamma system
Complement: 51.

-Ex-US PCE type patrol vessel Class: Esmeralda (ex-Eunice), Manabi (ex-Pascagoula).
Transferred 29 November 1960 and 5 December 1960 respectively. Discarded 1970s. Pennant nos changed from E 03 and E 02 to E 22 and E 23 to P 22 and P 23.
-MANTA class fast attack craft
Manta (LM 24, 11.6.71), Tulcan (LM 25, 25.4.71), Nueva Rocafuerte (ex-Tena, LM 26, 23.6.71).
Similar to Chilean Gracolda class but one extra diesel makes them 3kts faster, Originally armed with 1-40mm gun, an Oerlikon cwin RL, 2 21lin TT, but rearmed in 1979 with 2-30mm Emerlec (1×2) and in 1981 four Gabrield SSMs replaced the TT. All extant 1995.

QUITO class fast attack craft (missile)
Quito (LM 31, 13.7.76), Guayaquil (LM 32, 22 December 1977), Cuenca (LM 33, 17.7.77). All built by Lirssen, Vegesack. Named after cities. Extant 1995.
Displacement: 250t standard; 265t full load
Dimensions: 154ft 2in x 23ft x 7ft 10in 47.0m x 7.0m x 2.4m
Machinery: 4 shafts, 4 MTU 16V538 diesels, 14,000bhp = 35kts. Range 600nm at 30kts
Armament: 4 MM38 Exocet SSMs, 1-76mm/62 OTO Melara Compact, 2 35mm (1×2)
Sensors: Radar Triton, Vega fire control, Pollux, Racal Decca
Complement: 34

-Quito clas Patrol boats:
Quito in 1979 was Ex-US PGM type large patrol craft Class (no, acquired): Veintecinco de Fulio, ex-Quito (LC 71, 30.11.65), 24 de Mayo, ex-Diez de Agosto, ex-Guayaquil (LC 72, 30.11.65).
US PGM 71 class patrol craft built by Peterson, Sturgeon Bay. Transferred to coast guard 1980. New numbers LGC 31, 32. Extant 1995.

Six 35t launches, LP 7-12, built in 1954 by Schiirenstedt, Bardenfleth, West Germany, deleted 1960.
Six 64t full load launches, LSP 1-6 built 1954-55 by Schurenstedt. They were given the pennant nos LP 81-86, and LSP 4-6 were stricken 1976, The survivors were renamed 10 de Agosto, 9 de Octubre and 3 de Novembre respectively, and later Baha Hoyo, Pichincha and Portoviejo; extant 1995.
Three 34t patrol craft built by Halter, New Orleans in 1976: Comandancia de Balao, Comandancia de Guyaquil, Comandancia de Salinas; all were extant 1995.
-Six Halter Marine Rio Puyango class patrol craft Rio Puyango, Rio Matage, Rio Zarumiila, Rio Chone, Rio Daule, Rio Babahoyo (LGC 40-45) delivered in 1986 and last four by Astinave 1988 (17t, 26kts, 1-12.7mm, 2 MG), extant 1995,
-Two Espada large patrol craft 5 de Agosto and 27 de Febrero built by Moss Point Marine, delivered in 1991 (190t full load, 112ft, 34.1m, 2790bhp = 27kts, 140mm Bofors, 2-12.7mm), extant 1995.
-Two Swiftships type river patrol craft completed 1992 (17t, 22kts, 212.7mm MG, 2-7.62mm MG). Both extant 1995.

The Equadorian navy today

050807-F-4883S-001.Panama City, Panama (Aug. 7, 2005) – The Ecuadorian corvette BAE. El Oro (CM 14) sits pier side in Panama City, Panama before beginning at sea exercises during PANAMAX 2005. PANAMAX is a training exercise in defense of the Panama Canal involving 15 countries. The Panama Canal is critical to the free flow of trade and goods in the Western Hemisphere and the entire world. The region’s economy and stability largely depend on the safe transport of several hundred million tons of cargo that transit through the canal every year. U.S. Air Force photo by Tech Sgt. Rick Sforza (RELEASED).

The Ecuadorian Navy as of 2024 is compact but efficient and well-balanced according to most experts, but limited funds had a clear impact on its scale and capabilities, so Equador will remained a mminor player in the Pacific Ocean. After a restructuration program called PATRIA I its structure is simplified as now the Pacific to the Galápagos Islands are a sinlge naval zone and all major assets are now based at Guayaquil.
-Training ship BAE Guayas (BE-21) Sail training ship, 25 countries, 340,000 nautical miles (630,000 km).
-2x Submarines BAE Shyri (S101), BAE Huancavilca (S102) Type 209/1300 mod. ASMAR Chile 2014.
-2x Guided missile frigates, BAE Presidente Eloy Alfaro (FM-01) BAE Morán Valverde (FM-02), Condell-class, mod. 2004-2005. Acquired 2008.
-6x Guided missile corvettes: BAE Esmeraldas, Manabí, Los Rios, El Oro, Galápagos, Loja, Italian built Modernised 2019.
-2x Offshore Patrol Vessel, LAE Isla San Cristobal (LG-30) LAE Isla Isabela (LG-31), Dutch Damen Stan patrol vessel 5009
-3x Fast attack craft: LAE Quito, Guayaquil, Cuenca: TNC 45 Seawolf class, Modernised
-12 auxiliaries: BAE Huacolpo (TR-61) china ex-Fu Yuan Yu Leng, BAE Calicuchima (TR-62) ex-RMAS Throsk (A379), BAE Atahualpa (TR-63) Brenta type ex-A 5356 Basento, BAE Quisquis (TR-64) Waterfall class ex-Waterside (Y-20), BAE Taurus (TR-65) coastal oil tanker, built Astinave, Guayaquil. BAE Chimborazo (RA-70) US Fleet Tug Ex-USS Chowanoc, Tugboats BAE Sangayn Cotopaxi, Wolf, Iliniza, Altar, Quilotoa.
-2x Scientific research vessels: BAE Orion (BI-91), LAE Sirius.


warsearcher.com/ ecuadorian-navy
web.archive.org combate naval de jambeli

Estonian Navy

The Estonian Navy (Merevägi) is a separate branch of the naval forces with six commissioned ships for less than 10,000 tonnes today. Its ships are prefixed EML (Eesti Mereväe Laev/Estonian Navy Ship). Especially since 2014, The Estonian Navy take its share of NATO’s naval joint-exercises.

The Estonian Navy was formed in 1918 after taking its independence from the Russian Empire. After the Treaty of Tartu its coastal defence network was rebuilt with millions of kroons and by 1939 these coastal batteries presented a considerable naval forces by themselves, very much its elite forces. Aside this, the navy counted two destroyers, two submarines, and a few gunboats. World War II and saw a Soviet occupation, which ended in 1991 when the country regained independence. No longer relying on its fortifications, mostly preserved today as museums, the country managed to keep a small forced for its basic maritime need of multirole patrols on its coastline.

From the Cold war: The first decade (1993-2000)

It was not until 1993 when the Navy was re-established. No ex-Soviet ship was retained due to their age and per treaty. So it had to be re-equipped from scratch. Estonian Defence Forces were reestablished on 3 September 1991 and the Navy on 1 July 1993, under Commodore Roland Leit. When interviewed by Jane’s on 9 July 1994 he described how he Soviet Navy left the Tallinn Naval Base in shambles, with all facilities sabotaged and remaining ships scuttled. First acquisitions were Griff class patrol crafts, less devastated but they were repaired in late 1993.
Rebuilding took thus most of the defence budget resources but it was modernized after a few years. When the basis was judged solid enough, the Navy acquired larger vessels and joined the Baltron initiative.

Naval Flotilla

EML Admiral Cowan

Fors its missions, the Estonian Navy tried to reconstitute a small panel of light-combat and coastal patrol craft as well as support vessels. None had missiles. The first entering service in 1993 were German background mine-layers and mine-hunters but in the following 15 years, logistics support increased and extra vessels were received as foreign aid or bought from Germany, Finland, UK and Denmark.
BALTRON (1998):
In 1998 the Baltic Naval Squadron BALTRON was inaugurated to improve co-operation between the Baltic States for defence and security. The common package also contribute units to NATO operations.
Each Baltic state appoints one or two ships to BALTRON and staff members yearly on a turning mode. This the right international environment to acquire experience specialized in mine countermeasures. Estonia also provides BALTRON on-shore facilities. Since 1995 Estonian ships took part in most international exercises in the Baltic Sea.
Top priority as per NATO integration is to care about mine countermeasures capability, its peacetime responsibilities. Indeed the post two world wars legacy had been some 80,000 sea mines, and they were never cleared entirely, causing still a hazard 110 years later. In 1995 mine clearance operations started in Estonian waters with the Estonian Mineships Division, co-operating with others in the Baltic Sea region.

The Estonian Navy today (2024)

From May 2005 to March 2006, EML Admiral Pitka was assigned Commander for NATO’s Standing NRF Mine Countermeasures Group 1, the first vessel from Baltic navies to be part of this new force.
In 2006, Estonia purchased three Sandown-class minehunter from the UK.
In 2012, was received the former (fully repaired and modernized) Estonian Maritime Administration vessel EVA-321, renamed “Lood” (A530) as diving support vessel.
In September 2013, interest was express to purchase the 1979 Finnish minelayer Pohjanmaa, decommissioned and offered for sale. But in 2016 it was acquired by Meritaito for civilian services.
In July 2018, the three Sandown-class minehunters underwent a modernization until 2019, notably for surveillance capabilities for €30 million.
In April 2020, the Estonian MoD announced the purchase of two force protection patrol boats, to be manufactured by Baltic Workboats AS for €3.9 million, entering service in 2021 also to provide support for other agencies, Police and Border Guard. By December 2020, these two boats were received as Roland and Risto but in April 2024 they were donated to Ukraine and transported by land.

Ships’s list

1x Lindormen class: Minelayer EML Wambola (A433) (577 tonne, from Denmark 2006).
3x Sandown class: ex-Brit. 450 t Minehunters, EML Admiral Cowan (M313), EML Sakala (M314), EML Ugandi (M315), all modernized 2019
2x NAVY 18 WP class Patrol vessels EML Roland (P01), EML Risto (P02) by Baltic Workboats 2021, transferred Ukraine April 2024.
1x Kindral Kurvits class: Patrol vessel (P101), Ex Police/Border Guard Board.
1x Raju class: Patrol vessel (P6732)
1x Pikker class: Patrol vessel (P103)
1x Valve class: Patrol vessel (P112)

The OPV Raju off Tallinn in 2021

The A433 minelayer Wambola at Miinisadam in 2016

Naval Bases
A netwok of small bases was maintained: Aegna, Paldiski, Virtsu, Rohuküla, Mõntu, Kuressaare, Kõiguste, Papisaare, Jaagurahu, Tagalaht, Küdema, Sõru, Kärdla, Kallaste, Mustvee. But the larger by far was Tallinn harbor. Today however the largest naval harbor is Miinisadam, northern Tallinn, for the Mineships Division.
In 2020, new defensive capabilities were acquired, notably the possibility to operate modern naval mines and anti-ship missile systems.
In 2021, Estonia signed a contract with Finland for mines and by October, the Blue Spear 5G SSM anti-ship missiles were acquired.
In November it was decided to merge the Police and Border Guard Board into the Navyfor cost efficience, completed by 1 January 2023.
Personal training is a Baltic affair, shared with its Lettonian and Lithuanian neighbours.


manw.nato.int/ organisation/snmcmg1.htm

err.ee/1 news.err.ee/2 news.err.ee/3 news.err.ee/4 news.err.ee/5 news.err.ee/6
mil.ee/ ajalugu-2
ukrinform.net estonia delivers two patrol boats to ukraine

Ethiopian Navy

The Ethiopian Navy (ye’ītiyop’iya baḥiri ḫayil) was the Imperial Ethiopian Navy until 1974, a branch of the Ethiopian National Defense Force from 1955. Disestablished in 1996 after independence of Eritrea (1991) leaving the country landlocked. In 2019, it was re-established at Bahir Dar, Amhara region near Lake Tana.

The history of Ethiopia from 1947 shows a sharp discontinuity in September 1974, when the so-called ‘creeping revolution’ finally deposed the venerable Emperor, Haile Sclassie, the effective ruler of the country since 1916 (except for the years of Italian occupation), and replaced his paternal feudalism by the Marxist military rule of the Dergue. The immediate cause of the revolution was the disastrous drought and famine of 1973, which cost up to 400,000 lives, but the Imperial Government had long been unable and perhaps unwilling to tace the task of unifying and modernising their gigantic, primitive and ramshackle country. Eritrea, an ex-Italian territory forcibly amalgamated with Ethiopia in 1962 and providing its outlet to the Red Sea, was a battleground for vigorous independence movements, while to the south and east Somali irredentism in the Ogaden Desert also threatened national unity.

First era: Imperial Ethiopian Navy (1955–1974)
Founding: Ethiopia acquired ports on the Red Sea in 1950 as the UN decided to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia. In 1955, Navy was founded at Haile Selassie I Naval Base in Massawa, 1956. The first ship was acquired in 1957. Early 1960s saw workshops and other facilities under construction at Massawa, leading to a complete naval base capabilities.
In 1958, the navy became a fully independent service under overall command of the Chief of Staff, Imperial Armed Forces, HQ Addis Ababa. It was a coastal (green) navy, patrolling the Red Sea coast.
Training wa shhelped and seconded by the British Royal Navy in its Eritrea, facilities. A naval college provided 52-month study, founded at Asmara in 1956 and student ended graduated as Bachelor of Science degree. 1957 saw a Naval Non-Commissioned Officer School also founded at Massawa and a Frogman/Diving School for special commando by the late 1950s in the same location. Other Centers were established at Aseb, Asmara, and Massawa.
Emperor Haile Selassie I appointed 25 Royal Norwegian Navy officers to help organize the new navy and training as well as retired British Royal Navy officers as advisers. Some Imperial Ethiopian Navy officers also received naval education at the Naval Academy in Livorno, Italy and others in Annapolis, Maryland.

The Imperial Ethiopian Navy had four bases:
-Massawa as HQ and with all training facilities
-Asmara was the Naval air station and naval academy
-Assab was the site of a Naval station with training facilities/repair dock
-Dahlak Islands Naval station and communications station

Communist era 1974-1991

Haile Selassie was deposed in 1974. Under the Provisional Military Administrative Council or Derg 1974-1977 and Mengistu Haile Mariam 1977-1991, the Ethiopian Navy as completely realigned with the Soviet Union. Officers trained in Ethiopia and selected naval officers went to Leningrad and at Baku. After the change of alliance from Somalia to Ethiopia in the Ogaden War (1978) the Soviet Navy extended the Assab and Dahlak Islands based, while the NAS hosted regularly Soviet bombers, as well as at Asmara International Airport. Soviet naval personnel became instructors at the academy. In 1982, the Navy had 1,500 personnel.
The navy veered towards a largely Soviet-equipped force, with Soviet-built patrol boats and missile boats. By 1991, the fleet ended with two frigates, eight missile craft, six torpedo craft, six patrol boats, two amphibious craft, two support and training craft all of Soviet origin.
As the Derg seized power and alliance changed again towards the west, six UH-1 helicopters were transferred to the AF and served with the Navy and embrionic NAS. Two Mil Mi-8 or Mil Mi-14 also served there for a time. There was also a land component made of a coastal defense brigade with two P-15 Termit (SSC-3 “Styx”) on trucks as mobile coastal defense antiship cruise missile defence.

Eritrean opposition broke out in full-scale rebellion after 1974, leaving Ethiopian Navy based in rebel territory, fighting a siege until the Eritrean War of Independence concluded. In April 1977, the navy lost its patrol boat P-11, mostly due to the EPLF action and sold lost in combat during the war. Meanwhile Ethiopia won over Somalia in the Ogaden War of 1978, resources being from the navy to the Ethiopian Army and Air Force.
The EPLF captured Massawa in March 1990 and the HQ had to move to Addis Ababa. The Eritrean rebellion also hit the Dahlak Islands, and Petya II-class frigate F-1616 was badly damaged, beyond repair. In the spring of 1991, the navy’s ships were now based in Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen as the home bases were now under Eritrean control. In late May 1991, the EPLF captured Asmara and Assab, sinking seven Ethiopian ships in the first. On 25 May 1991, the 14 remaining ships fled Assab under siege, ten to Yemen, the rest to Saudi Arabia, with seven ships and small craft captured.
The Navy lost its maritime access and ceased to exist since.

In international affairs the changes between 1974 and 1977 ended the pro-Western stance of Imperial days and left the Ethiopian government as the most pro-Soviet in Africa (and the most dependent on Soviet and Cuban military support). Arms shipments from the USA ceased in 1977, shortly before deliveries from the USSR began. The swift Ethiopian defeat of Somalia in the Ogaden during early 1978 could not have happened without assistance from Soviet and Cuban advisers and Cuban troops; these ‘volunteers’ helped shortly afterwards to roll back to the Sudan frontier the Eritrean liberation movements which, by 1977, had come to control nearly all the province, almost isolating Addis Ababa from the sea. In November 1978 Ethiopia and the USSR formalised their new alliance into a 20 year treaty of friendship and co-operation.

The Ethiopian armed forces were greatly expanded, the army totalling 244,500 in 1982. Military efficiency and political reliability were at a low, the regime looking ultimately to the 13,000 Cubans and 1000—2000 Soviet and East German advisers for protection against internal and external opponents. The Imperial Ethiopian Navy was founded in 1955, and a naval base and college were established at Massawa in 1956. The first ship was received there in 1957. The modest naval force supplied by the USA, the Netherlands, France and Yugoslavia was supplemented since 1977 by ex-Soviet fast attack craft.
The naval base at Assab, scene of the 1977-78 Soviet arms sealift and close to the strategic Bab el Mandeb Strait, was expanded to include repair facilities, while a small Soviet-constructed forward base in the Dahlak Islands was used as an anchorage for Russian warships. The effective revolution in Tigray province, as well as in most of the rest of the country, resulted by 1991 in the separation of Eritrea (which became fully independent in May 1993) and the loss toEthiopia of its entire coastline. Some vessels were destroyed, especially at Massawa, but many escaped to internment in Djibouti (see below).

Cold War ships

One of the first largest ships of the Ethiopian Navy: Former seaplane tender USS Orca (AVP-49), becoming the training ship “Ethiopia” from 1962 to 1993.
By 1958, the Imperial Ethiopian Navy had only 129 personnel, but 1,200 in 1970 and at its peak, 11,500 personnel with seven-year enlistments as volunteers. It had patrol boats, torpedo boats, small submersible boats from the USN or Europe.
First vessel was the ex-U.S. Navy PC-1604-class submarine chaser transferred 2 January 1957 via loan and retransferred to Italy on 3 May 1959, named Zerai Deres.
In 1962, USS Orca (AVP-49) was transferred and renamed Ethiopia (A-01) used a training frigate, largest ship over 31 years of service.

Ex-Soviet ‘PETYA IP class frigates:
F 1616, F 1617: Two Project 159A ‘Petya IP arrived at Massawa July 1983 and March 1984. F 1617 interned at Djibouti.
Ex-Soviet ‘OSA IP class fast attack craft (missile):
Four transferred 1978, September 1980, 13.1.8 and 1982. Based in the Dahlak Is with Soviet advisers presumed to be aboard. One survived to be intemed at Djibouti.
Ex-Soviet ‘MOL’ class torpedo-boats:
Three transferred 1978, may not have TT.
Ex-Soviet ‘ZHUR’ class coastal patrol craft:
Two transferred 1982 and a further two in 1990. Two lost during civil war. Ex-US PC type large patrol craft
Belay Deress (ex-PC 1616). Built for W Germany at Brest, France, during 1953 55 under MDAP, but not delivered, being transferred to Ethiopia in 1957 under the MAP as her first warship. Found to be too advanced for the then state of Ethiopian naval training, and returned to the US in 1958, subsequently becoming the Italian Vedetta (discarded 1977).
Ex-US ‘CAPE’ and ‘PGM 53’ class large patrol craft:
PC 11 (ex-USCG WVP 95304), PC 12 (ex-WVP 95310), PC 13 (ex-USN PGM 53), PC 14 (ex-PGM 54), PC 15 (ex-PGM 18)
The two ex-US Coast Guard cutters transferred in 1958, the three ex-USN patrol gunboats in 1961-—62. PC 12 sunk by Ethiopian aircraft in April 1977 while her crew were defecting; the other four were discarded 1984. Ex-Netherlands WILDERWANK class large patrol craft Class (former name and no):
MS 41 (ex-Eist, M 829):
Acquired from the Netherlands in 1971. Used for patrol duties, but minesweeping fittings remain. May have been fitted with SS 12 missiles. Discarded 1990.
Ex-Yugoslav ‘KRALJEVICA’ class large patrol craft:
PBR 509 was transferred in 1975; her Ethiopian number is 51. Out of service 1984.
US ‘SWIFT’ type large patrol craft:
P 201, P 202, P 203, P 204
Six ordered from Swiftships, Louisiana in 1976; four delivered in April 1977 before US arms deliveries to Ethiopia ceased. P 203 and P 204 have 4-23mm (2×2) and 2-12.7mm MG (2×1) Soviet armament. P 202 defected to Somalia in 1984.
Displacement: 118t full load, 105ft oa x 23ft 7in x 6ft 6in 32.0m x 7.2m x 2.0m, 2 shafts, 2 MTU MD 16V538 TB90 diesels, 7000bhp = 30kts. Range 1200nm at 18kts, armed with 4-30mm Emerlec (2×2)
and Radar Decca RM 916, crew 21.
Four ex-US landing craft:
Two LCM type, purchased 1962, and two LCVP type, purchased 1971.
Two French ‘EDIC’ LCU class:
L 1035 and L 1036, launched May 1977). L 1035 lost 1990.
Six ex-Soviet ‘T 4’ class LCVP
Transferred May 1979. Four were discarded by 1990. Two ex-Soviet ‘Polnocny B’ class landing ships transferred, LTC 1037 in November 1981. LTC 1038 in January 1983.
-One ex-Soviet ‘Natya’ class MCM
-One ex-Soviet ‘Sonya’ class minesweeper, both transferred early 1991 and interned in Yemen jater.

The modern Navy, after the 1991-96 eclipse

The Ethiopian Civil War/Eritrean War of Independence saw 1991 the country landlocked and the Ethiopian Navy only existeing on paper. From its HQ at Addis Ababa, it started patrols in the Red Sea from Yemen. In 1993, Yemen expelled these, but without maintenance they were abandoned. The Training Frigate Ethiopia became a hulk after, sold for scrap in 1993 and the remainder scrapped or scuttled.
In 1993 there were still a few shpis in Djibouti. Ethiopia equested that Eritrea lease it pier space at Assab but it was refused. Ethiopia even proposed to divide ships, to be manned by both countries but Eritrea anted its entirely separate Navy. In 1996, Djibouti expelled the remaining vessels after Ethiopia failed to pay its harbor dues. The ships were all seized and put on auctions on 16 September 1996 to pay the back dues. Eritrea purchasing only four ships: One Osa-II class FAC, three Swiftships patrol craft for the on-going crisis with Yemen. The other were sold at scrap value.
In 1996, the Ethiopian Navy HQ in Addis Ababa was disbanded, officially the Ethiopian Navy ceased to exist. The former last patrol boat GB-21 was moved to Lake Tana, manned by Army personnel until 2009 as only watercraft. By June 2018 howver PM Abiy Ahmed called reconstituting the Ethiopian Navy and signed defense accords with France’s Emmanuel Macron, to establish a naval component and to operate from Djibouti, with headquarters now in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The process sparked a lot of media attention back then, but progresed since the invasion of Ukraine had been slim.

Read More/Src

Gray, Randal, ed., Conway′s All the World′s Fighting Ships 1947–1982, Part II: The Warsaw Pact and Non-Aligned Nations
video 1 video 2
borkena.com/ ethiopias-navy-will-be-based-in-djibouti/
africanews.com/ hq-in-bahir-dar-report/
en.wikipedia.org Ethiopian_Navy

Finnish Navy

Note: This will be ported on a standalone page.

Georgian Navy

Georgian Navy

P23 Oramchire

The state of Georgia had a peculiar history that was seldom linked to the sea, in that case the black sea. It is now today a modest Coast Guard, the maritime arm of the Georgian Border Police. It is supervised by the Ministry for Internal Affairs. Its responsibility is to police 310 km (190 mi) of Black Sea coastline and territorial waters, including smuggling and fishery protection, marine pollution protection, law enforcement, search and rescue at port security. The northern half of this coastline from the 2008 South Ossetia war was controlled by Abkhazia.
This was not that case at all time. There wa indeed a former Georgian Navy (sak’art’velos samkhedro-sazghvao dzalebi) as a branch of the Georgian MoD until 2009. But its waek assets were merged with the Coast Guard, transferred to the Internal Affairs ministry. Before the 2008 war this navy comprised 19 vessels, 531 personnel including 181 officers and 200 NCOs but also 114 conscripts and 36 civilians.

The Coast Guard headquarters are at Poti. Other bases are in Batumi and Adjaria. Poti also hosts the main force, including counter-terrorist Detachment. There are also Maritime surveillance radar stations at Anaklia, Poti, Supsa, Chakvi, and Gonio covering this coastal area.

Back in the past, Georgia had a vibrant fishery activity and maritime commerce, but never possessed a fleet. There was an attempt during the short independence (Democratic Republic of Georgia) from th Russian Empire in 1918 to 1921. There was a flagship and several sailing-boats used to bolster this force, armed with land guns, and a few tugs. They were simply former Russian vessels forcibly seized during the Russian Civil War.

In 1921 the Red Army invaded the birth country of Stalin, and soon ended the independence. Georgia was itegrated to the Soviet Union. Long story short, in the interwar, Poti hosted occasionally Russian warships, but being far from the theater of war, concentrated between the Crimean peninsula and the Bulgarian-Romanian coast controlled by the Axis. During the cold war, there was not even known assets belonging to anything resembling a local Georgian naval asset. Georgians were sometimes part of the Soviet Navy, but their condition was not enviable.

By 1990, Georgian’s own coastal waters were policed by a Russian unit based in Poti, the 184th Coast Guard Brigade, Soviet Black Sea Fleet. Smaller bases were located at Ochamchire, Batumi, Anaklia, and Sukhumi. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Poti brigade was withdrawn in 1992, but six vessels, in too poor state to depart. A Russian border guard unit with these ships went on patrolling the Georgian coastline until 1998.

The creation of a Georgian Navy started from February 1990: The country was now an indepdenent republic and the newly established Cabinet of Ministers of Georgia decreed a commission to study the creation of an army and its sub-branches from assets still present in the country. Captain Alexander Javakhishvili (former commander of a Soviet nuclear submarine, the highest ranking officer of Georgian origin) accepted the task of creating a navy from scratch or so.
Georgia post 1990 was not a CIS member and thus, not included in the Russian-Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet partition negotiations tat were held up in January 1992. With the separatist war in Abkhazia, Georgia had no asset that can defend the country at sea. Still, two naval operations were made with a motley collection of civilian vessels, during August 1992 evacuation of 173 women and children from Bichvinta. Anothr was led in April 1993 to deal with the pro-Abkhaz Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev at Gudauta. By July 7, 1993, the Georgian minesweeper Gantiadi (Captain Shukri Kopaliani) while off Tamysh, defeated Abkhaz boats. This was decreted later the Georgian Navy Day.

The navy bu default start to equip purchased large fishing vessels by small caliber anti-aircraft guns, army machine guns. In 1996, Georgia resumed asked for a part of the ex-Soviet Black Sea Fleet to the Russian federation, which refused. This bone of contention was nother point wrecking the already tense Georgian-Russian relations. Ukraine supported Tbilisi though, and helped the new navy wit several of her former patrol boats while offering and starting to train Georgian crews. The final fleet deal for transfer was not validated though. Later Georgia negociated her debt and ceded the rest to Russia. The country was part of the Black Sea Force (BLACKSEAFOR) but was ill-equpped to really participate.

Later in the 1990s, Georgia at last received attention from NATO member states, notably Turkey and Greece. They helped the country building up a small naval force. Still, up rt this day the Navy remained the “poor child” component of the armed forces. More so, Tbilissi did not procured any clear operational doctrine. In general resources to at maintain seaworthy ships or procure basic training were absent.

The 2008 War with Russia
Of course the 2008 conflict with Russia, which saw a rapid advanced in land caused a crushing defeat in a few days, also saw the small naval forced aseembled by Georgia destroyed as well. Postwar, given the weakness of the remaining forces, the government decided to merge the Georgian Navy with the Georgian Coast Guard in 2009. The Georgian had 19 ships and boats when the war started and up to 19 August it was equipped with at least one missile ship, the Dioskuria, and the missile boat Tbilisi.
At sea on 9 August 2008 another vessel was reported hit by gunfire from the Russian Black Sea Fleet off the Abkhazian coast after entering one imposed Russian “security zone” with three other Georgian vessels. Practically all ships in Poti were destroyed at berthe on on 13 August, by aviation.

Greek P74 of a similar type.
The large Dioskuria was a French-built La Combattante IIa-class fast attack craft (1972), obtained in 2004 from Greece, ex-PG Ypoploiarchos Batsis (P 17), HS Kalypso P54 formerly buit at CMN Normandie, Cherbourg in 1972. This was a real threat for the Russian Black sea fleet, equipped with four MM38 Exocet missiles and two Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannons, two 533 mm (21 in) torpedo-launchers. Unfortunatly she lacked training and direction and took no part in the fight. As designated a priority target, she was severely damaged in the 2008 South Ossetia war, sunk in Poti.
Tbilisi (თბილისი) was a Soviet project 206MR missile boat (Matka class) was obtained in 1999 from Ukraine. It received two Termit missile launchers and had a 76 mm AK-176 dual purpose gun plus a six-barreled 30 mm AK-630M CIWS. Uncrewed when hit, it was found in flames in Poti on August 13.
Unfortunately the the budget-stripped Georgians, none had missiles, and training wa slacking anyway. They only had a potential.
Postwar authorities tried to raise Tbilisi and Dioskuria, total losses in the port of Poti. They were later cleared out to allow other ships to berth.
After Tbilisi, Dioskuria, the Tskaltubo was also lost in Poti and the Coast Guard lost the cutter Giorgi Toreli, at the battle off the coast of Abkhazia and P 203. Giorgi Toreli however was listed “active” still by 2014 so it was either another vessel renamed, or was badly damaged by recuperated and repaired. The Russians only spared many rigid-hulled inflatable boats as they were captured as war trophies. After such crippling losses, the Navy own existence was compromised and the new authorities, gradually leaning towards Moskow disbanded the Navy probably on demand, so that the Black sea fleet had not to worry about a potential adversary. The merging into the Georgian Coast Guard stripped the Georgians of any nava ambition, and coast giuard vessels are generally lightly armed with guns only. However the rapprochement made by Georgia with the West, NATO and the US before the war likely cause it in the first place.

2009: The Georgian Coast Guard

The Georgian Coast Guard boat P-107 off Batumi in 2010.

The Georgian Coast Guard was reborn as a Border Police, subordinate to the Interior Ministry. It developed fast contrary to the previous navy into the most effective Georgian branch force today. The previous Coast Guard was formed ten years prior in 1998. The first naval division was created by the State Border Defense State Department under the Office of the President. The first and second naval divisions were created in Poti and Batumi.
On July 16, 1998, the 1st Naval Division (State Border Defense State Department of Georgia) started patrolling the maritime state border of Georgia, with vessels donated by Ukraine and Turkey just seaworthy enough for some useful service. Ther is a Georgian Coast Guard Day, celebrated every July, 16. Fortunately the United States came out (that was still before 2008) to bolster the Georgian Border Security and Law Enforcement (GBSLE) Program. Thus was endorsed by the U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Coast Guard started to train Georgian maritime personnel in 1997 already, but post 1999 it was radically expanded with the objective of transferring valuable ex-US Coast Guard ships. This was also followed by setting up some infrastructure with the setup of surveillance radar stations, starting with the strategic oil pipeline terminus of the Supsa the same year in 1999.
The USGC deployed a permanent Team in Georgia also from 1998 in Poti. Until 2003, this team setup a full structure for training, mentoring and maintenance of the Coast Guard personnel and infrastructure.

The best acquisition so far were two 40-foot SeaArks plus two USCG Point-class cutters in 2000 and 2002. The later, ex- USGC Point Countess and USGC Point Baker became the bderock of this new fleet. They were Renamed Tsotne Dadiani (P210) and General Mazniashvili (P211). Their first role was to train activelyt personal at sea and give enough body of experience to further develop and acquired more vessels, in 2007 and 2008. There was also a second coastal radar esbtablished in Poti in 2002 which was overlapping Supsa so to allow monitoring all Georgian territorial waters from Abkhazia to Adjaria.
Still internally this coast giard was either not properly funded and had no clear objectives. It was agreed that controlling the maritime border required increasing capabilities, leading to a reform from 2002 aimed at giving the Georgian Coast Guard (CGC) a better organizational efficiency.
The US model became the default model to follow for all cadree, and that was helped with a US GBSLE Maritime Advisor and its Georgian ccounterpart, Captain Third Class Ramazi Papidze. Together they eventually succeeded at creating a functional Coast Guard based on threats, missions and existing resources. Eventually the structure was split between operational forces (Operations Directorate) and Resources Management (Administration Directorate). It was granted an independent budget and given autonomous responsibility to provide the necessary missions. This was accompanied by a change in Georgian legislation but also old traditions.
By April 2003 the Main Office of the Coast Guard was created as part of the State Border Defense State Department and this became the most advanced military element so far. Major General Davit Gulua took the head of the Coast Guard, remaining also deputy chairman in the department.
In 2005, this State Border Defense Department was submitted to the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA), seeing some increase in status and functions.
In December 2006, the MIA Department was transformed into a law-enforcement agenc (“Border Police of Georgia”) adn the whole coast giard became its own department, at its head was the Deputy Head of the Border Police of Georgia.

Sokhumi at Batumi in 2008

Patrol Craft class Dilos

Adjara in 2010

Georgian Ships List

2x Grisha-class corvette: 2
Torpedo craft:
2x Turya-class torpedo boat:
3x Muravey-class torpedo/patrol boat:
Missile craft
1x La Combattante IIa-class fast attack craft: “Dioskuria”, ex Greek Anninos
1x Matka-class missile boat: “Tbilisi”, ex-Konotop (Ukraine)
Patrol Craft:
2x Lindau-class minesweeper
2x Stenka-class patrol boat: Batumi, Giorgi Toreli
2x Point-class cutter: General Mazniashvili, Tsotne Dadiani
2x Reliance class-cutter.
2x MRTP 34 fast attack/patrol boat
1x Akneta-class patrol boat
2x Dilos-class Patrol craft
1x AB-25-class patrol craft
9x Zhuk-class patrol Boats
1x Kaan 33-class patrol boat
2x Island-class patrol boats: Ochamchire, Dioskuria
4x Yevgenya-class minesweeper:
Amphibious Landing crafts:
4x LCM, 2x LCU, 2x LCT.

Haitian Navy

Note: Due to the size of this page, reaching wordpress limits, and because it’s Haiti navy’s entire history, the link is externalized
To be continued on a page from Honduras to Lithuania, then Mauritania to Singapore, Slovenia to Zanzibar.