IJN WW2 Destroyers

Imperial Japanese Navy About 80 destroyers 1919-1945

Imperial Japanese Navy Destroyer's complete overview

Japanese destroyers acquired a fearsome reputation during WW2, contrary to WWI where they mostly completely forgotten, if not for their brief action in the Mediterranean, and deeds during the Port Arthur attack in 1905. This reputation is due to several factors, but cannot brush over their initial problems, mostly structural, that also plagued early models, and were corrected post-1936. Notably their armament, and in particular their very effective type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes, world's best at the time, larger, with more range, speed and the biggest warhread at the time. It was these destroyer's "secret weapon" and did particularly well in many engagements where they were committed in particular condition where range was not an issue: In night attacks and the close confines of the Solomons islands in particular.

In December 1941, the IJN aligned arguably one of the most impressive force of destroyers of any navy, in quantity as well as in quality. There were basically two eras which divided this lineage: The ww1 series, with their typical "toothbrush" hull style, close to the German model, and which lasted in construction until 1923, and the new admiralty standard, imposed by the Yubari in 1926, a prototype for a super-fast, extremely well armed destroyer that was to set new high stakes for other fleets to follow. Production in large constant batches was relatively linear, but there were a few "super-destroyers" although no destroyer leaders as in other fleets as light cruisers were supposed to fill that role, notably the Sendai, Tenryu, and Kuma classes.

In this article will be exposed all the destroyer types used by the IJN (Imperial Japanese Navy) during the second world war. It is not intended to detail the career of each individual ship or expand on design details, since all these classes would be individually covered in the future.
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IJN Destroyers: WWI legacy and 1919 program


IJN Katsura at Brindisi in 1917, a second class Kaba class. Ten were also built for France.

Until the arrival of the Fubuki class in 1926, the IJN capitalized on "toothbrush" style destroyer with a characteristic cutout aft of their forecastle for a torpedo tube bank, forward of the bridge. This was a German design, which these WWI-era destroyers used, a sure way to differentiate them. They were all part of a gigantic naval construction program later interrupted by the signing of the Washington treaty. second Eight-Eight Fleet Program (八八艦隊, Hachihachi Kantai) was first and foremost targeting capital ships, and soon curtailed by the Diet as a "four-four" one. It saw notably the order for the first two Nagato class battleships.


IJN Hinoki off Wuhan's coast, a second class Momo class destroyer.

Alongside these, the fleet needed a new generation of Japanese destroyers. It was quite a ride since the Asakaze class in 1906, already 32-ships strong, 381 tonnes; The Umikaze were the first IJN ocean-going 1000+ tons destroyers, followed by the Sakura, Isokaze, Tanikaze, while the "coastal types", below 1,000 tons were produced in large quantities in between, the Kaba, Momo, Enoki and Urakaze class (1915). About a dozen of these arguably old WW1 destroyers survived into WW2 and even past 1945.

The Minekaze revolution (1919)


IJN Kawakaze on sea trials, October 1918 off Tateyama, colorized by irootoko Jr.: The last "classic" IJN destroyers based on British pre-1914 designs. With 37 knots and 1300 tonnes, they were still in the "light division" compared to many foreign designs.

They prepared the way for a new, major and innovative wartime class that redefined IJN standards at the time: The Minekaze class (F-41 design). First of the "toothbrush style" they really redefined what meant to be a destroyer, and arguably the Japanese created a world's best, in large part to face the latest US Clemson class in construction, the Russian Novik class, or the last flotilla leaders (like the Shakespeare and Broke class), all large oceanic destroyers.


IJN Minekaze in 1932 - colorized by irootoko Jr. The new standard until the Fubuki.

There was no way to constrain the size of these, as a new requirement implied a top speed of 40 knots, which was better than the already fast 1918 Tanikaze (37 knots). This imposed a larger powerplant, and a higher freeboard to cope with heavy weather conditions, another prerequisite of the design. They were also the first destroyer built with a rigid two-storey command bridge, unlike the low, flimsy open bridges of all previous designs.

With an output of 38,500 shp, 4,000 more than the Urakaze, they managed more than 39 knots, but on 3,600 nautical miles, had the same three twin 21-in torpedo launchers (including one relocated forward of the bridge), and one more standard 4.7 inches main gun, in between funnels while the quarterdeck superstructure now mounted two guns. Fully loaded, they reached as built 1650 tonnes, versus 1580 for the previous Tanikaze. As part of the 1918 naval plan, fifteen were started, launched in 1919-1920, all missing WWI but soldiering in WW2. Compared to the contemporary US Clemson class, they were larger (1300 tonnes FL), more powerful and faster (27,600 shp, 35.5 kts), with larger guns (4-in of the Clemsons), but the latter still had a marked advantage in their primary weapon, four triple torpedo tubes banks instead of three twin.

Still, the last Russian avatar of the Novik, the Fidonisy-class destroyers were larger (1770 tons), much slower (31 kts), lightly armed (as the Clemsons) but with the same four triple TT banks, although using sub-standard caliber (17.7 inches). So apart for the torpedo armament, the Minekaze (as a convention, most Japanese destroyers were named after natural phenomenons, "Kaze" meaning "wind") were above the pack. The lack of torpedo armament was soon recoignised as an issue and the admiralty did not waited long before asking the upgrade to triple banks.

This led to the next iteration, F-41B design, Kiyokaze class, nine ships in 1922-1925; Also renamed "Kamikaze class" in 1928, they were even larger at 1400/1720 tonnes, but still retained the same torpedo armament, sacrificing a bit of speed (37.2 knots), because their hull was essentially made beamier to acomodate a future topweight (notably armament) making them safer to upgrade in the interwar and WW2, unlike the previous Minekaze. However both classes were seen as quite expensive by the parliament, even though the Navy wanted more.

The third and last of these oceanic destroyer class were the twelve Mutsuki class (1925). They were slightly cheaper, smaller versions of the Minekaze, at 1315/1445 tons standard, they were shorter, beamier, even compared to the Kamikaze class. Approved by the new 1923 naval program they were the last hurrah of the "toothbrush style", many refitted in WW2 for other roles, and soon eclipsed by the Fubukis.

The last 2nd class destroyers

In between appeared the Momi class (design F37), for which the Japanese followed the previous path of "second class" destroyers. Way cheaper than the Minekaze, they seemed downgraded in many areas, over a 850/1020 tons displacement. They naturally evolved from the Kaba/Momo/Enoki classes (1915-16). Based on almost half the output at 21,000 shp they still reached 36 knots thanks to their feather-like features, and had just three guns and two twin torpedo tubes banks. No less than twenty-one were delivered, launched in 1919-1921, but still adopted their bigger sisters "toothbrish style" now standard, as well as 21-in torpedo tubes (18 inches was the standard for 2nd class DDs until then).

They were followed by the eight Wakatake class destroyers, also 2nd class, but 50 tons heavier, with a greater draught, but mostly identical. Called Design F37B or N°2 type, they had Zoelly turbines (not Parsons) and slightly downgraded speed at 35.5 knots. Four more were cancelled. Their importance is often brushed aside considering their WW2 usefulness. Theyr were criticized by their flimsy construction and lack of stability. At 85 meters long (280 feets) they were also ill-suited for heavy weather operations. What is rather interesting is the way the admiralty had them converted for other tasks and still found them quite usable. All were indeed rated as minelayers/sweepers, but many ended as Kaiten carriers and assault transports in WW2. The concept of 2nd class destroyer was abandoned and only "resurrected" with the 1944 escort destroyers of the Matsu and Tachibana class.

The Fubuki revolution (1926)

IJN Amagiri Ishikawajima Nov 1930

Already when the Mutsuki construction was not even started in 1924, the admiralty worked on a new design which was to be a radical departure and aimed at giving the IJN an edge over foreign design over the years to come. The new Fubuki class (吹雪型駆逐艦, Fubukigata kuchikukan) took its origin in a 1922 departure over the Washington treaty's limits for Japanese tonnage overall, and thus, it was believed this could be compensated just by exploiting the treaty absence of definition over destroyers. The Imperial Japanese Naval staff therefore published requirements for a destroyer with a maximum speed of 39 knots, a range of 4,000 nautical miles at 14 knots, armed with a large numbers of torpedoes, ideally twice as many current designs.

Not only these new destroyers would be far superior than any other foreign designs, they were powerful enough to collectovely taken on cruisers, and to operate with the new series of fast and powerful cruisers under consideration as part of a qualitative, rather than quantitative approach (capped by the treaty) to naval warfare at large.

This new program materialized indeed with the Myoko/Nachi class the first of which was launched in 1927 and armed with five twin 8-in guns and more torpedo tubes than the average cruisers. It was mirrored by a similar destroyer program destined to work with these in powerful, very fast attack surface combat groups, notably trained in night combat.

The initial design called for 40 knots on a 2000-ton displacement hull, an armament of all single 12.7 cm (5.0 in) guns and two twin 24-inch torpedo tubes but it was close to the Mutsuki, and later modified on the basis of a 1680 tonnes standard hull, more guns and torpedoes. Eventually precised they were included, and approved by the FY1923 budget, based on an even smaller 1750 ton design to be completed between 1926 and 1931.

Performance-wise, between armament and speed, they were eventually designated "Special Type Destroyers" (Toku-gata Kuchikukan). Their new specs, with twin guns, triple TT banks, greater speed and range made them potential adversaries for light cruisers, like the US Omaha class. In the latter, only the "destroyer leaders" Porter and Somers-class (only thirteen built) would be comparable. They were in fact superior to anything else built or planned.

As they entered service, the first ten ships (later called Type I) were called by numbers only, no name. However soon it appeared confusing in exercizes, and in 1928 a reform had them all named again, as the following groups, Type II Ayanami (ten ships) and Type III Akatsuki (Four ships). These modern destroyers simply outperformed any other destroyer class in the world until WW2 broke out. The British only could compete with their 'Tribal' design in the late 1930s and the US with their Sumner and Gearing classes in 1943-45.

The Fubuki, lead class of three sub-classes and many others to follow, was thus the best defining and more important destroyers to take part in WW2. They set a new standard to be followed until Japan surrendered. With the London treaty of 1930, however new tonnage limits for destroyers were defined, precisely to close this Washington treaty loophole. Under this new provision, signed by Japanese delegates, the new tonnage allowed was capped overall at 105,500 tons and per unit 1,850 tons. Also as defined, only 16% of the overall tonnage would be at that level (for potential destroyer leaders) while the the remainder would not exceed 1,500 tons per vessel. This explained while the Fubuki type was not followed and the Akatsuki group curtailed to just four ships.

Instead, the new Hatsuharu-class destroyer were designed to match this new limit, displacing only 1,530 t (1,510 long tons). Japanese engineers yet tried to keep as much armament and speed possible, but the necessary result was a step back, with 36 knots and a range of 4,000 nmi, just two twin turrets instead of three and the same for torpedo tubes. Only six were built, the last completed on 30 March 1935. Following the Tomozuru incident, the Fifth ship, Ariake was completely redesigned, ending as a sub-class.

They were followed by a new class heavier at 1680 tons to avoid being top-heavy and close to the sub-class Ariake, named the Shiratsuyu class, belonging to the ”Circle-One” Naval Expansion Plan. At that point, Japan still adhered to naval treaties, but will not sign the second London treaty of 1935. The Japanese just ignored the latter and thus, let all limitations expires.

This freed them to renew the Fubuki "special type" in a modernized way, ten years after (1936). The new 2,370 long tons (2,408 t) Asashio class (ten vessels) returned to the powerful standard or three triple turrets but instead of three torpedo tubes banks, had two quadruple, freeing space for more AA. The hull was much strenghtened, the powerplant was more modern, but this was paid in top speed, limited to 35 knots.

The success of the Asashio class led to a improved design, in a multitude of ways. For the Kagero class (1938), armament was essentially the same, but AA was increased. They also had some design simplifications and this led to the last interwar class of IJN destroyers. In all, nineteen would be built, the last completed in September 1941. Resources and manpower at that time still authorized to built no less than twenty repeats, known as the Yūgumo-class destroyer, the last completed in 1944, sixteen more cancelled in 1943 as budgets and resources were reallocated into a new wartime class.

Quasi-cruisers: The Shimakaze and Akizuki class

There were two very large destroyed planned when WW2 broke out: One remained experimental: It was IJN Shimakaze (島風), an experimental destroyer intended as a destroyer leader, for the new projected "Type C" that never went ahead. This was essentially a modern "super-fubuki" with 15 torpedo tubes (three quintuple tubes banks), all of course with the best torpedoes of the time, the deadly 610 mm (24 in) Type 93 "Long Lance", and the same main three twin turrets, but increased AA, range, and speed.

Indeed, IJN Shimakaze became the testbed for a new generation of powerplants: The enormously powerful, high-temperature and high-pressure Kampon steam turbine developed together 79,240 shp (59,090 kW). She therefore renewed with a top speed of 39 knots (72 km/h; 45 mph), exceeded on trials at 40.9 knots. A truly "special destroyer" without any equivalent in world, and until the end of WW2 for that matter. As a "classic" destroyer, IJN Shiamakaze, which entered service in May 1943 was never surpassed. All sixteen following vessels (3,048 tons FL "super shimakaze") were cancelled in 1942 as the IJN focused on a new type of "fleet escort", completely changing direction.

In early 1940, the IJN looked at a way to spare her cruisers while escorting its aircraft carriers divisions inside the Kido Butai. Combined with the apparition of a rapid-fire dual purpose, very modern weapon, the Type 98 gun, this led to the definition of a brand new class, setup for anti-aircraft screening, for carrier battle groups, designated 'Type-B Destroyer' in the new wartime program.

They traded their torpedoes (single bank of four Type 92 torpedo tubes) for eight 100 mm/65 cal Type 98 DP guns in four twin mount for and aft and a powerful secondary AA, reaching 47 × 25 mm AA guns in 1945. At 440 feets long for a displacement of 3,700 long tons (3,759 t) full load, they were almost as large as early 1930 light cruisers. They benefited from the new davanced powerplant developed for the Shimakaze, but toned down to only reach "task force speed", and thus, limited to 52,000 shp (39 MW) for 33 knots. About forty were planned in 1940, but only twelve completed, twenty cancelled, seven Akisuki and the remainder of the Fuyutsuki sub-class (four), plus all the Michitsuki class, never completed.

They proved very useful, offering as planned a good AA protection but performing many other tasks as well, and they were the first fitted with the Type 21 air-search radar. A successor class was planned, called the "super akizuki", a slightly larger group of 16 ships based on a 2,933 tons standard authorized in the 1942 Additional Naval Armaments Supplement Programme. This was replaced by the Modified 5th Naval Armaments Supplement Programme (23 ships of 2,701 tons, all canceled before construction started.

IJN Destroyers: Armament and specifics


IJN Fumizuki (Mutsuki class) in July 1926 freshly, into service, colorized by Irootoko Jr.

Main guns: 4.7 in/40-50

In WW2, the WWI-era surviving IJN destroyers still in use has been often relegated to other duties. In any case, they IJN adopted for its destroyers quite a powerful main armament back in 1910 with the 4.7 inches Vickers (120 mm) licence-built in Japan. It was used on virtually all IJN destroyers until the Fubuki class, but went from the 40 caliber to the 50 caliber, with a dual purpose mount on the Mutsuki class. They were spread along the ship in all possible platforms in a single, shielded mount; The 45 calibre was adopted on the Momi, Minekaze, Kamikaze, Wakatake & Mutsuki class.

Called 4.7"/45 (12 cm) 3rd Year Type, 12 cm/45 (4.7") 3rd Year Type and 12 cm/45 (4.7") 11th Year Type, they were simple hand-worked guns, of built up construction, with some having monobloc barrels and breech rings, wire wound. The three types differed by their Breech block shape and mechanism. Screw for the first, horizontal sliding breech for the two others.

They used the Common Type 0 HE: 44.9 lbs. (20.3 kg) and Type 1 HE: 44.9 lbs. (20.3 kg) or the ASW 1a 36.3 lbs. (16.4 kg) shell, the Illumination 2a model of 44.9 lbs. (20.3 kg) with a bursting Charge of 3.75 lbs. (HE) to 7.19 lbs. (3.8 kg) for the ASW model. They used a 11.6 lbs. (5.27 kg) propellant charge for a muzzle velocity of 2,707 fps (825 mps), the chamber having a working pressure of 17.5 tons/in2 (2,750 kg/cm2) and the approximate Barrel Life being about 700 to 1000 Rounds. The range was ether 16,400 yards (15,000 m) for the M1914 or 17,500 yards (16,000 m) for the M1922, at 33° elevation.

Main guns: 5 in/50 DP

From the Fubuki to the Shimakaze (1942), the standard interwar/WW2 main armament for destroyers. Always in turreted twin mounts. The 12.7 cm/50 (5") 3rd Year Type ('50 caliber 3rd Year Type 12.7 cm Gun') were common on IJN destroyers built from 1926 until the ed of WW2, in both single and twin mounts. They were the first to use weather and splinter-proof mounts, also being medium caliber guns with high elevation, so performing a dual purpose function. They had a very slow training speeds however, with hand ramming and in AA fire, no dedicated fire control. They were lade of built-up construction, with three layers or two layers, breech ring, breech bush. 700 guns were manufactured, using bag ammunition and Welin breech-blocks, which contrasted with their modern looks.

Main guns: 3.9 in/65 DP

These oddballs were used only in the "super destroyers" of the Akitsuki class, and were dual purpose, for which the AA role was their primary. They formed the main armament of these destroyers for which torpedoes were fewer than other types. They were influenced in part by the light cruisers of the Dido and Atlanta class on the allied side more the British Tribal class destroyers, and tailored specifically in 1940 as fast AA escorts for aircraft carriers, unlike previous destroyers, more versatile, used in independent formations to screen mixed combat fleets.

Main guns: 5 inch/40 calibre Type 89

Only used on the Matsu/Tachibana class destroyer escorts, they were essentially the same duek-purpose guns used on cruisers, battleshisips, aicraft carriers and to modernized older light cruisers. As destroyers main guns here, the 12.7 cm/40 Type 89 naval guns were developed from 1928 and produced from 1932. They fired a fixed 127 x 580mm ammunition weighting 20.9–23.45 kilograms (46.1–51.7 lb) depending on the type. The guns used an horizontal breech block, and could elevate to +90°, with 8-14 rpm and a muzzle velocity of 720–725 mps (2,360–2,380 ft/s), max ceiling of 9,440 meters (30,970 ft) at 90° and range 14,800 meters (48,600 ft) at 45°.

They were in paired mounts on the Matsu and Tachibana, protected by tall shielding.

AA MGs: 7.7mm Type 92 & 13mm Type 93


The first were derivatives of the Type 3 heavy machine gun, themsekves derivatives of Hotchkiss licenced M1914. They were completely useless in WW2 as per aircraft speed and removed to be used by Japanese Marines, more likely replaced by the 13.2 m.

The second were only used on the Akatsuki, Hatsuhara, Shiratsuyu classes. They were 13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine gun model 1929 from Hotchkiss et Cie in France and also used in Italy, Japan also producing these under license as the Type 93 heavy machine gun. In 1942 they were seen largely as useless and replaced by single or twin 25 mm Mounts.

AA guns: Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun


From the Asashio class onwards, IJN destroyers were given twin or triple mounts with the ubiquitous Type 96 25 mm AA guns. These were essentially a French 25 mm Hotchkiss design, evaluated in 1935, ordered, used for firing tests at Yokosuka and built as the “Type 94”, “Type 95”, and “Type 96”. After minor changes (castings to simplify production, Rheinmetall-type fire suppressor) design. Triple mounts appeared in 1941 and single in 1943.

Torpedoes: 18 in

The 457 mm types were used by WWI-era destroyers until the Mutsuki class. These were all of the Whiehead type, manufactured in Japan since the 1910 18" (45 cm) Type 43. Likely those in use were the 18" (45 cm) Type 44 No. 1 (1911) for the 8-8 program: Weight 1,585 lbs. (719 kg), 212 in (5.39 m) in lenght, 243 lbs. (110 kg) Picric Acid/Shimose warhead, Power/Range/Speed: 4,400 yards (4,000 m) at 36 knots, propelled by Kerosene-air fresh-wate.

Torpedoes: 21-in

533 mm caliber, standard as in any navy introduced in 1918 for the IJN, ot 6th year Type torpedo found on the Momi, Minekaze, Kamikaze & Wakatake classes. In stock were 21" (53.3 cm) Type 44 No. 1/2 (1911) but more likely these were 53.3 cm (21") Type 6 (1917). The latter wighted 3,157 lbs. (1,432 kg) overall for 269 in (6.84 m) long, carrying a 448 lbs. (203 kg) Shimose warhead at 7,650 yards/35 knots or 10,900 yards/32 kts, 16,400 yards/26 kts. They were propelled by a Kerosene-air wet-heater unit. Kills were these were rare, as the destroyers of this generation saw often their TTs removed for additional AA and hostile encounters with other destroyers or cruisers were rare in their escort/patrol role.

Torpedoes: 24-in Type 93/95


61 cm Type 93 torpedo found on the Mutsuki, Fubuki, Akatsuki classes, and all oxygen fuelled from the Hatsuhara and beyond. The Designer was Rear Admiral Kaneji Kishimoto, and Captain Toshihide Asakuma, and this started in 1928, then went on until 1932. The Type 93 became the nororious "secret weapon" unleashed by IJN destroyers and cruisers in WW2, which caused extebsive damage during the Solomons campaign expecially. The defective US Type 14 torpedo was in stark contrast with this. The Type 93 torpedo was dangerous to its user however but its effectiveness outweighed the risks anyway, claiming 23 Allied warships, 11 cruisers, 11 destroyers, and a fleet aircraft carrier and among these, 13 hits were fatal.
-The Type 95 had a smaller (405 kg/893 lb) warhead (mod 2: 550 kg/1,210 lb) but was in essence a Japanese equvalent to the US Mark 16 hydrogen peroxide torpedo, shorter range but much faster. It could also be fired fro a standard 21 in submarine tube as well. Range was 9,000 m (9,800 yd) at 49–51 knots and 12,000 at 45–47 kn, thrice the Mark 14, at the same speed.

Depth charges

Japanese Depth Charges were rather light and due to little practice in the matter, the crews usually set the fuses too shallow. In many cases it allowed the strongly built standard American submarines to escape. Intel about the "Gato" class in particular (Tench and Balao) capable to dive to 300 feet (90m) and beyond never made it to the admiralty. Escort commanders in addition grossly oversetimated their "kills" by just assuming it by the sight floating oil or debris. A classic trick known by German U-Boat commanders (as US commanders).

Free press however, a right to fight for, proved to be the source of a monumental blunder when a US Congressmen revealed in a press conference that U.S. submarines were indeed capable of diving very deep. This did not escaped Japanese agents in Washington, and this info was quickly forwarded to the admiralty, sending instructions to all captains.

-The standard IJN Type 95 depth charge has the following specs: -The 1942 Type 97 soon started to be delivered in turn, better suited for deeper operations and more powerful: The Slowest ships could send a parachute-braked DC in order to retard its sinking until sonar contact was made again, reducing the setting however to just 100 feet (30m).

-The 1943 Type 2 DC was equivalent to British DCs The Japanese also experimented with 220 lbs (100 kg) charge using magnetic influence fuse, but it was never ready as the war ended. The DCs took place in general five-charge racks, two per destroyer aft, and four to eight or more depth charge throwers. In fact so much were produced they also were fitted even on merchant ships. The average IJN destroyer in 1942 carried 30 depth charges, some in reserve, but dedicated escort ships could store as much as 300 depth charges, just liked US escort destroyers.

Radars and telemeters

-Type 94 Kosha Sochi The anti-aircraft fire control systems installed the Akizuki class destroyers specifically for AA purpose.

-The first radar sets were installed in Japanese destroyers in March 1942, initially in newly commissioned ships of the Yūgumo class. This continued at an increasing rate through 1943 and 1944, with retro-fitting of existing and even older, pre-1922, vessels.

Type 13: Aircraft detection radar experimentally introduced in 1941, widely fitted from March 1943. Effective up to 100 kilometres (62 mi).

Type 21: Used for aircraft and ship detection; introduced in August 1943. Effective against aircraft up to 100 kilometres and against ships up to 20 kilometres (12 mi). It was the first Japanese set capable of deriving height estimates for aircraft.

Type 22: Used for aircraft and ship detection up to 35 km and 34.5 km, respectively. Introduced in August 1943. It was also capable of gunnery control and became the most widely installed Japanese naval set.

Japanese WW2 Destroyers tactics

IJN destroyers organizations & formations

Destroyers were frequently named in groups of four ("-gumos" or "-shimos") operating as single destroyer squadrons, followed British usage (useing the same letter). Several squadrons created a destroyer flotilla, commanded by a Rear Admiral, generally having his flagship among the older Kuma, Nagara or Sendai class cruisers, initially created as destroyer leaders.

★★
Destroyer Flotilla
2-4 Sqn. Commanded by Rear Admiral, Light Cruiser Flagship

Destroyer Squadron 1

Senior Officer

Destroyer Squadron 2

Senior Officer

Destroyer Squadron 3

Senior Officer

Trial by fire


IJN Uzuki at full speed in 1926, off Tateyama

As par of the Kantai Kessen or Japanese Decisive Battle Doctrine, destroyers traditionally were tsake dto sally forth and disrupt an enemy battleship formation, giving the battleships an advantage when about to engage. When a battleship turned to ddge torpedoes, the optimal fire formation was broken, and the slow-turning turrets lost their initial heading.

But this was the early thinking inherited fro the Russo-Japanese war. In the interwar, the apprition of the aircraft carrier started to ask the destroyer for a new role: Providing escort of large combat groups (notably Kido Butai divisions) taking place on the flanks, screening forward, and tail of the formation. They could spot and report an enemy sight therefore so as the formation was prepared. But destroyers could also performed combat operations at a smaller scale, notably in night combat formations as shown in the Solomons and Carolines. They operated by division, or squadron strength, sometimes independently as shown in the "Tokyo express" supply runs.

They generally counted on speed to both surprise attack and disengage, using their long range torpedoes early in the engagement, and comprised two more more cruisers surrounded by twice as much destroyers. Both the cruisers and destroyers (especially the "special types") carried also twice as much torpedoes compared to their opponents, in order to disrupt enemy formation. The use of a night formation was largely also dictated by the Type 93 torpedo with its very long range of 22,000 yards, and being wakeless. Emphasis was put on heavy training for this. To support this night fighting, Japanese optics industry, largely influenced by German optics industry, manufactured simply the best night binoculars in the world at that time.


Several Fubuki type II destroyers in 1941 in formation, guns trained for a shelling exercize

As Guadalcanal and the Solomons campaign revealed, this training and the configuration favored IJN force, which can generally pick the time of action, carefully scheduled their arrival in Ironbottom Sound around midnight. Well-trained Japanese lookouts were able to detect even before the early SC and SG radars US warships. Every battle opening started with a massive launch of Type 93 torpedoes, and rapid reloading of all tubes, followed by heavy gunfire and a second volley. It took a while to US commander to admit that they weren't hitting mines, but were indeed struck by torpedoes, launched from an unthinkable range. This could not be in more stark contrast to the "garbage" Mark 14. The Japanese properly torpedoed the "Gun Club" in these early engagements (heavy cruisers had TTs removed before the war for stability), and many old school officers did not trust their temperamental radars either.

Its only when the first launched "Long Lance" torpedoes found their targets that the US forces were made aware of the enemy's presence, and after star shells illuminating the targets -that is, if the explosion caused by the torpedoes were not enough- a deluge of fire followed, in which Japanese destroyers out-gunned individually their US counterparts with their six guns versus five or less (Fletcher and earlier classes). Total Japanese surprise was notably achieved in a textbook victory at Savo Island, First Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in November 1942 and at the Battle of Tassafaronga, which was not in favor of the Japanese at first.


A Fubuki type II destroyer passing in front of IJN Nagato, 1941

Fortune reversed at the Battle of Cape Esperance, when using well the SG search radar in bad weather, foiling the work of Japanese lookouts. The Second Naval Battle of Guadalcanal saw the deadly combination of the new fire control radars on US battleships did wonders and Tassafaronga, US commanders trusted more their better radars to surprise the Japanese. At Vella Gulf, a large engagement between US and Japanese destroyers ended in favor of the first, advantaged by their superior detection range and better fire precision. The Battle of Empress August Bay, and Cape St. George (November of 1943) only confirmed this path. All that time, the IJN still favoured night battles but they failed to invest and embrace the radar as fast as the US did.

The tally

With the Type 93 "Long Lance" torpedoes only, IJN destroyers in WW2 claimed the following:
IJN Kikuzuki (Mutsuki class) at Saeki Bay in October 1932. Her name was repeated in Kanjis along the hull amidship, which was unique to Japanese destroyers, and the identification number more commonly at the prow. She also shows operational markings of the fore funnel, three bands indicating a lead ship.


IJN Kisaragi in February 1927 (Mutsuki class)


IJN Yuzuki


IJN Yunagi


IJN Yayoi


IJN Shimakaze


IJN Sagiri on sea trials on August 1937 off Tateyama


IJN Oboro II on sea trials at Tateyama, July 22, 1936


IJN Akebono II, same, July 29, 1936




























1916 and 1918 programs IJN Destroyers

Minekaze class destroyers (1919)


IJN Okikaze in 1932 - colorized by Irootoko Jr.

Minekaze, Sawakaze, Okikaze, Shimakaze, Nadakaze, Yakaze, Hakaze, Shiokaze, Akikaze, Yūkaze, Tachikazen, Hokaze, Nokaze, Namikaze, Numakaze These 15 first-class destroyers, launched in 1919-22 and completed in 1920-23, were all active in the fleet in 1941. They originally carried a four 120-mm (4.7 in) armament and three twin torpedo tube banks. Two were converted in 1939 into patrol boats (Natakaze and Shimakaze), carrying 2 x 120, 10 x 25 mm AA cannons and a single twin torpedo tube bank. Their machinery was reduced by the removal of a boiler and then served as troop transports in 1941, without their aft gun and rebuilt deck.

The Yakaze became a target ship in 1937, partially disarmed. The hulls of the other ships were reinforced, equipped with ballast tanks, and in 1944 they received eighteen to twenty-two 25 mm AA guns, sacrificing a 4.7 in also to carry Kaiten. They were sunk in operation, but five, including Namikaze, continued her career under the Chinese flag.

IJN Yukaze

Minekaze after carrier conversion


Specifications
Displacement 1,552 t. standard -1 692 t. Full Load
Dimensions 100 m long, 9.1 m wide, 3.1 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 boilers, 19,000 hp.
Maximum speed 35.5 knots
Armament 3 x 120mm guns, 8 x 25mm AA, 16 DC, 2L, 4 TLT 533mm (2 × 2) guns
Crew 180

Momi class destroyers (1919)


IJN Ashi, date unknown

Momi, Kaya, Nashi, Take, Kaki, Tsuga, Nire, Kuri, Kiku, Aoi, Hagi, Fuji, Susuki, Hishi, Hasu, Warabi, Tade, Sumire, Tsuta, Ashi, Yomogi The 21 second class destroyers of the Momi class (1919-1922), were not all in service in 1941: The Momi was damaged during a typhoon and its wreckage abandoned in 1932, and the Warabi disappeared with his crew in 1927. The Kaya was decommissioned and sold to scrap dealers in 1939, as was the Nashi. The 17 others were partially converted into patrol boats in 1940 (for 9 of them) or fast tankers on the same date (5 others), with a single boiler, speed of 18 knots; and the last three were kept in their first role. Their hull was reinforced, and they gained a DCA of 6 guns of 25 mm AA and 60 grenades ASM.

In 1941, the patrol boats and tankers were all transformed to embark a landing craft and 150 troopers, losing a gun of 120 mm back, and in 1944-45, carriers of Kaiten, with sometimes still a piece of 120 mm in less and about 20 guns 25 mm AA. The tankers had two fewer boilers, a reduced speed of 16 knots, 1 or 2 120mm guns, a single TLT bench, and were renamed and used as training ships. There were some survivors among those who were not torpedoed by submersibles: The Tomaruira No. 1 ex-Nire, the Take, the Osu ex-Khaki, the Fuji, the Tomaruira No. 2, ex-Ashi, the Asu and the ex-Sumire Mitaka.


Hasu in 1943


Tsuta 1943, as converted into an assault destroyer, with a Daihatsu landing craft aft and modified stern ramp


Specifications
Displacement 800 t. standard -1,162 t. Full Load
Dimensions 92 m long, 8.8 m wide, 3 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 boilers, 10,000 hp.
Maximum speed 18 knots
Armament 2 x 120mm guns, 6 x 25mm AA, 60 DC, 4L, 4 TLT 533mm (2 × 2) guns
Crew 180

Interwar IJN Destroyers


IJN Makazuki

Wakatake class destroyers (1920)


wow rendition of the Wakatake class

Wakatake, Kuretake, Sanae, Sawarabi, Asagao, Yūgao, Fuyō, Karukaya

The 8 destroyers of the Wakatake class were a follow-on to the Momi class, planned in the 8-6 Fleet Program, FY1921 as a low cost complement of the larger Minekaze-class. Initially planned to be thirteen vessels strong, but the Washington Naval Treaty capping added to budget restraints, so the last four were cancelled in 1922 leaving eight shils effectively completed. The Wakatake class were the last IJN "second class" destroyer, and future designs were larger. Numbers were given at completion, not names, but this proved extremely unpopular, causing also much confusion in communications. In 1928, names were assigned to these ships.

Their small displacement limited their role to fleet escorts and as the Momi-class they were limited to Chinese coastal patrols, including the yangtse, using their shallow draft. On 15 September 1932, IJN Sawarabi capsized due to poor stability north of Keelung (Formosa). In April 1940, Yūgao became "Patrol Boat No. 46" with less armament, a deleted boiler, 18 knots, and more AA and ASW grenades. It was a prototype for further conversions before WW2.

Six units remaining saw three (Wakatake, Kuretake, and Sanae) assigned to Destroyer Division 13 (Kure Naval District), ASW patrolling Seto Inland Sea, Bungo Strait and the other three, Asagao, Fuyō and Karukaya joined DesDiv 32 (Chinkai Guard District) patrolling the Tsushima Strait. From 10 April 1942, the 1st Surface Escort Division, Southwest Area Fleet had Desdivs 13 and 32 assigned to it. Its task was to escort convoys against USN submarines. They operated between Moji, Formosa (Taiwan) and the Philippines, and later included Singapore, French Indochina, the Netherlands East Indies and Palau. IJN Karukaya made 54 convoy escorts, the best service of them all, but was lost as four others to submarines, one of an air attack, but IJN Asagao survived.

IJN Harukaze in 1939


Specifications
Displacement 1,530 t. standard -1,650 t. Full Load
Dimensions 85 m long, 9.1 m wide, 3.1 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 boilers, 19,000 hp.
Maximum speed 35 knots
Armament 3 x 120mm cannons, 20 x 25mm AA, 16 DC, 2L, 4 TLT 533mm (2 × 2) guns
Crew 180

Kamikaze class destroyers (1922)


IJN Hayate on sea trials a Tateyama, November 1925

Kamikaze, Asakaze, Harukaze, Matsukaze, Hatakaze, Oite, Hayate, Asanagi, Yūnagi

The 9 destroyers of the Kamikaze class were the last designed before the Washington Treaty. They were launched in 1922-24 and completed in 1923-25. Originally, their displacement was 1,400 tons, but their hull was strengthened. Their military value in 1941 was not comparable to that of the "special type" post-Fubuki destroyers, but they were nevertheless used as intensely as the Mutsuki who followed them. They were originally simply numbered and received names in 1928. In 1941-42, they went back to the shipyard for modifications, earning 10 25mm AA guns. In 1944, the last had between 13 to 20 guns of this caliber and four machine guns. Their speed was smaller than originally, 34 knots against 36-37. There were only two survivors of the conflict, the others being sunk by US submarines, planes, the Hayate being sunk in December 1941 in front of Wake.


IJN Harukaze in 1939


Specifications
Displacement 1,530 t. standard -1,650 t. Full Load
Dimensions 100 m long, 9.1 m wide, 3.1 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 boilers, 19,000 hp.
Maximum speed 35 knots
Armament 3 x 120mm cannons, 20 x 25mm AA, 16 DC, 2L, 4 TLT 533mm (2 × 2) guns
Crew 180


IJN Kamikaze II

Mutsuki class destroyers (1924)


IJN Minazuki on sea trials, Feb. 1927

Mutsuki, Kisaragi, Yayoi, Uzuki, Satsuki, Minazuki, Fumizuki, Nagatsuki, Kikuzuki, Mikazuki, Mochizuki, Yūzuki

The Mutsuki were the fifth and last class of destroyers from the Minekaze of 1919, the new standard of first class destroyers of the imperial fleet. They followed the Kamikaze of 1922-23, differed in their larger dimensions, and especially their armament of torpedo tubes of 610 mm instead of 533, giving them a firepower far superior to the ships of allied fleets. In addition, they were versatile enough to carry out dredging and mine mooring missions with dedicated rails and equipment. 12 ships numbered from 19 to 34 were built. Their original characteristics were 1445 tons at full load for 37.2 knots, 4 pieces of 120, 6 TLTs in two benches, two AA machine guns and 150 DC.

Already overtaken in 1928, with the release of Fubuki, they were converted in 1941 in rapid troop transports, weighing down equipment, losing two of their cannons, and winning 10 25 mm AA guns, with 36 DC in locker and four mortars. In 1943-44, the losses in destroyers became so large that many were rearmed from their two 120-mm pieces. Some were camouflaged, like the Mutsuki above. In June 1944, they had 25 guns of 20 mm and 5 machine guns of 13.2 mm. In operation, they were fully engaged in the furious battles of the Solomon, or most were sunk. The Kisaragi was even sunk 3 days after Pearl Harbor. The others survived until 1944, and were victims of the overwhelming American air domination. None passed the year 1944.

IJN Mutsuki in 1944

Specifications
Displacement 1,590 t. standard -1 880 t. Full Load
Dimensions 100.2 m long, 9.16 m wide, 2.96 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Maximum speed 34 knots
Armament 4 guns of 120, 10 guns of 25 AA, 36 DC, 4 LC, 6 TLT 610 mm (2 × 3)
Crew 150

Fubuki class destroyers (1927)


IJN Fubuki in sea trials at Miyazu, 1928.

Group I Fubuki, Shirayuki, Hatsuyuki, Miyuki, Murakumo, Shinonome, Usugumo, Shirakumo, Isonami, Uranami. Group II: Ayanami, Shikinami, Asagiri, Yūgiri, Amagiri, Sagiri, Oboro, Akebono, Sazanami, Ushio

The Fubuki represented a true revolution in naval history, as were the Novik Russians in their day, representing the new standard for destroyers. And it was Japan that was not a coincidence, launched this new standard. Anxious to challenge its third place in the concerts of the great maritime powers with the stated ambition to eventually dominate the entire eastern sphere, Japan designed a type of ship radically different from the former class destroyers, including the Mutsuki. The differences were innumerable, and the Fubuki inaugurated the "special type" which would become the reference for the classes to come, until 1945.

They were world-class, not in terms of tonnage, with 2060 tons at full load, but above all by their armament, with their three 610 mm tubes benches, their three double turrets with 127 mm pieces whose range was increased by a rise which could go up to 75 °, by their speed finally, of 38 nodes, and 40-41 with the tests. This speed combined with a rather light construction despite the exceptional quality of the steel archipelago, largely responsible for the myth developed around the best weapons ever created, the formidable Katanas, had fatal consequences on their stability, which had to be improved in 1935-37 by a strengthening of the hull, which increased their tonnage at full load to 2390 tons, and consequently their speed to 34 knots. Twenty buildings were launched in three program laws, the last entering into service in 1932, numbered from 35 to 54.

In operations, the Fubuki were obviously engaged in all clashes, and their excellent qualities proved in combat. In 1941, 19 were in service, the Miyuki sank after a tragic collision with Inazuma in 1934. 18 were sunk in combat, almost all carried AA artillery reinforced 14 guns 25 mm and 4 machine guns 13.2 mm AA, (two machine guns 13.2 mm in 1941) and 1944 22 of 25 and 10 13.2 mm in 1944. They had removed the turret No. 2 to make way for batteries. None passed the year 1944, except the Ushio, which survived until 1948.


Author's HD illustration of the Fubuki

Specifications
Displacement 2,080 t. standard -2,400 t. Full Load
Dimensions 118.4 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.2 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Maximum speed 34 knots
Armament 6 guns of 120, 14 guns of 25 AA, 4 x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 9 x 610 mm TTs (3 × 3)
Crew 221

Akatsuki class destroyers (1931)


IJN Akatsuki on sea trials at Tateyama, June, 18, 1937

Akatsuki, Hibiki, Ikazuchi, Inazuma

The Akatsuki were four units quite close to the Fubuki, a little shorter with a slightly deeper hull, and new boilers of a more modern model. They also had a high speed and hull considered too light, and were reinforced in 1935-37; from 1950 to 2265 tons PC, running 34 knots instead of 38. In 1941-42, they removed their rear turret No. 2 to make way for AA batteries. From 2 machine guns, this one passed to 14 guns of 25 mm, 4 machine guns, then in 1944, 22 guns of 25 mm in eleven double carriages and 10 machine guns of 13 mm in five double carriage, 28 of 25 mm for the Hibiki in 1945 , the only survivor of his class. It was offered to the USSR in 1947 in war damage and renamed Pritky, and it seems that it was kept in service until the sixties.


Author's HD illustration of the Fubuki

Specifications
Displacement 1,980 t. standard -2,265 t. Full Load
Dimensions 113.3 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Maximum speed 34 knots
Armament 4 guns of 120, 14 guns of 25 AA, 4 x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 9 x 610 mm TTs (3 × 3)
Crew 221

Hatsuharu class destroyers (1932)




Hatsuharu, Nenohi, Wakaba, Hatsushimo, Ariake, Yūgure




⚙ Hatsuharu class specifications

Dimensions113.3 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Displacement1,980 t. standard -2,265 t. Full Load
Crew221
Propulsion2 shafts Kampon turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Speed34 knots
Armament4x 120, 14x 25 AA, 4x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 3x3 610 mm TTs

Shiratsuyu class destroyers (1935)


IJN Yudachi on sea trials Dec.1936, colorized by Irootoko Jr.

Shiratsuyu, Shigure, Murasame, Yūdachi, Harusame, Samidare, Umikaze, Yamakaze, Kawakaze, Suzukaze


IJN Harusame off Uraga, Nov, 30, 1943. colorized by Irootoko Jr

⚙ Hatsuharu class specifications

Dimensions113.3 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Displacement1,980 t. standard -2,265 t. Full Load
Crew221
Propulsion2 shafts Kampon turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Speed34 knots
Armament4x 120, 14x 25 AA, 4x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 3x3 610 mm TTs

Asashio class destroyers (1936)


IJ Asashio on sea trials off Sasebo, July 1937.

Asashio, Ōshio, Michishio, Arashio, Asagumo, Yamagumo, Natsugumo, Minegumo, Arare, Kasumi

In 1935, the restrictions of the London Treaty came to an end. The Admiralty was therefore allowed to return to the "special type" that gave birth to Fubuki. But this time we had incorporated the advances made by the two previous lightened classes, so that the Asashio, much larger, kept their two quadruple tubes and again received a double turret, for three in all. Ten buildings were built, the last one entering service in 1938. They inaugurated new turbines, but they had a number of defects of youth which prolongated their tests, and problems of direction. Modifications were made and they were fully operational in December 1941.

During the war, they added to their 25 mm guns, 8 others, including two carriages instead of their rear turret, suppressed in 1943. In 1944, they had on average 28 guns 25 mm and four machine guns, their movement to full load making a jump to 2,635 tons. They were all sunk in combat, including three at the battle of Leyte (Surigao Strait), the others by planes or submarines.


Author's illustration of the Asashio
Specifications
Displacement 1,685 t. standard -1 950 t. Full Load
Dimensions 118.2 m long, 10.3 m wide, 3.7 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 3 boilers, 50,000 hp.
Maximum speed 35 knots
Weapon 6 guns 127 (3 × 2), 4 guns 25 mm AA, 16 DC, 8 TLT 610 mm (2 × 4)
Crew 200

⚙ Hatsuharu class specifications

Dimensions113.3 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Displacement1,980 t. standard -2,265 t. Full Load
Crew221
Propulsion2 shafts Kampon turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Speed34 knots
Armament4x 120, 14x 25 AA, 4x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 3x3 610 mm TTs

Kagero class destroyers (1938)




Kagerō, Shiranui, Kuroshio, Oyashio, Hayashio, Natsushio, Hatsukaze, Yukikaze, Amatsukaze,Tokitsukaze, Urakaze, Isokaze, Hamakaze, Tanikaze, Nowaki, Arashi, Hagikaze, Maikaze, Akigumo

These 18 ships were of the general opinion, the most successful of the Japanese destroyers. Heirs Fubuki, but with excellent protection, they relied on the previous Asashio in general design, except for its transmission system rudder and its turbines. The Hamakaze was the first, in 1943, to receive a radar. Their artillery AA increased considerably: In 1943, the turret N ° 3 jumped, replaced by batteries. They had 14 guns of 25 mm, the standard endowment at the time, and in June 1944, 18 to 24, plus 4 machine guns of 13 mm. The bulk of the force was sunk partly by surface units and partly by aircraft, and the only survivor, the Yukikaze, was transferred to the Chinese for war damage. He became Tan Yang under this flag in 1947, and served until the 1970s.


Author's illustration of the Kagero

Specifications
Displacement 2,033 t. standard -2,450 t. Full Load
Dimensions 116.2 m long, 10.8 m wide, 3.7 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 3 boilers, 52,000 hp.
Maximum speed 35 knots
Armament 6 guns of 120, 4 guns of 25 AA, 16 DC, 4 LC, 8 TLT 610 mm (2 × 4)
Crew 240

⚙ Hatsuharu class specifications

Dimensions113.3 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Displacement1,980 t. standard -2,265 t. Full Load
Crew221
Propulsion2 shafts Kampon turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Speed34 knots
Armament4x 120, 14x 25 AA, 4x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 3x3 610 mm TTs

Yugumo class destroyers (1941)




Akigumo, Yūgumo, Makigumo, Kazagumo, Naganami, Makinami, Takanami, Ōnami, Kiyonami, Tamanami, Suzunami, Fujinami, Hayanami, Hamanami, Okinami, Kishinami, Asashimo, Hayashimo, Akishimo, Kiyoshimo




Author's illustration of the Kagero

⚙ Hatsuharu class specifications

Dimensions113.3 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Displacement1,980 t. standard -2,265 t. Full Load
Crew221
Propulsion2 shafts Kampon turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Speed34 knots
Armament4x 120, 14x 25 AA, 4x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 3x3 610 mm TTs

Shimakaze class destroyers (1942)




The Shimakaze was conceived in 1940 as the prototype of a new "special type", which would once again be a new unsurpassed standard in speed and firepower, a "super-Fubuki" to be followed by a class of 16 units. Individually speaking, these ships were to be far superior to their American antagonists, who at the time were represented by the Benson, frail 1800-ton ships armed with 5 127mm pieces and eight torpedo tubes, and running 35 knots.

The comparison was indeed very advantageous: the Shimakaze, with its 3200 tons at full load, claimed 6 pieces of 127 mm, and especially 15 torpedo tubes in three quintuple benches, unprecedented yet, all served by a phenomenal power for a destroyer, 75,000 hp. As a result, the Shimakaze blithely surpassed 41 knots in testing. The Shimakaze was launched in July 1942 and put into service in May 1943. Its DCA will be considerably improved in 1944 by the suppression of its turret No. 2, its artillery pieces of 25 mm from 6 to 16, then 28 in 1944, with 4 13 mm machine guns.





Displacement 2,567 t. standard -3,000 t. Full Load
Dimensions 125 m long, 11.2 m wide, 4.14 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 3 boilers, 75,000 hp.
Maximum speed 39 knots
Armament 6 guns of 127 (3 × 2), 6 guns 25 mm AA, 18 DC, 15 TLT 610 mm (3 × 5)
Crew 300

⚙ Hatsuharu class specifications

Dimensions113.3 m long, 10.36 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Displacement1,980 t. standard -2,265 t. Full Load
Crew221
Propulsion2 shafts Kampon turbines, 4 boilers, 38,000 hp.
Speed34 knots
Armament4x 120, 14x 25 AA, 4x 13.2 mm AA, 36 DC, 4 DCT, 3x3 610 mm TTs

Akizuki class destroyers (1942)




Akizuki, Teruzuki, Suzutsuki, Hatsuzuki, Niizuki, Wakatsuki, Shimotsuki, Fuyutsuki, Harutsuki, Yoizuki, Natsuzuki, Michitsuki, Hanazuki

The Akizuki class obeyed a 1939 directive calling for antiaircraft escorts for carrier groups. But as they eventually had to respond to a surface attack, a quadruple bench of torpedo tubes was built in the center. The Fuyutsuki in 1944. He will be one of the few survivors of the war. This artillery of a particular kind was concentrated in 4 double turrets of pieces of 100 mm with long range and with fast fire. The semi-automated turrets were heavy and spread towards the center of the ship, as for a cruiser. Moreover, with their 3,700 tons at full load, double the Fletcher, they were typically analyzed by experts as "super-destroyers" category popular late 1937, and the edge of the light cruiser (5000 tons).

Although these ships already display a strong ASM battery, and a 4-piece 25mm DCA, this "auxiliary" defense was greatly augmented, with the installation of 15, then 29 25mm gunshells, and for survivors in 1945, from 40 to 51 guns of this caliber, which made them the best armed destroyers ever built. The Akitsuki did not have any particular armor, but their solidity was demonstrated time and time again, as for many Japanese cruisers of slender and falsely light appearance.

Half of the Akitsuki finally fought very little, being put into service too late. Only twelve units of the planned program were finally put into service, the others demolished in situ in 1948. Only six units were sunk during the conflict, including one by one submarine, two by airplanes, and finally three by one. other surface ships, including one by PT-Boats (which translated a certain courage...) in December 1942 at Guadalcanal, shortly after its commissioning.

The first, the Akitsuki was launched in July 1941: It was completed much later and was not operational at Pearl Harbor. 4 others had been launched in 1942 and completed in 1943, 1 in 1943 ended in 1944 and the last 5 in 1944 and completed in 1945. They also saw little fighting, remaining almost all their short service in France, and survived logically to war, escaping the great bombing raids of July 1945. They were demolished in 1948, and two of them transferred, one to the Chinese who used it until 1963 under the name of Fen Yang, and the other to the USSR who scraped it much earlier.



Specifications
Displacement 2,701 t. standard -3,700 t. Full Load
Dimensions 134.2 m long, 11.6 m wide, 4.15 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 3 boilers, 52,000 hp.
Maximum speed 33 knots
Weapon 8 x 100 mm AA DP (4 × 2), 4 x 25 mm AA, 72 DC, 4 x 610 mm TTs (1 × 4)
Crew 300

IJN WW2 escort destroyers

Matsu class escort destroyers (1944)


IJN Maki late 1944

Matsu, Momo, Take, Ume, Kuwa, Maki, Kiri, Sugi, Momi, Hinoki, Kashi, Kaya, Kaede, Sakura, Nara, Tsubaki, Keyaki, Yanagi

At the end of 1942, the terrible losses suffered by the Nippon fleet because of the American submarines inspired the Imperial Admiralty the same response as the allies to respond to the U-Boat in the Atlantic: Dozens of destroyers of escort, smaller and cheaper than the "real" destroyers. However, again, the Japanese wanted to dominate their equivalents, and these ships were much better armed than Allied ships of this type.

For example, the initial design provided for a sixfold torpedo tube bench (...), which was not retained later. The protection was neat, as evidenced by the idea of ​​placing their turbines in two separate compartments to prevent a hit on the goal does not immobilize the ship ... On the other hand, their construction was simplified to the possible and very fast: The Matsu , the head of class, will be put on hold in September 1943, launched in February 1944 and completed in April. 17 other ships will be built in less than 6 months under this first series. Their DCA rose to 29 25 mm AA guns in 1945.





Specifications
Displacement 1,262 t. standard -1 500 t. Full Load
Dimensions 100 m long, 9.3 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 boilers, 19,000 hp.
Maximum speed 27.8 knots
Armament 3 x 127mm (1 × 2 + 1) guns, 24 x 25mm AA, 36 DC, 4L, 4 TLT 610mm (1 × 4) guns
Crew 120

Tachibana class escort destroyers (1944)


Tachibana, Nire, Tsuta, Hagi, Kaki, Shii, Nashi, Sumire, Enoki, Kusunoki, Odake, Hatsuzakura, Kaba, Hatsuyume, Yaezakura, Tochi, Yadake, Katsura, Wakazakura, Azura, Sakaki, Kuzu, Hishi - 12 cancelled, 12 more unnamed, Cancelled March 1945.

The second set, Tachibana, was virtually a copy of the first, with 33 units planned, but only 14 will be completed. They differed from the Matsu only, in extremely simplified shell shapes, and some in the superstructure as well, notably squarish shapes.

Their initial DCA was 24 guns also 25 mm, quickly increased to 29, and their ASW arsenal increased from 36 to 60 deep-fired grenades with mortars. Matsu was destroyed in action as well as well as three of the Tachibana class. Some of the survivors were BU in 1947-48, but IJN Nashi was refloated and repaired repaired in 1955, returning into service as an experimental radar picket in the new Japanese Self-Defense Navy.

Some units went to the British and Americans a war reparation, and promptly BU or used as targets. Those who were delivered to the Russians saw some service, and more with the Chinese (four in all, until 1965 for one). A third class of 80 ships was planned for 1945, but soon cancelled.

Specifications
Displacement 1,262 t. standard -1 500 t. Full Load
Dimensions 100 m long, 9.3 m wide, 3.3 m draft
Machines 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 2 boilers, 19,000 hp.
Maximum speed 27.8 knots
Armament 3 x 127mm (1 × 2 + 1) guns, 24 x 25mm AA, 36 DC, 4L, 4 TLT 610mm (1 × 4) guns
Crew 120

Other Japanese escorts: Type A to D (1944-45)



All these ships would be seen in a dedicated article soon. The building time and cost of new destroyers started to be unbearable for the Japanese economy in 1944 and thus, priority swapped to lighter, simpler mass-produced escort destroyers of the Matsu/Tachibana type, and four even smaller escort vessels types were also mass-produced. They were not classed as destroyer escorts, but just "escort vessels" or kaibōkan (海防艦, "sea defence ship").

Shimushu class Type A (1939)

First multi purpose patrol/escorts/minesweepers. Four ships built launched 1939-40.
Propelled by two Diesels (3,100 kW (4,200 shp)), 19.7 kn (36.5 km/h), range 8,000 nmi (15,000 km)/16 kts (30 kph), Oil 120t. Armament three 4.7in/45 guns, 4x25mm AA, 12 DCs. 860/1004 tons, 76.20 x 9.1 x 3 m.

Etorofu class Type A (1942)

Modified Type A, same specs but 870/1004 tons, 36 DCs. Fourteen ships built. IJN Kanju received two 4.7 in guns only.

Mikura class Type B (1943)

Eight ships built, improved A types still with the same armament with a forward twin mount and single aft, but 120 DCs. Also: 940/1004 tons, 78.7 m long. Top speed 19.5 kts, range 11,000 km (6,000 nmi) at 16 kts.

Ukuru class Type B (1944)

Thirt-Two vessels built from 1944 to the end of the war. Same specs as above, but two more 25 mm AA guns and range 10,656 kilometres (5,754 nmi) at 16 kn.

Type C (1944)

Reduced, more economical versions of the Type A/B, the first with diesels and second with turbines. 745/797 tons, 67.5 x 8.4 x 2.90m, 2 shafts diesels 1,900 bhp, 16.5 kts; range about 10,000 nm, armed with two single 4.7 in guns, six 25 mm AA and 120 DCs (including 12 DC throwers). All 59 ships numbered.

Type D (1944)



Repeat of the Type C but with steam turbines. Specs 740/925 tons, 69.5 x 8.60 x 3.05 m, 1 shaft steam turbine, 2 boilers, 2500 shp, 17.5 kts, est. range 9,000 np. Same armamment. Sixty-eight completed before V day out of 120 planned in all. They were mass-produced using modular design techniques pushed to the limit. The use of tubines improved their speed but limited the endurance. In 1945 AA armametn was pushed to sixteen 25 mm AA guns, and they carried thirteen DCT.

Resources

Links







naweaps IJN Torpedoes WW2

Colorized photos of IJN DDs

Tahibana class on navypedia.org

IJN Torpedoes on combinedfleet.com

Advanced Japanese Destroyers of World War II

IJN depht charges on The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia

On wikipedia (generic)

Irootoko colorized DDs Pics images galore: fubuki

same, shiratsuyu-and-asashio-class-and-shimakaze

same, hatsuharu-akizuki-fuyutsuki-and-akatsuki-classes

same, murakumo-kaba-momo-kawakaze-minekaze-kamikaze-and-mutsuki

Books

Naval Weapons of World War Two by John Campbell
Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War by Eric Lacroix and Linton Wells II
The Operations of the Navy in the Dutch East Indies and the Bay of Bengal (War History Office, National Defense College of Japan (Second Senshi Sōsho volume).

3D

Model kits

Akizuki in detail - kagero.pl

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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