LISTING SCHEDULER

2021
UK WW1 British Sloops ww1 post 30/05
US Douglas Dauntless ww2 post 03/06
US US Amphibious ships and crafts ww2 post 06/06
US US Amphibious Operations ww2 post 10/06
Germany Roon class armored cruisers ww1 post 13/06
All Fleet air arms ww2 page 17/06
USSR Kresta II class cruisers coldwar post 20/06
US Norfolk class destroyers coldwar post 24/06
UK Revenge class BBs ww1 post 27/06
Japan ww1 IJN destroyers update ww1 post 30/06
Italy Capitani Romani class cruisers ww2 post 02/07
Japan Mitsubishi 1MF1 interwar post 04/07
Brazil Brazilian navy coldwar Page 08/07
China Chao Ho class cruisers ww1 post 11/07
France Chateaurenault class AA cruisers coldwar post 14/07
US Independence class CVs ww2 post 18/07
Sweden Gotland ww2 post 22/07
Soviet MTBs ww2 post 25/07
UK Renown class Batt. Battlecuisers ww1/2 post 28/07
Germany Scharnhorst class Arm. cruisers ww1 post 01/08
UK Fairey Swordfish ww2 post 04/08
Denmark Danish Navy coldwar page 08/08
China Ning Hai class cruisers ww2 post 11/08
Italy Italian Monitors ww1 post 15/08
US Colorado class BS ww1/2 post 19/08
UK D class cruisers ww1/2 post 22/08
Soviet Guardships ww2 post 25/08
Sweden Fylgia ww1/2 post 29/08
02/09
Soviet Minesweepers ww2 post
Sweden Dristigethen ww1/2 post
Soviet Sub-chasers ww2 post
Sweden äran class coastal BS ww1/2 post
Sweden Oscar II coastal BS ww1/2 post

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POST

TITLE

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USEFUL

Tennessee class BB


ARCHIVES

Note: This post is a placeholder. There will be a complete overview of the class in the next future, officially released on Facebook and other social networks

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Latest posts




Historical Poster – Centennial of the Royal Navy “The Real Thing”
Poster of the century
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Battleship Yamato in VR


SPECS

Specifications

Dimensions 94.95 x 14.99 x 5.69 m (6.91 m max) or 328 ft oa x 49 ft x 18-22 ft 8 in
Displacement 4,083 long tons (4,149 t) Standard
Crew 34 officers and 350 sailors
Propulsion 2 shafts, 4 boilers Babcock et Wilcox, 2 HTE engines 8,500 ihp (6,300 kW)
Speed 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph), Range: 3,922 nm (7,264 km)
Armament 12 × 152, 4 × 57, 4 × 47 mm, 2 × 37 mm, 4 × .45 cal (11.4 mm) Gatling
Armor Decks 51 mm, gunshields 76 mm, Conning tower 76 mm

The First World War

Austria-Hungary Austro-Hungarian Navy
Argentinian Armada Armada de Argentina
Marinha do Brasil Marinha do Brasil
Bulgarian Navy Bulgarian Navy
Armada de Chile Armada de Chile
Chinese Navy
Royal Danish Navy Søværnet
Marine Française Marine Francaise
Regia Marina Regia Marina
ww1 japanese navy Imperial Japanese Navy
Hochseeflotte Kaiserliches Marine
Romanian Navy Romanian Navy
Russkiya Flota Russkiya Flota
Armada Espanola Armada
Swedish Navy Svenska Marinen
Ottoman Turk Navy Osmanli Donanmasi
Thai Navy Thailand
Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret
Koninklije Marine Koninklije Marine
Royal Navy Royal Navy
US Navy USN

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The Second World War

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy
Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy
Armada de Chile Armada de Chile
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn Chinese Navy
Søværnet Danish Navy
Merivoimat Finnish Navy
Marine Française French Navy
Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy
Regia Marina Italian Navy
ww2 japanese navy Imperial Japanese Navy
Kriegsmarine German Navy
Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy
Romanian Navy Romanian Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
Spanish Armada Spanish Armada
Swedish Navy Swedish Navy
Koninklije Marine Dutch Navy
Royal Canadian Navy Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Navy Royal Navy
Royal New Zealand Navy RNZN
Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret
Thailand Thai Navy
Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy
US Navy US Navy
Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy
minor navies Minor Navies

Latest posts

Cold War:
bundesmarine Bundesmarine
Chinese Navy
Israeli Navy IDF Navy
Eire Irish Navy
Iranian Navy Iranian Navy
JMSDF JMSDF
Marine Française Marine Francaise
Marina Militare Marina Militare
North Korean Navy North Korean Navy
Rep. of Korea Navy ROKN
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen
Royal Navy Royal Navy
US Navy USN (1990)

 

UK ww2 destroyers ww2 post 24/09
Soviet Romeo class subs coldwar post 27/09
France French Navy CW Part 3 Coldwar page 30/09
India Royal Indian Navy ww2 Page 04/10
China Hai Tien class Cr ww1 post 06/10
Japan Kuma class cruisers ww1 post 09/10
USA Missile cruisers coldwar post 11/10
Italy Litorrio class BBs ww2 post 18/10
UK Courageous class CVs ww2 post 21/10
Spain Armada cold war Page 25/10
Japan WW2 IJN Carriers ww2 post 29/10
Germany König class ww1 post 01/11
USSR Chapayev class Cr coldwar post 04/11
UK Town class cruisers ww2 post 08/11

3D Naval Repository

3D repository

The fast way: Embedding ships

Bodekull (The Dalarö wreck) by SWEDISH NATIONAL MARITIME MUSEUMS on Sketchfab

//sketchfab.com/3d-models/sentoku-i-400-aafc106209654ca68389bc1f5bccd5d4
//sketchfab.com/3d-models/110ft-sc-497-1945-c1ab73bf367d4aee9548aa0f9637b95b
//sketchfab.com/3d-models/uc-65-german-u-boat-wwi-1f57754c940942efaa84a7dc75593e30
//sketchfab.com/3d-models/elco-77ft-pt-59-91e29ce9ecb641feb7c00e3e3d1f51b5
//sketchfab.com/Angel_Arrow/collections/war-thunder-naval

For 3D artists: Virtual diorama

Do you you create 3D models ? Did you know you can find some extra exposure, on a growing website with a targeted audience dedicated to ships ?
Naval Encyclopedia now offers you a first class display experience, richer, better, than the confined space of a sketchfab embed: A dedicated VR page with a backlink to your pages creations, a new way of diplaying information for a 21st century web experience. That’s a brand new concept on the Internet with a bright future, so join in, board now !

Innovation at heart

Naval Encyclopedia just released the first of a new serie of insane VR experiences: A 3D battleship, right into your browser.
That’s right, thanks to WebVR magic and a bit of coding, there are now plenty of new opportunities to showcase great historical ships, either animated like here or fixed and with explanations and info panels, videos, photo galleries, etc. In terms of imagination, the sky is the limit now (but your own computer specs, and internet speed !).

Yamato

A Pioneering field

After Tank Encyclopedia’s virtual museum there was at first a similar project for naval encyclopedia. However quite recently a new feature appeared on the CC data bank of WebVR: water animation. Starting just with this, came a smaller scale display project, and the idea was dug further into an equivalent of a regular page, although understandably with less text. The goal is not there, as this text content is purely graphic and not indexed anyway by search engines. It’s rather more like a new, fun way of displaying famous ship, in a more original, closer and natural way than usual medias.

Towards a new market

Of course this kind of prototype see beyond the scope of battleships. Such an experience can be further enhanced and declined to many fields. For example what if this model was a watch and the link was pointing to the product page of a fully-fledged E-commerce ? You can built bridges with a regular E-commerce and give your audience more immersion with the product and a real sense of what it really feels and look, close and personal. Now, this is still largely an experimental tech. After all, links only arrived a few months ago, and there are still tons of questions and requests, so it’s not for tomorrow these VR experiences will completely replace traditional 2D websites. But they are expanding the field of storytelling and on a content marketing standpoint, clearly makes a difference. And what about customers which would receive your personalized VR cardboard so for them to never forget your brand ? Beyond nerdy and geeky regalia, there is a brand new world of marketing to be explored, and that’s when things really became interesting.

Practical Infos

Now for this experience to work, there are two 3D standards that are accepted: Either .gtlf contents, or .obj. This one is working with a .obj and a .mtl texture file. .gtlf is officially recommended (in fact .obj models are no longer supported by the latest version of WebVR (0.7.1) but people seems to have a hard time working with these .gtlf so a bit more work is required here from the community. Also 3D modell links to the textures must be relative in order to avoid “white models” problems like here, and here.

David Bocquelet, Naval Encyclopedia (dbo-design)

The Bismarck class was the first and last class of German battleships, and the most famous

Germany Navy ww2 KMS Bismarck in 3D – Model by Maxromash on Sketchfab.


HMS Gallant

KMS Gneisenau by Thomas Berens

Royal Navy HOOD Naval Encyclopedia Model uploaded by Maxromash Qwazaam Loading takes a while, be patient ! – Use the arrow keys to navigate the experience (desktop).
Japanese Sentoku I-400 by Zatsent


Kaiten Model by Arck Projects on Sketchfab – See other models

Kriegsmarine German Midget Submarine Seehund By Matthias Willemen on Sketchfab Facebook Twitter

HMS SOUTHAMPTON Naval Encyclopedia Model by Oskar on SketchfabSee also Oskar’s models

STALINGRAD
Model by Maxromash

IJN A-Type Midget sub in VR Naval Encyclopedia Model by Maxromash on SketchfabAll Maxromash models

U-Class submarines By Eduardo Cortes Romero

VLADIVOSTOK Model by Maxromash

US Navy USS West Virginia in VR – Model by Maxromash on Sketchfab.

USS Wichita Naval Encyclopedia by maxromash

WebVR Battleship Display

For 3D artists

Do you you create 3D models ? Did you know you can find some extra exposure, on a growing website with a targeted audience dedicated to ships ?
Naval Encyclopedia now offers you a first class display experience, richer, better, than the confined space of a sketchfab embed: A dedicated VR page with a backlink to your pages creations, a new way of diplaying information for a 21st century web experience. That’s a brand new concept on the Internet with a bright future, so join in, board now !

Innovation at heart

Naval Encyclopedia just released the first of a new serie of insane VR experiences: A 3D battleship, right into your browser.
That’s right, thanks to WebVR magic and a bit of coding, there are now plenty of new opportunities to showcase great historical ships, either animated like here or fixed and with explanations and info panels, videos, photo galleries, etc. In terms of imagination, the sky is the limit now (but your own computer specs, and internet speed !).

Yamato

A Pioneering field

After Tank Encyclopedia’s virtual museum there was at first a similar project for naval encyclopedia. However quite recently a new feature appeared on the CC data bank of WebVR: water animation. Starting just with this, came a smaller scale display project, and the idea was dug further into an equivalent of a regular page, although understandably with less text. The goal is not there, as this text content is purely graphic and not indexed anyway by search engines. It’s rather more like a new, fun way of displaying famous ship, in a more original, closer and natural way than usual medias.

Towards a new market

Of course this kind of prototype see beyond the scope of battleships. Such an experience can be further enhanced and declined to many fields. For example what if this model was a watch and the link was pointing to the product page of a fully-fledged E-commerce ? You can built bridges with a regular E-commerce and give your audience more immersion with the product and a real sense of what it really feels and look, close and personal. Now, this is still largely an experimental tech. After all, links only arrived a few months ago, and there are still tons of questions and requests, so it’s not for tomorrow these VR experiences will completely replace traditional 2D websites. But they are expanding the field of storytelling and on a content marketing standpoint, clearly makes a difference. And what about customers which would receive your personalized VR cardboard so for them to never forget your brand ? Beyond nerdy and geeky regalia, there is a brand new world of marketing to be explored, and that’s when things really became interesting.

Practical Infos

Now for this experience to work, there are two 3D standards that are accepted: Either .gtlf contents, or .obj. This one is working with a .obj and a .mtl texture file. .gtlf is officially recommended (in fact .obj models are no longer supported by the latest version of WebVR (0.7.1) but people seems to have a hard time working with these .gtlf so a bit more work is required here from the community. Also 3D modell links to the textures must be relative in order to avoid “white models” problems like here, and here.

David Bocquelet, Naval Encyclopedia (dbo-design)

Modeller’s Corner: Ships model Kits

Classic ships Model Kits (injected)

In all the recent ships posts (from 2021 onwards) you will find systematically a “modeller’s corner” after the books/links section. I’m currently using scalemates, which huge database is quite handy to find old brands and unusual scales. It’s the archive.org or model kits. For each ship, i’ll try to pick up each time all the existing scales and brands, and pick up some famous ones. It happens rarely, but some ships never had been covered in anyway. In this section i will try to list everything reachable on the web in terms of classic injected plastic model kits. Not reviews yet, but it’s secheduled.

Ships plans & blueprints:
http://floatingdrydock.com/TFW2.htm

Novo kit British cold war frigate

Ships comes in 1/72, 1/96, 1/144, 1/200, 1/350, 1/400 1/450, 1/600, and 1/700 scale, although small scales has been produced, at 1/1200 or 1/1250, even 1/3000 models for wargaming or toys.
Models of warships by Airfix Ship model kits by Airfix
Heller ships models Ship model kits by Heller
Ark models shipshttp://www.ark-models.org/catalog.php?cid=15
Ship model kits by Italeri
Hasegawa ships model kits Ship model kits by Hasegawa
Matchbox model kits Ship model kits by Matchbox
Ship model kits by Revell
Ship model kits by Tamiya
tamiya waterline serie catalog
tamiya.com 1/350 ship kits
And also: Academy

AFV club also manufactured a serie of 1/350 submarines, and two USN frigates. AMG models manufactured two soviet motor boats (>). Eastern Express did a few ships like the HMS Tiger (>). Fascinations manufactured a few ships and subs in metal. Hobby Boss also manufactured a serie of ships (like this interesting and rare USS heavy cruiser Hawaii French Strasbourg and Condorcet, Nelson, Mikasa, Type 039G Song Class SSG – unfortunately many are out of stock). Trumpeter, the famous Chinese manufacturer also made a sizeable serie of ships models. See also > (Both websites are out of reach). Also ICM made a few ships like the german ww1 BB Kronprinz wilhelm, König, U-Boat Type IIB, Type XXIII Elektroboote, Type XXVII “Seehund”. MENG also provided a few ww2 battleships such as the Bismarck and Missouri. Modelist made also a few models such as sailing ships and an interesting trireme, OREL made the Petropavlovsk, Torpedo boat D-3 and many other Russian/soviet models. Mister Craft, better known for planes, made at least the Santa Maria, HMS Sikh and Eskimo or Hero. S-model made a few rare ships, the Imperial Chinese Navy Tsi Yuen, Ting Yuen and Ching Yuen 1894. Zvezda of course also made some ships, Russians like the BB Sevastopol, Hood, Bismarck, Titanic, Yamato, Essex, Kirov, Suvorov, Varyag, Kursk, and some sailships.

Ships models retailers:

From the full manufacturers list
From emodels.co.uk
Ships model kits Monogram Revell
modelerscentral.com
micromark.com
bluejacketinc.com/
https://www.historicships.com/
1001modelkits.com
kingkit.co.uk

Printable 3d ships models:

On turbosquid.com
https://www.turbosquid.com/3d-model/submarine
https://www.turbosquid.com/3d-model/military-vessel
On cgtrader.com
https://www.cgtrader.com/3d-models/navy
On sketchfab.com
partcloud
free3d.com
archive3d.net
thingiverse.com
3dwarehouse.sketchup.com
myminifactory.com
cults3d.com
pinshape.com
shapeways.com ships tagged 1/700

Naval History

Periplous of the erythrean sea

From skinboats to …flying ships

From prehistoric times, when probably someone falling into a torrent hang on a trunk and discover a much faster way to travel, or later go fishing on improvised rafts, man used the sea and lakes for survival and later convenience. Basically in these very early times linked to the last ice age, the first kind of “boat” ever devised was a dugout, carved from a rough trunk. In effect, it defined for the future two family of boats, one destined to stay confined to leisure (now made with composite materials), the one piece boat, and one composite boat destined to conquer the seven seas and probably an early exemple of complex technology that also led to the conquest of space. Nowadays, ships are greener, roomier, with better automation. They are also faster with hybrids like hovercrafts, and hydroptères has long been seen as the way to go for light ships. A sailing one proved that it could reach 100 kph, only relying on wind power. More promising and even faster are other hybrids like wing-in-ground effect crafts.

Reconstitution of a dugout canoe

Part I: Dugout Canoes

It is undoubtedly the simplest and most common boat type still encountered in hot, woody countries. It was also the standard in Europe during the Ice Age as a construction project digging deep unearthed by chance probably the oldest European boat, a canoe dating back 10,000 years time from the banks of the Seine, at a time tribes known an hunting area where woolly mammoths quench their thirst. The word “Dugout” (dug out) is also known as Pirogue (Fr) Piroge (German), or Latin Trinchera, coming from “Piragua”, a Guarani word literally meaning “water that goes over the water”, the term date of the discovery of Columbus, shared by all the Caribbean Indians. Crafted for an indefinite time in the great forests to serve on large rivers like the Amazon and its tributaries, but also Zaire, Zambezi, and many others around the equator, the dugout embodies simplicity itself.

Piragua
Caribbean Indians Piragua of the Guarani

Dugout boats arises from a hollowed tree trunk; All species do not permit that, far from it: It must a light essence, solid, non-porous, because waterproofing techniques did not existed at first, except, however, the “bucanning” technique, by wooden fire, or a coating based on vegetable wax or sap. The typical tropical canoe was often made in Balsa wood, coated with sap, heated over a wooden fire, which gave it its dark color. On Zaire river, Mahogany trunks, Framiré, and especially Iroko, as essence often used, whose life once dried was 10 years old. In North America (pacific coast indians), canoes were often made of red cedar, a huge and strong tree.

These large canoes were painted in bright colors. Shapes varied widely by region but overall, dugouts made of tropical timber had limited sizes and a tapered shape, dictated by the empiricism of speed. African canoes were often diverted to a flexible wooden type assembled from three main parts: Flat bottom, two lined plates and two crosses. This is the type which is currently manufactured, including throughout West Africa.

prehistoric dugout
european dugout
European Dugouts, 10,000 bc.

Although early dugouts really were emptied trunks, roughly carved, empiricism commanded nicer, curvy shapes of the front and rear resulting undoubtedly a lesser water resistance. European dugout discoveries as well as live archaeological reconstructions tell us about their construction technique: A typical Mesolithic dugout measured 6-8 meters by 50 centimeters, its weight could range from 250 to 750 kgs. Its cross-section perfectly married the shape of the trunk, including its imperfections. Therefore the choice of a straight, perfect trunk was important, especially as nodes were all potential waterways. Also conifers were preferred, being both a waterproof timber and having a certain lightness, ease of the work, besides being straight, and without knots on the bulk of the log (high branches).

polynesian piragua
A typical Polynesian dugout with balancing float

They had probably a stone anchor (found with the remains of dugouts) and propelled with improvised paddles. For their construction, were used flint adzes, wedges, sledgehammers and wooden hammers but also scissors bone and antlers, wire tracing and a lighter flint with tinder for method burning by digging. First was marked the upper edge notched on the sides (pre-cut with scissors and measured using the wire), and the content this slice sections were notched in V with an adze and then removed to the using wooden wedges tapped to ground, or a stag corner.

The thickness was measured using a bow-shaped instrument, then finishes were proceeded by burning: Suppressed splinters and treated wood against pests naturally. Finally, sealing was done by a mixture of beeswax hot vegetable fibers on the cracks. The lower part was generally thicker, as the central part of the stern and the bow, to prevent the wood from splitting when drying.

Toba Boat
Toba boat

In the Pacific Islands, canoes has unique characteristics: Thin and flexible, because of the nature of the trees used, and generally higher than wide. It necessarily carries a balance to ensure stability, the “float” being connected to the set with light wood, solid and flexible (such as bamboo). The catamaran solution (a Polynesian word) came from this concept, combining the advantages of the raft and finesse of dugout hulls. It is definitely implanted today throughout the pacific.

Poynesian Catamaran priests travelling across Kealakekua bay for first contacts rituals
Poynesian Catamaran priests travelling across Kealakekua bay for first contacts rituals

In Polynesia at least three types of canoes are known: The Fishing Celle, single or double pendulum is sub-distinguished between the small Va’a (the most common equivalent for “piragua”), for fishing in lagoons, the Va’Motu for inshore fishing, and Va’a Tira for deep sea fishing.

Tuamotu Islands catamaran
Tuamotu Islands catamaran

Transport was performed with catamaran type, and sub-distinguished between the Tipaerua, ranging from 13 to 25 meters and sometimes double hull, for passenger transport and inter-island commercial transportation and the Pahi, wider and longer and often given 2 sails, operated by 6-8 men. Finally the Tama’i, a Pahi catamarans of war, a little thinner (thus faster), decorated to be both aggressive and flamboyant. In common a large central paddle at the stern of the raft was used in cases, the “hoe”, a scoop, and a stone anchor. The Tipaerua-like Pahi was considered by the Polynesians as their “fenua” their territory, bearing the name of their lineage. Landing on a virgin island, it took the name of the boat.

Part II: Kayaks – Skinboats from the North


A Kayak Eskimo from Greenland.

The Canoe, a composite boat, unlike the basic dugout, existed throughout the North American continent, and a variant called Kayak (kyak, kyack, Kaiak, qajaq), a palindrome reflecting the symmetry of the boat, was also used by peoples of the Arctic circle. The Lapps, Inuit (Eskimo), Aleuts, Chukchi, Koryak, all used it dating back at least 4,000 years. We found these boats in the south of Greenland, in Eastern Siberia and Alaska. It is very likely that this skinboat was born during the Ice Age as the construction methods found everywhere were probably close. It was traditionally made of floating woods (found on the shore) and reindeer bones linked by tendons and sinews and skins of marine mammals, covered with skins sewn with a sealing made of a mixture varying depending on the regions. Kayaking is the most famous boat the Arctic Circle. It is lightweight, easily transportable on the back of one man if needed, almost symmetrical, along about four meters wide by 50-60 centimeters, and only opening is a manhole whose solidarity with the anorak paddler is provided by a completely tight skirt. A necessity because the boat is very fast but also quite unstable.
 

Baidarka wooden Aleut Siberians (of French Anthropology illustration, late nineteenth century)

One of the basic techniques of its handling was indeed the “Eskimo” technique which consisted to recover by using the body and paddles when turned upside down. The double paddle is also a feature of this boat. Greenlanders are said to have invented several techniques of this type, especially because of their particularly fine and narrow boats. Despite a ballast for stability, they were going to hunt, could turn even an experienced hunter. But other techniques exist, only in a hunt group or other kayakers could intervene quickly. In one of these techniques, the kayaker waiting to be returned by a partner or, failing that, until the others arrive, a paddler boat if permitted, enter the capsized kayak and breathe the air trapped inside waiting to be rescued.

The kayak was primarily an individual boat for fishing and hunting, probably the best. Not only it was very fast but also very stealthy and perfect for the ambush and pursuit of marine mammals, but also for group hunting like stalking caribou crossing a river. The kayaks were maintained with the utmost attention and the coating was carefully oiled every 4-8 days in order to keep its seal, flexibility and prevent cracks to happen. The skin was shaved carefully because holes could let air pass once the decomposed body hair, and treated before assembly with a mixture acting as a glue creeping into any orifice. Harsh climate conditions required treatment at this level…

Each nation had its own kayak construction material subtleties. Some used more wood when it was abundant, and in North America fully wooden kayaks appeared. Thus, in the Aleutian and Alaska were building a two-seater variant of the kayak, called Baidarka. This type of canoe was little used because of the relative strength of two paddlers and difficulty staying the course of a boat of this type. Some were even triple Baidarka and appeared on the Siberian area, used as transportation by the Russians Orthodox missionaries (no paddles).


Inuit traditional Kayak in Greenland

According to other theories, kayak would have derived from Umiaks, an oldest, “bridged” version, and faster. It was not uncommon to see Umiaks (or sometimes Baydar) and kayaks hunt together, the vast hull of the first used to carry preys and supplies… Kayakers were able to take off, crossing the already impressive waves, chasing whales… Hunting equipment varied depending on the desired prey. Thus, the harpoon, large multi-tip spear were attached to the boat, finer, the two are often used with a throwing stick similar to the South American atlatl. To increase the strength and scope pitcher of darts, light enough for catching fish and even birds, a spear was used to kill the animal closely and naturally finish it off with a knife. The meat was brought to the village in several ways. If the boat was fairly large and the prey small enough, it was loaded on the front or back deck. Quick solution but which made the whole very unstable. More often, especially because of the size of the prey, the animal was cut into pieces on the ice and stored evenly inside the boat. The prey could also have been towed, inflated to prevent it from flowing, and assist the kayak, fastened like a float.

Kayaking, whose knowledge in the West really started in the late nineteenth century, has gradually become a popular sport in the second half of the 20th century, from 1959 when the modern copy of an Eskimo kayak was made and sold in Scotland. Shapes and building materials have adapted to the modern world. Fiberglass, plastic, plywood, have become common materials, modern Eskimos themselves having no recourse to ancient building methods whose expertise continues yet again.

Links

Naval History on wikipedia
About the dugout canoes on wikipedia
About the Kayak on wikipedia
Boats history on wikipedia

Video: Naval History