Canarias class heavy cruisers (1936)

Spanish ArmadaSpanish Nationalist NavySpanish Republicans Spanish Republic - Nationalists Canarias, Baleares (1936)

The Spanish 8-in cruisers

The two heavy cruisers Canarias and Baleares were the first of this kind built in Spain. They were ruled by the Washington Treaty, of the classic "8x8 inches - 10,000 tons" type, whereas Spain never signed the treaty. Proceeding as usual in consulting British engineers, including Phillip Watts, the Spanish built their ships locally, strongly inspired by Kent class (County class). However the civil war erupted and both ships were captured by the nationalists. They would be used against the Republican navy and shipping with great efficience. Only the Canarias survived and stayed in service through WW2 and the early cold war, only discarded in 1975.

Development

Provision for the two cruisers started as soon as the Cortes approved the new naval plan and a commission contacted the shipyard responsible for the lead ship of the "County" class in Great Britain by 1926. This year, Sir Philips Watts, former director of the Technical Service of the British Admiralty and designer of the previous class Prince Alfonso (renamed "Galicia") was contacted. The Canarias's construction was ordered during the Government of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, but it was considerably delayed after the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931 and did not enter into service until the civil war, seized by the Nationalists still uncomplete.

Canarias in artillery training max elevation
Canarias in artillery training max elevation

Design of the Canarias

General Characteristics

The hull's dismensions and shape, and general arrangement and superstructure (but the bridge) mirrored without doubt the large ocean-going County class. Like previous designs, British inspiration was prevalent. However both ships were built in Spain, and the admiralty altered the design many times in the early 1930s.

The differences with the Kent design were numerous for the completed ships: The machines in particular were rearranged in order to provide a little more power, giving them this characteristic single large funnel, allowing them to reach 34 knots. Torpedo tubes were fixed in the hull, bridge superstructure design evolved from the blueprints and ended with this very characteristic look.

If the hull was roughly similar to the County design, flush deck, tall and roomy, they had anti-torpedo bulges from the start and a slightly narrower beam. The final ship was also slightly lighter compared to the average County class at 14,150 tons fully loaded. Also as requested by the Spaniards, a more powerful machinery was installed, requiring rearrangements of the machinery space, and the final boiler rooms design made for a trunking of all exhausts into a single massive funnel. The original design included a catapult for a Hawker seaplane, which was never installed, as well as a powerful secondary AA artillery.

Machinery

Installed rated power was 90,000 shp (67,000 kW), driving four shafts Parsons geared steam turbines fed by eight Yarrow boilers. Top speed, requested and obtained in sea trials (which took place when the civil war broke out) was 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph). Overall range was 8,000 nmi (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). This was much faster than the Counties at 31.5 knots (58.3 km/h; 36.2 mph) but range stayed the same. This long range was no longer required because of the absence of a colonial Empire to patrol, but intended rather to be used as commerce raiders.

Armament

The Spanish-built Canarias (Ferrol) never received the secondary armament of the County-class and lacked efficient AA. The Canarias when making her sea trials in 1934 was provisionally armed with the 102 and 57 mm guns of the battleship España. She was rearmed later with eight 120 mm AA, 4 twin 20 mm mounts and trwo twin 12.7 mm AA.

The Baleares was hastily completed by the Nationalists with provisional fire system and the 203 mm rear turrets missing. She was provided 120 mm and 100 mm by the Italians and British 40 mm Bofors AA guns, and her 8-in rear turrets only in 1937.

postcard canarias ferrol
Postcard of the Ferrol museum

Armor

Although the ships were slightly lighter and more powerful, they were not better protected, still constrained by the 10,000 tons limit, and this was woefully inadequate for a heavy cruiser: The belt was 2 in (51 mm), decks 1.5–1 in (38–25 mm), magazine box was 4 in (102 mm), the Turrets 1 in (25 mm)and the Conning tower 1 in (25 mm). Compared to this, the County class had 1.25-inch (32 mm) over the machinery, 1.5-inch (38 mm) over steering gear, 1–4-inch (25–102 mm) on the main citadel's sides and 1-to-2.5-inch (25 to 64 mm) crowns while the turrets were 1-inch (25 mm) faces, sides, rears, crowns & barbettes.

Canarias 1937
Superb colorized photo by Hirootoko Jr. of the Canarias in 1937


Article of El Punto, 1977 about the "lengadry cruiser Canarias -src:technologia maritima

WW2 and the "super Canarias" class

A naval law, was proposed on 8.9.39 but never voted amidst perspectives of entering into the war, making provisions for the construction, of four battleships and destroyers of two cruisers of the "Super Washington" type carrying reconnaissance planes, derivatives of the Canarias design. They displaced 17,500 tons fully loaded, but if the armament and silhouette was reminiscent of the Canarias, the difference was in using four triple turrets, a massive leap forward. Ferrol never received the order to lay down the keels.

credits la voz de galicia
Rare archives photo - credits: La Voz de Galicia

Spanish Civil War ships
Web poster of Spanish Civil War ships. Bottom: Canarias class.

The deadly sisters of the Civil war

The Baleares was launched on April 20, 1932 and her sister ship Canarias entered into service on December 20, 1936 and the construction of a third cruiser of the same type was abandoned in favor of six "Churruca" class destroyers. Canarias and Baleares were both making their final sea trials when captured by the Nationalists in 1936.

The Baleares in action

Baleares was completed lately, missing a rear turret for some time. On 12 July 1937, she crossed the path of a convoy pff Valencia, two cargos protected by six Republican destroyers. She fired on them and after a short while, the Republican ships escaped. 7 September 1937 in the afternoon, Baleares attacked another Republican convoy, with four merchant ships escorted by the cruisers Libertad and Méndez Núñez plus six destroyers off Algeria. This fight became the Battle of Cape Cherchell. Basically Libertad and Méndez Núñez spotted and engaged the Baleares, leaving the convoy to break off and escape protected by the destroyers.

The duel was intense. The Baleares hit both cruisers but was damaged in return by accurate fire from Libertad. Some critical areas were hit, like a fire in the 120 mm ammunition stores. She escaped and was kept for long repairs. But the fight was partially succesful as in the confusion of the battle, two Republican freighters which changed course in precipitation ran aground near Cape Cherchell. One became a total constructive loss while the other was later towed into safety by French authorities. In March 1938, on the 6th, the Baleares was attacked by the destroyers Barcaiztegui, Lepanto and Artequera at Cape Palos, and sunk in a torpedo. This was the Battle of Cape Palos (see below).

Battle of Cape Palos (March 5–6, 1938)

Naval battles of the interware are quite rare. The battle of Cape Palos is one of these rare engagements, not only of Spanish versus Spanish, but with major units involved. It was the largest naval battle of the Spanish Civil War, during the night of March 5–6, 1938, off Carthagena. It all started because of the protection of a convoy with African troops and ammunitions from Italy, vital for the following operations. Vice Admiral Manuel Vierna Belando sailed from Palma de Mallorca Naval Base with the two heavy cruisers Canarias and Baleares, light cruiser Almirante Cervera, and three destroyers.

Meanwhile, the Spanish Republican Navy under Admiral Luis González de Ubieta sailed from Cartagena with the two light cruisers, Libertad and Méndez Núñez and five destroyers, in search of Belando's squadron. After a day navigation, the destroyers detached themselves, taking distance. Despite heading in opposing directions the cruisers met by chance during the dead of night of 5–6 March 1938. The two lines were passing by each others when a Republican destroyer spotted the squadron and torpedo attacked, but missed. The more agressive Republican admiral decided to not wait and provoke the fight, turning his ships in the most favourable position.

Oventually the Republicans opened fire at 02:15, under 5000 m with the cruiser Libertad. The Nationalists replied, but in the confusion one of these ships fired a star shell, illuminating their position to Republican gunners. In addition, the Republican admiral sent his three desotroyers Sanchéz Barcáiztegui, Lepanto, and Almirante Antequera closing the distance to and firing four torpedoes each. At least two or three of these (possibly from Lepanto), hit the Baleares between 'A' and 'B' turrets, detonating her forward magazine.

The ship blew up but damage was contained enough for the admiral ship (De Vierna had its mark on her) to stay defending the area, while the rest of the fleet was ordered back to protect the convoy. The Baleares would sink later, survivors being picked up by nearb observing british destroyers. The Republicans held the battle as a triumph. Naval commander Luis González de Ubieta was rewarded in all regalia by the government. No other massive engagement of that scale happened until the end of hostilities.

The Canarias during the civil war and ww2

Canarias was the flagship of the Nationalist Navy. During her wartime career she managed to sank 34 ships, fufilling her intended commerce raider role, like one of her most famous action against the Soviet merchant Komsomol off Oran, fully loaded with soviet armament. She also sank military ships such as the Spanish Republican destroyer Almirante Ferrándiz (Battle of Cape Espartel). Canarias also was instrumental in the Battle of Cape Machichaco on 5 March 1937. She sank later the Basque Auxiliary Navy naval trawler Nabarra and badly damaged the destroyer José Luis Díez, which narrowly escaped and took refuge at Gibraltar on 29 August 1938. She also captured the Republican liner Mar Cantábrico, later converted to an auxiliary cruiser.

The cruiser stayed mostly inactive during WW2, still as flagship, but took part in the search for survivors from the German battleship Bismarck in May 1941, which sank in the nearby bay of Biscay. She only recovered bodies. Suvivors (about 110) has been picked up earlier by British ships nearby the sinking; the bodies were likely exhausted men left in the water for more hours when an U-boat alert was given.

The Canarias in the cold war

The Canarias survived the conflict, having sank the destroyer Ferrandiz on September 29, 1936 and severely damaged the Diez on November 30, 1938 in the bay of Catalonia. She was modernized in 1940, losing her flank TTs and receiving new shields for her 120 mm guns.


Blueprint of the Canarias after reconstruction in the 1960s (credits navypedia)

The Canarias became not only the last Spanish cruiser, but the oldest "Washington cruiser" worldwide in existence. Towards the end of the 1940s, the 120-millimeter guns were replaced locally-made equivalen fitted with protective mantlets and later German-designed but Spanish-built twin 37 mm AA.

She was extensively modernized in 1952-53, with a revised machinery and two funnels, a return to the initial project, as on blueprints a pair of funnels already appeared. The two old Fairey Osprey seaplanes, originally intended to be taken aboard, were dropped in favor of a provision to carry later a light helicopter on the aft deck. The twelve lateral launching tubes were removed in 1960.

In 1964, four of her six twin 37/80 mounts were replaced by four singles Vickers 40mm. The Canarias by that time used a whole array of calibers, 20, 37, 40, 120 and 203 millimeters, a nightmare for intendance. The 8-in barrels had been changed multiple times and during the cold war were still a solid proposition for shore bombardment, capable of a volley every 16 seconds at max Rpm.

In the later 1960s plans were drawn by the admiralty for a conversion as a missile cruiser, with negociations to get the Terrier SAM, and semi-auto 127 mm turrets were received and stored at El Ferrol, scheduled to take place of the 120 mm. Eventually they were fitted on the cold war destroyers Roger de Lauria and Marques de la Ensenada. Theere was a unique navigation radar but soon a CIC (Combat Information Center) was installed. Radio & detection equipments were modernized as shown in the new larger navigation bridge. Detection however was only equivalent the Jupiter or Alava class frigates.

The Canarias remained the flagship of the Fleet when old dreadnoughts were long gone. During her career she cruelly lacked adequate communications systems and task force center proper C&C installations. She was long maintained because of her heavy artillery and speed whereas her antiaircraft artillery provided enough densit. Lastly she was roomy and with a tall freeboard tailored for the bad weather in the Atlanic. For ASW warfare her means were limited to two ASW mortars, soon removed. Partisans for her retirement advanced the limitations of her Washington type design, with a heavy artillery and good speed but on sacrificed protection and overall weak hull. Her tall hull also made a better target.


Cruiser Canarias in the 1970s - Credits balearesspotting

Canarias in the 1970s - credits artillerienaval.es

The slow retirement of the Canarias began in 1974, placed in reserve status with reduced crew and commanded by a frigate captain. In 1975 she was struck from the lists for good and placed on auction for scrapping. Plans to keep her as a museum ships was rejected. The hull was sold 62,205,636 pesetas for a construction which cost was 90 million pesetas originally and scrapped aftwards in 1977.

Canarias as C21
Canarias during the cold war as C21

Canarias class (1936)

Dimensions193.90 x 19.52 x 6.51 m ()
Displacement10,113 tons standard, 13,300 tons Fully Loaded
Crew780-800
Propulsion4 shafts Parsons turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 90,000 hp.
Speed33 knots (50 km/h)
RangeUp to 8000 nm @ 15 knots.
Armament8 × 203 mm (8 in)/50, 8 x 120 mm, 12x 533mm (21 in) TTs broadsides
ProtectionBelt from 50 to 110 mm, decks 25 - 110 mm, Turrets 25 mm

Src/

Conways all the world's fighting ships
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canarias-class_cruiser
http://www.fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/2e-guerre-mondiale/marine-espagnole-2egm.php
Baleares as built (illustration)
www.zona-militar.com/foros/threads/los-cruceros-en-el-siglo-xx.30320/page-2
www.kbismarck.com/mgl/crucer.htm
//web.archive.org/web/20090824072845/http://www.buquesdeguerra.tk/
lavozdegalicia.es/noticia/ferrol/ferrol/2017/09/24/sabias-canarias-socorrio-bismarck/0003_201709F24C11997.htm
balearspotting.com/armada-espa%C3%B1ola/crucero-canarias/
www.defensa.com/ayer-noticia/el-crucero-canarias
rephistoria.blogspot.com/2015/03/el-crucero-canarias-c-21.html#.XK9OU6SryUk
themurostimes.com/2015/12/09/historia-do-acorazado-canarias/
Modernization profile of the Canarias - 1960

Naval History

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WW1

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Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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