HRMS De Ruyter (1935)

The Netherlands East Asian Navy - Light Cruiser

The pride of the Dutch Navy

Although the De Ruyter was far from the most ambitious project of the Dutch Netherlands Navy intended for the Oostindies Marine (East Indies Navy), which were the De Zeven Provinzien class cruisers, cut short by the war, the best Dutch cruiser in service when the war broke out was HNLMS De Ruyter. But it was not present to defend the homeland, but rather the economic pump that were the Dutch East Indies colonial possessions, now under threat of the Japanese. In early 1942, like the rest of the east Indies Navy, De Ruyter fought at the Battle of Bali Sea, Battle of Badung Strait, and Battle of the Java Sea, carrying the flag of admiral Karel Doorman at the head of the allied ABDA squadron, decimated by the Imperial Japanese navy on 27 February 1942. Was it due to the cruiser's inadequate protection or design, or just better Japanese tactics ?

Development History

With it's look of faux Graf Spee (Deutschland class) the ship looks at it went directly from a German ship designer, as was the case of one installed in the Hague, but for U-Boats. In reality she was hundred per cent Dutch in thinking and design, but for the armament (Swedish) and propulsion (British).

It should be recalled the context of her planification: Her design design started right at the heart of the Great Depression, an obtaining a vote from the diet (parliament) was an all-out battle in itself. But even when secured, the budget allocated as meagre to say the least. The admiralty wanted two, to work in pair like the previous Java class they were supposed to replace. but in the end only a single ship was secured, while engineers were ordered to save as much money as they could squeeze out of her. In addition to the budget restrictions of the crisis, the Netherlands were in the midst of a strong pacifism movement, that also impacted the air force, but overall the army. The East Indies, albeit vital for the hardly pressed Dutch economy, was far away and the Japanese threat, quite remote for the general public.

The fact she remained single was a refection of the fact she was classified afterwards as a 'Flotilla Leader' instead of a cruiser. Her armament was a reflection of this. She was supposed to deal with other light cruisers and destroyers.


The Java class cruisers, essentially a 1917 design
The Java class cruisers, essentially a 1917 design.

Shortly after World War One, a strong wave of pacifism swept through the Dutch population, influencing deeply Dutch politics. The horrors of what happened left so many negative impressions, that calls for general disarmament were louder than ever. In 1919, political parties went as far as proposing a complete disbanding of the Dutch Royal Navy as a military organization. Fortunately, no majority at the House of Representatives was achieved on this question. But it influenced the then Minister of the Navy, mr. Ch.J.M. Ruys de Beerenbrouck, found a compromise by cancelling the third of the Java class cruisers, HLNMS Celebes (in construction) while a tender for three more was cancelled.

In 1922, the navy law committee determined that the fleet for the coming years should consist of at least six cruisers. By October 1923, this plan was rejected by the Lower House. In 1930, Secretary of the Navy, Dr. L.N. Deckers determined the navy construction policy for the remainder of the interwar. The so-called "Fleet Plan Deckers" included just half the units asked by the admiralty compared to 1922 plan, and derided as “half minimum”. It was certainly not sufficient to defend the east Indies AND homeland at the same time, so the bulk was concentrated on the east indies as it was believed Europe's military matters would be settled by France and UK and their respective, powerful navies. In the end, building a third cruiser ensured there would always be two cruisers available for the defence of the east indies, even if one cruiser was in repairs or maintenance. Having two light cruisers to defend the entire area against the Imperial Japanese Navy full might seemed ludicrous in 1937, and that's when a new naval law calling for larger warships (never built in the end, these would have been the Zeven Provincien battlecruisers).

As the time Hr. Ms. Java and Sumatra were completed, Deckers's plan granted space for the construction of a third cruiser (the former Celebes). Discussions started within the navy on how to deign it, while the government asked about its desired characteristics. The Dutch Royal Navy wanted a main armament of 20 cm guns, and torpedo tubes, something close to a heavy cruiser (Washington). However, after pacifism, a second wave broke the admiralty's dreams, this time the budget post-1929 crisis severely restrained what could be allocated to the future ship. Minister Deckers in 1931 wanted as a result a smaller ship than the Java class, with a primary armament of only six 15 cm guns in three turrets. And even in this context, the parliament postpone the construction for one more year. Experts meanwhile in the Navy knew only six 15 cm guns were way too small for their needs.

The design is precised (1932)


In 1932, a compromise was found: The new cruiser, provisionally called "Celebes" was to be a flagship, with accommodation for a squadron commander and staff. It would have to fulfill purposed of a staff ship so that its final design could be slightly larger, space being created for a fourth turrets and reach thus eight 15 cm guns. However it was still politically sensitive, and the navy compromised on its side, by accepting a single extra gun under mask instead of a turret. In addition, cutbacks on armor plating and torpedo launchers were also consented, meaning it was only armed with AA as a complement. The final design was prepared by engineer G.T. Hooft, the head of the Naval shipbuilding office, resulting in a light cruiser with generous dimensions to fulfill its future tasks, but knowingly too lightly armored and armed for its displacement and the standards of the time. For the same tonnage, the Soviet Kirov class cruisers for example had nine 170 mm guns, and torpedo tubes, and a slighlty better protection.

De Ruyter in construction at Wilton Fijenoord, close to launch in March 1935.

On September 16, 1933, her keel was laid at Wilton Fijenoord, Schiedam. It took more than three years before she was put into service, as Hr. Ms. De Ruyter. She took the name of a destroyer (Admiralen-class) which was renamed Ghent when baptised on 11 march 1935 during her launch, and was completed in 3 october 1936. Her career would span seven years, until 27 February 1942. In combat, her limitations became self-evident.

Design of the Hrms De Ruyter


Hull & general design

There are superficial similarities with the German Deutschland class built earlier, but the design was just an extrapolation of the cancelled Celebes, the third Java class cruiser of 1920. Innovation of the time meant, she was to be fitted at least with twin turrets, but it was still a far cry from the Java, which had ten 15 cm guns in all, albeit with some placed on the broadside, where they only can fire that side. Turrets in the centerline allowed for a larger arc of fire and thus, to ensure equal firepower with less guns: Still seven per side.

The hull was conventional, high to ensure good seakeeping, with a long, roomy forecastle and lower aft deck with the turret Y and X superimposed, a straight stem but semi-bulbous bow and clipper style stern. The ratio length/width was of 1/11 (170.9 m (560 ft 8 in) by 15.7 m (51 ft 6 in), so a "destroyer waist" ensuring fine lines and take the best of the available powerplant. She had a also a draft of 5.1 m (16 ft 9 in), but at the stern the keel was not horizontal, but blueprints shows a declivity of about 50 cm between the prow and stern, the latter being deeper, for finer penetration.

The other obvious differences with the Java class were the single funnel and massive tower-like bridge structure. The latter was dictated by the admiral and staff facilities. There was a command bridge and admiral bridge. It was not straight but prismatic, with a larger base aft. Between this, the single funnel, small turrets and extensive aviation facilities, this cruiser was relatively easy to recognise, but at first glance from afar, still could pass for a Deutschland class cruiser in its proportions and dimensions, more so if she raised her three forward guns together.


Armor protection

Her protection was probably the weakest imagined or designed for a ship of her tonnage: She was given a belt stretched between barbettes as usual, just 5 cm/50 mm thick (2.0 in) for about 3 meters high, including 80 cm below the waterline. The ASW compartmentation was basic, with side storage rooms filled with oil or seawater and a compartmented machinery and boiler rooms, enclosed between bulkheads. She had a single armored deck, 3 cm/30 mm (1.2 in) in thickness. Both were already not enough to defeat the usual destroyer rounds (120-130 mm), more so for any cruiser caliber. The turrets were equally paper-thin, just protected by 3 cm/30 mm of armour (1.2 in). There is no clue of extra armour stray above the ammunition magazines and steering room. Not doubt this played a role in her demise when facing the Japanese.


One of the choices made concerned the powerplant, British-built, with three Parsons geared steam turbines, connected to two shafts. Steam was fed by six Yarrow boilers, for a total of 66,000 shp (49,000 kW). This allowed for a top speed of 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph). Her overall range was 6,800 nmi (12,600 km; 7,800 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph). It was not a problem where she expected to serve, as supplies depots of the numerous islands in Indonesia allowed her to be sure of refuelling frequently. Her unique funnel was topped by an equally unique structure, above it and behind, tailored to deflect exhaust fumes.


That was assuredly the other weak point of the design. The ship was heavy enough to carry if needed 8-inches guns, although in reduced number. 6-in seemed more reasonable given her light construction, and as we saw earlier, even the admiralty, which wanted understandably eight guns in four twin turrets, tuned it down and censored itself by fear of seeing the project cancelled by the parliament. Instead of what could have been the twin turret "B" was installed a single gun under mask. It should be recalled by the contemporary Arethusa class, also armed with six guns, had a displacement of 5,000 tonnes, 2,000 tonnes less than HLNMS Ruyter. So in the end, she ended with a configuration 3x2 +1.
-15 cm Bofors guns:
The 5.9 in guns in twin turrets were Mark 9, the single one was a Mark 10. They were all made in Sweden, at Bofors. These were 15 cm/50 (5.9") shared already with the cruiser HLNMS Tromp.

They used horizontal sliding breech-blocks, and had a rate of fire of about 5/6 rounds per minute, muzzle velocity of 2,953 fps (900 mps) and range at 29° of 23,200 yards (21,214 m) and at 45° of about 30,000 yards (27,400 m). This main battery of was controlled by a fire control system designed with with a Hazemeyer patent, built by Wilton Fijenoord under license from Bofors.
More on these:

-40 mm AA (Bofors):
The 40mm machine guns were rapid-fire cannons with automatic ammunition supply designed by Krupp in Germany towards the end of WWI. The patent was filed with Bofors. The four twin mounts were all placed together on the aft superstructure's roof, close to the their fire control. Therefore the entire battery was very vulnerable and could be completely disabled by one direct hit.

-12.7 mm AA:
The were apparently the American-supplied Browning M1920 HB heavy machine gun (0.5 inches).

Fire control

HrMs De Ruyter had however a first strong point when entering service in 1936: She could be regarded as one of the most modern cruisers in the world in the field of fire control and anti-aircraft defense. The latter consisted of four twin mounts, stabilized on three-axis, 40 mm machine guns served with an advanced fire control system. Located on a raised deck aft these had an excellent arc of fire. They used optical and radio range finders. The main fire control system was developed by Hazemeyer's Signaal Apparaten in Hengelo, (founded 1921) a cover for for a German company resettled in the Netherlands, formerly Siemens & Halske, joint with Dutch industrialist F. Hazemeyer.


Fokker C-XI-W
Fokker C-XI-W - src

This was another strong point of the design: The new cruiser was the only Dutch warship ever equipped with a catapult installation made by Heinkel. It allowed her on-board aircraft to be launched underway in all conditions. A major advantage over the lifting method from crane or loading booms. The cruiser had room for two aircraft, and technical drawings shows these two onboard, but this was never confirmed in photos. It seemed she only operated one at all times, since there was no hangar but a small maintenance/workshop facility.

Specs of the Fokker C-IX W: 10.40 x 13.00 x 4.50 m, 1,715 kg/2,545 kg (5,611 lb), propelled by a Wright R-1820-F52, 578 kW (775 hp) up to 280 km/h over 730 km (454 mi, 395 nmi). She had a fixed 7.7 mm MG in the engine cowling and a trainable aft.

Two views of the De Ruyter (the blueprints)

Author's illustration of the De Ruyter in 1939

De Ruyter in January 1942
Author's illustration of the De Ruyter in January 1942

De Ruyter at the battle of Java
Author's illustration of the De Ruyter at the battle of Java in late February 1942

Specifications De Ruyter as completed

Displacement: 6,545 tons standard, 6,650 tons full load
Dimensions:170,9 x 15,7 x 5,1 m (561 x 51 x 17 ft)
Propulsion3 shafts steam turbines, 6 boilers, 66,000 shp
Speed32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph)
Range6,800 nmi at 12 knots
Armament7x 150, 10x 40, 8x 12.7mm
ArmorBelt: 5 cm (2.0 in), Deck, Turrets: 3 cm (1.2 in)
Aviation2 Fokker C-11W floatplanes

More resources

Read More
// Books: Conway's all the world figjting ships 1922-47
Van Oosten, Franz Christiaan. "Her Netherlands Majesty's Ship De Ruyter." Profile Warship (Anthony Preston)
Teitler, G. (1984). De strijd om de slagkruisers. Dieren: De Bataafsche Leeuw.
Legemaate, H.J.; Mulder, A.J.J. (1999). Hr. Ms. Kruiser 'De Ruyter' 1933-1942.
Karremann, Jaime (February 27, 2017). "Lichte kruiser Hr.Ms. De Ruyter (1936)"

Models Corner:
Pacific crossroads resin 1/350
Review of the latter

The epic Career of the De Ruyter

Early career 1936-1940

In October 3 1936, De Ruyter was offcially completed, and commissioned, under command of her first Captain, A.C. van der Sande Lacoste. On January 12, 1937, she departed for her intended operation theater, the Dutch east indies, arriving on March 5, in Tandjong Priok (Java). Her crew started to train intensively, with other destroyers, the pair of Java-class cruisers, and the naval air base. In October 1937, Lt. Cdr. J.B. Meijer took command as commanding officer and in January 1938, he was relieved by L.G.L. van der Kun, later promoted captain in April 1939. In May, 4, 1939 Captain H.J. Bueninck took command of the ship, while the cruiser made local patrol cruisers, amidst growing tensions in Asia. In December, she took part in a large squadron also comprising the cruiser Java and a division of submarines in the Java sea. Messages has been intercepted indeed of a Japanese concentration of naval forces near Formosa. Captain H.J. Bueninck on May, 10, was informed of the German invasion back home and of the state of war. The KNIL staff knew full well the possible agreements made between the Germans and Japanese. Soon after, Karel Doorman arrived at the head of the squadron and made the cruiser his home for the remainder of the war in the pacific.

About admiral Karel Doorman

K. Doorman was born 1889 in Utrecht, raised as a Roman Catholic, from a military family. In 1906 he was commissioned as midshipmen and became officer in 1910, moving to the Dutch East Indies aboard the cruiser HrMs Tromp. Until December 1913 he also served on the survey vessels HNLMS van Doorn and HNLMS Lombok, mapping coastal waters of New Guinea. He was back home in 1914, still onboard De Ruyter and in March requested his transfer to the Aviation. He became pilot in mid-1915, one of the first Dutch naval air officers. As pilot he served until the end of the war at Soesterberg under command of Captain Henk Walaardt. He became an instructor at Soesterberg and the first Dutch Naval Air Base, De Kooy, in Den Helder. He eventually commanded the base until 1921.

Despite budget cuts and pacifism he he attended the Higher Naval School in The Hague in 1921-23, working in particular in aircraft coordination and naval vessel communication. Her served with the Department of the Navy at Batavia in December. In 1926 he served in the De Zeven Provinciën, became the ship's gunnery officer, first officer. from 1928 he was in the hague, as part of the commission purchasing equipments for the Naval Aviation department. In 1932 he commanded the minelayer HNLMS Prins van Oranje in the Dutch East Indies, and two destroyers, HrMs Witte de With and Evertsen. In January 1934, after commanding the Evertsen he became Chief of Staff in Den Helder. In 1936, he asked the Secretary of Defense to command a cruiser in the Dutch East Indies, became a Captain in 1937 and commanded the Sumatra and Java. By August 1938 he became commander of the Naval Aviation in the Dutch East Indies, with his HQ in NAS Surabaya Morokrembangan.

On 16 May 1940, he was promoted to Rear-Admiral and was found in command of the cruiser De Ruyter the next month, replacing Rear-Admiral GW Stöve at the head of the Surabaya Squadron. In early 1942, he led the ABDA. The rest is detailed in the following actions as his own career and fate is intrinsic with the cruiser. When his ship was torpedoed by the Japanese in the Java sea, following navy tradition he went down with the ship, as his captain. On 5 June 1942, he was posthumously made a Knight 3rd class in the Military William Order, awarded to his eldest son on 23 May 1947 by Lt.Adm. Conrad Helfrich on board HNLMS Karel Doorman first Dutch warship of the name, in a grand and moving ceremony attended by Prince Bernhard. Four ships would be name posthumously after the heroic admiral, bearing the motto "Ik val aan, volg mij" (I am attacking, follow me). These words (and signal) however is likely has never been pronounced. At Kloosterkerk (The Hague), there is a memorial plaque, and commemorations for the Battle of the Java Sea are held there each year.


From the summer of 1940 until Pearl Harbor, De Ruyter patrolled the East Indies, from the Surabaya squadron Naval base. On 27 January 1941, J.H. Solkesz took command of the cruiser. In March, she escorted the passengership Oranje (20.017 GRT) on her first trip to Singapore, leaving her to return to the Moluccas. She then moved with other KNIL units near Morotai on March, 19. She had her boiler repaired at the end of the month and performed post-refit sea trials and additional training.

on April 22, 1941, HrMs De Ruyter was based in Soerabaja, and in May, a message came about two German merchants vessels escorted by the Italian colonial patrol sloop Eritrea left Japan. Thus, the admiralty planned and interception and the squadron was sent to the eastern archipelago. But they never received news of the convoy, which left the area and came back home unscaved.

On August 8 1941, Commander E.E.B. Lacomblé took command, relieving J.H. Solkesz. Both him and Doorman served well together and met the same fate in February 1942. In November 1941, with tension growing even larger between the USA and Japan, HrMs De Ruyter sailed wit the destroyers Banckert, Witte de With, Kortenaer and Piet Hein to Koepang. Messages were intercepted indeed to indicate a possible coup against Timor. However nothing happened.

In December, 6, 1941 HrMs De Ruyter and her destroyer escort were anchored in position near the Paternoster Islands. On the 8th, Japan declared war officially with the USA and the Britush Empire, and the Dutch Government in exile followed suite. Northing happened at first. By December, 15, the cruiser met the rest of the KNIL fleet on the central Java sea, after which they steamed together to the Koemai Bay, in Southwestern Borneo. There, the following day a conference was held between Doorman and all captain present to define the KNIL strategy to face the Japanese.

On December 18, in preparation to the future battles, HrMs De Ruyter entered Soerabaja for an overhaul, notably for her worn out boilers. This done, she left the drydock and the following day Doorman met Rear Admiral Glassford (CinC TF-5) to devise cooperation plane, setting the bases for the future ABDA squadron.
On December 26, HrMs De Ruyter went at sea with Tromp and the destroyers Banckert and Piet Hein and in January 1st, they made a rendez-vous at sea with a convoy bound to Singapore, BM-9A under command of HMAS Hobart's captain. They are escorted from Soenda Strait to the northern entrance of Bangka Strait. Three days later, they escorted back the same convoy (BM-9B). On January 10, the cruiser escorted yet another convoy, DM-1, through Banka Strait. Nothing much happened until February 2, when HrMs De Ruyter was sent to take position near the Gili islands, Madoera Strait with other Dutch warships.

During the night of February 3/4, other ships arrived, creating a sizeable fighting force: In addition to the Dutch cruisers De Ruyter and Tromp, USS Houston (heavy) and Marblehead (Light) cruisers plus 7 destroyers (USS Stewart, Edwards, Barker, Bulmer in addition to the Dutch Banckert, Piet Hein and Van Ghent). This naval squadron left the Gili's to intercept a IJN convoy signalled heading for Macassar leading to the cruiser's first naval battle.

Battle of Macassar Strait

On February 3, Doorman led his squadron to intercept the Japanese invasion force underway to Macassar. En route, his flotilla was spotted by the Japanese observation planes and later bombed and strafed, eventually forced back after several ships were damaged. This event was also called the Battle of the Flores Sea.

Battle of Badung Strait

On 18 February, The Imperial Japanese Army this time invaded Bali, a strategic position in the East Indies. Doorman knew he has to act, and he led the same squadron in an attempting to intercept the invasion the next day. However all the forces he could muster were in repairs and not available, so he planned three waves in order for the others to catch up.

The first wave involving his ship, and also the cruiser Tromp and four destroyers. However the first to attack were the submarines USS Seawolf and HMS Truant, already in position. They torpedoed the convoy on 18 February, but made no damage (perhaps again because of torpedo failures), and were driven off by depth charges, from Japanese destroyers. The next "wave" was 20 planes of the UUSAAF stationed in the Dutch Netheralands East Indies, which bombed and strafed the convoy, consistin of two transports escorted by four destroyers, but succeeded only in damaging Sagami Maru. Sasago Maru was escorted by IJN Asashio and Ōshio and Sagami Maru by IJN Michishio and Arashio. The convoy, knowingly in trouble, retreated north as soon as possible. The only possible reinforcements were the cruiser IJN Nagara and destroyers Wakaba, Hatsushimo and Nenohi, well away.

HNLMS De Ruyter and Java were ecorted by the USS John D. Ford, USS Pope, and the Dutch HNLMS Piet Hein. Thy eventualy spotted the Japanese in Badung Strait as planned, at about 22:00. They immediately open fire when on range, at 22:25. It was the 19 February. Darkness fell and the fire was innacurate, they hit nothing, but went on through the strait and northeast, give the destroyers a free hand to engage the convoy in a torpedo attack. Piet Hein, Pope and John D. Ford closed to range bu at 22:40, before they launched, Piet Hein was hit by a "Land Lance" from IJN Zrashio, and sunk immediately, broken in two. Asashio and Oshio started a gunfire battle with Pope and John D. Ford, forcing them back eventually before they could launch their torpedoes. They retired to the southeast, splitting from the cruisers. In complete darkness, Asashio and Oshio mistook each otherand started a friendly fire, before realizing their mistake.

Three hours later, the second group ABDA wave, the cruiser HNLMS Tromp and destroyers USS John D. Edwards, Parrott, Pillsbury and Stewart also arrived at the Badung Strait. At 01:36, the destroyer went in torpedo range and launched, but hit nothing. Oshio and Asashio closed in and fired. During the gunfight, in which participated Tromp, the latter was hit by eleven 5-in (12.7 cm) shells from Asashio, but she also hit both Japanese destroyers, with light damage. Tromp was obloged to leave the area and sail to Australia for repairs, no longer seeing action in the East Indies.

IJN Asashio
IJN Asashio

Arashio and Michishio were ordered in the meantime by Admiral Kubo to retire but at 02:20, Michishio was hit by USS Pillsbury, John D. Edwards and Tromp. She lost 13 of her crew, with 83 wounded, loosing speed until going into a full stop. She was later towed out. USS Stewart was also damaged, having a flloded steering engine room. Both destroyer groups part away, putting an end to the battle.

The third ABDA wave (seven torpedo boats) arrived at 06:00 but by then the Japanese had retired. All in all this was a tactical viictory for the latter. Lt. Cdr. Gorō Yoshii (Asashio) and Kiyoshi Kikkawa (Oshio) were later awarded for gallantry by driving off a much larger Allied force and sinking Piet Hein, badly damaging Stewart and Tromp. Their transport ships arrived safely. Bali's small garrison fell, with the airfield, captured intact. This boosted the conquest of the Dutch East Indies, as soon Timor fell on 20–23 February. The ABDA squadron wasfinished off later in March, Tromp remaining as the last important KNIL vessel to survive.

USS Stewart, DD-224, was badly damaged and later vacuated by her crew but not scuttled. She was captured by the IJN and modified repaired by 102nd Naval Construction Department at Surabaya, then pressed into service as IJN Patrol boat No.102 (Dai-102-Gō shōkaitei) with a Japanese armament and a radar from 1943. She was recovered by the U.S. Navy after the end of the war, recommissioned as USS DD-224 only for her voyage back to the United States, towed, scrapped at arrival. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, collections of the National Archives.[/caption]

A badly damaged Tromp, in Australia for repairs
A badly damaged Tromp, in Australia for repairs (AWM)

Battle of the Java sea

On February 27, 1942, HrMs De Ruyter, as flagship of the international squadron (ABDA), participated in the Battle of the Java Sea. Rear admiral Karel Doorman was on overall command, onboard the cruiser. HrMs De Ruyter conducted the squadron in search of the IJN squadron escorting the invasion fleet.
The Japanese amphibious forces were to land directly in Java, seizing the remaining hart of the Dutch East Indies. On 27 February 1942 the main Allied naval force (ABDA) under Doorman, sailed northeast from Surabaya in an intercept course, as the IJN approached from the Makassar Strait. The ABDA was split into the Eastern Strike Force, with the heavy cruisers HMS Exeter and USS Houston, three light cruisers (HNLMS De Ruyter, Java, and the Australian HMAS Perth), protected by nine destroyers (HMS Electra, Encounter, Jupiter, HNLMS Kortenaer, Witte de With, and USS Alden, John D. Edwards, John D. Ford, and Paul Jones). Opposing this, the IJN (Rear-Admiral Takeo Takagi) were led by the heavy cruisers IJN Nachi and Haguro, light cruisers Naka and Jintsū, and 14 destroyers: IJN Yūdachi, Samidare, Murasame, Harusame, Minegumo, Asagumo, Yukikaze, Tokitsukaze, Amatsukaze, Hatsukaze, Yamakaze, Kawakaze, Sazanami, and Ushio (4th Destroyer Squadron, Rear Admiral Shoji Nishimura).

The Allied force arrived in range, spotting them underway in the Java Sea, and a long range gunnery duel started intermittently from mid-afternoon to midnight. Each time the De Ruyter and Perth tried to close in, they were repulsed by 8-in shells. The Japanese had a much longer range. The Allies however had local air superiority and during the day, launched several attacks despite the bad weather, which also hindered communications, so allied coordination was poor, compounded by the Japanese that also jammed radio frequencies. HMS Exeter was the equipped with a radar. For seven hours, Doorman's Combined Force tried to hit the invasion convoy but was rebuffed and hit.

At 16:00 on 27 February contact was made again, gunfire started at 16:16. but it seems after post-battle reports that both sides showed poor gunnery skills. Exeter's shells misses each time, while USS Houston only managed a near-miss on a cruiser. Exeter was soon critically damaged in the boiler room and limped away to Surabaya escorted by Witte de With. The Japanese launched massive torpedo salvoes (92 torpedoes) to only score a hit on Kortenaer. She broke in two and sank rapidly. HMS Electra, which covered Exeter duelled with Jintsū and Asagumo, but was badly damaged and later abandoned. Asagumo was also badly damaged and retired to safety.

type 93 long lance
Type 93 "long Lance" torpedo

The Allied broke off eventually, turning away around 18:00, covered by a smoke screen from USN Division 58 (DesDiv 58), launching a torpedo attack at too much range to make any hit. Doorman decided to tur south, towards the Java coast. As nioght fell, he then turned west and north, in an attempt to evade the Japanese escort group, and later manage to surprise the convoy. DesDiv 58, short of torpedoes and low on ammunition decided onn their own initiative to return to Surabaya, leaving the force.

At 21:25, HMS Jupiter hit a mine and sank, and 20 minutes later and HMS Encounter left the group to rescue survivors, again halving the destroyer force.
Doorman now had four cruisers under ordered, and spotted at last the Japanese escort group at 23:00. Gunfire started again, both side exchanging at long range, keeping De Ruyter and Java busy. What they could not see was a massive wave of long-land torpedoes coming their way. De Ruyter was hit by one, and sank immediately with most of the crew, as Java. The captain ordered to abandon ship but only 11 of the crew were later rescued. Doorman, which could have survived, as the captain, decided to go down with the ship. Now ABDA was reduced to HMAS Perth and Houston, and both, now low on fuel and ammunition retired to Tanjung Priok on 28 February.

Only in 2002 the wreckage of Hr.Ms. De Ruyter found at the bottom of the Java Sea. During an expedition at the end of 2016, it turned out that the wreck had been looted (like most of the ABDA wrecks) and the ship was presumably removed from the seabed and sold by salvagers with grabs. ijn haguro IJN Haguro, which torpedoes likely sunk HLMNS De Ruyter It seems as a conclusion that, indeed, De Ruyter was not up to the task to face two IJN heavy cruisers. Each had ten (5x2) 8-in guns that clearly outranged and outmatched the seven 15 cm Bofors of the De Ruyter. The broadside itself was more that twice as heavy. ASW protection (and overall protection by the way) of the cruiser was decidedly poor. The IJN cruisers were better in that regards, but still, 6-in shells could have done damage. However during the day, the weather was poor and accuracy suffered as a result.

During the night, without radar, there's little De Ruyter could do. In the end, the allies never could have imaging the range and explosive power of the Japanese "long lance" torpedo, essentially a secret weapon, like the Yamato. The poor ASW protection of the De Ruyter was no match, and spotting by night the trail of bubble, especially of the weather was still cloudy, was nearly impossible, moreover with the blinding flashes of the guns firing. No one could even suspect watching for such trail of bubbles as the range was considerable, already at the limit of De Ruyter's gunners.

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)

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