Powerful class Armoured Cruisers (1895)

United Kingdom (1895) - HMS Powerful, HMS Terrible

The Anglo-Russian naval arms race

Before the better known anglo-german naval arms race of 1906, the British press were scared, as the government and ultimately the Navy that had no apparent answer, to the known construction in 1890 of a massive Russian cruiser, Rurik, specifically intended in case of war to act as a commerce raider in Asia, with enough range to create havoc from the Kamchatka to the Indian Ocean. Not knowing her exact specifcation, the admiralty rapidly drafted two cruisers to compete. This was the first step of a naval arms race which also comprised the Russian replay, with the three Pereviet support "fast battleships" and the British Centurion class.

Two record-breaking cruisers

The Powerful class cruisers were two impressive vessels trigerred by the "russian scare", the paranoia-inflated, massive Russian cruiser was in construction in 1890 (indeed the largest at the time), planned to prey on British Merchant trade in the far east at a time of high tension between the two Empire, betwene Afghanistan to iran to Asian waters. To answer the Rurik and announced designs sur as the Rossiya and Gromoboi, the Royal Navy ordered two massive cruisers. Outside purely technical aspects, which perfectly embodied British naval supremacy of the time, as real military ships, they were in fact retrospectively regarded as of "great white elephants". Their construction at Vickers, Barrow in Furness and J&G Thompson, Clydebank cost the British taxpayer around £740,000 in 1894–98, their career being relatively short and uneventful, but at least they did participate in WWI.

As answers to the Rurik and Rossia, then were certainly designed to be better, and in turn, took the title of "largest warships afloat". Upon completion in 1897 and 1898, with a construction span of 4-5 years, unusual for British ships, they took over the torch of largest warships in the world. Tellingly named "Powerful" and "Terrible", their displacement was twice that of all previous cruisers like the Edgar class, costing also twice. Their crew approached 900 officers and men, also contributing to an expensive maintenance, which sealed their fate as soon as paranoia dropped.

HMS_Terrible
HMS terrible

Design of the Powerful class

Rurik
The opposing Russian cruiser Rurik.

Xhen political pressure urged the construction of both cruisers, the Admiralty was caught its hands full with an ongoing, extensive naval construction program mandated by the Naval Defence Act of 1889. Some preliminary discussions, delayed by the situatio were held eventually in November 1891, but it's only in 1892 that William White, by then the Director of Naval Construction, that sketch designs were prepared for a heavily armed, large cuiser, with at least as well armor as the previous Edgar class, but also faster and with the range to chase and catch if possible Rurik and her successors, but also the willinness of the Russian admiralty to seize fast ocean liners in 1885, converted as armed merchant cruisers. The question of fast, large transatlantic liners clipping the waves was also a question that hauted Britush engineers as well as Russian's and weighted much in the design of the new cruisers.

White's preliminary studies concluded that an enormous load of coal would be necessary for her mission, because she would not have the luxury or re-coalling along the way. A large number of boilers were also necesary to achieve the desired speed, making the prospective ship having a "mammoth hull", as large and roomy than an ocean liner. It was soon established more than 100 feet (30 m) longer than the Majestic-class battleships of the time, or the Edgar class.

Maintain high speed in heavy weather also dictated this large and long hull was also tall, and White gave her a freeboard one deck higher than battleships or cruisers. For that matter, it was expected to make these ships very seaworthy. White also though using the new lightweight and efficient Belleville water-tube boilers recentkly developed would spare weight and allowing to achieve the required speed while allocating even more space for coal. However, conservatives in Parliament and the Admiralty both resisted the idea of using such bolers, arguing recent RN's failures with these in the past. They wanted extensive trials conducted with HMS Sharpshooter first. These would later proved to be a complete success, and this design perk gained approval. White was greelighted for the whole design on 23 October 1893, at the time Rurik was still in completion, recently launched. The cruisers were ordered in the 1893–1894 Naval Estimates.

Hull's construction

Powerful as depicted in Brassey's 1902
Powerfulas depicted in Brassey's 1902, really a liner-lloking cruiser

The Powerful class displaced 14,200 long tons at normal load, and an estimated 18-19,000 fully loaded (no figure available). This was still way larger than Rurik or the Rossia class. They had an overall length of 538 feet (164.0 m) for 71 feet (21.6 m) at their greatest beam, and 27 feet (8.2 m) draft. Designed for overseas service they had wooden-sheathed hulls to prevent biofouling, and internal arrangements to prevent inner compartments overheating, notably for ventilation and in the materials used. The hulll was constructed with a double bottom, subdivided into 236 watertight compartments. Deep load metacentric height was calculated to be 2 feet (0.61 m) and 2.65 feet (0.81 m) on Terrible and Powerful respectively. Complement as designed was considerable, with 894 officers and ratings, largest of any Royal Navy ship ever built. With their tall, triple deck hull dotted with rows of portholes, two masts and four funnels they somewhat looked like oceanic liners.

Machinery

Technically, they were the first ships of this size to employ water tube boilers of the Belleville type, a world's firts soon adopted worldwide. It raised concerns about their development and accumulated teething problems. They were powered by two 19 ft, 6 in (5.9 m) propeller, which shafts driven by vertical inverted four-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines. Steam was provided by a record-breaking 48 Belleville small tubes boilers, at a working pressure of 210 psi (1,448 kPa; 15 kgf/cm2).

Total expected output was 25,000 indicated horsepower (19,000 kW) at forced draught for a top speed as designed of 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph), way better than the 19 knots capable Rurik. It was also higher by 3 knots than the previous Edgar class. On trials they even reached speeds up to 21.8–22.4 knots (40.4–41.5 km/h; 25.1–25.8 mph), with forced heating, at 25,572–25,886 ihp (19,069–19,303 kW). Normal peacetime coal load was 1,500 long tons, enough for 7,000 nmi (13,000 km; 8,100 mi) at 14 knots, up to 3,100 long tons when filling all void compartments in wartime, making them the largest coal bunkers capacity in the Royal Navy. This was enough for a 12,000 nm or more range, with more frequent 20-knots runs as expected in their role.

Their machinery was satisfactory in general. They were seen as efficient steamers throughout their service. After early service, their four funnel appeared too short for efficient exhaust, and were raised from five meters (20 feets), also to avoid obscure observers in the fighting tops. Not quite agile, they did well as expected in heavy weather, made good, stable platforms with a predictive roll, and were still recognized as good sailors and walkers.

Armor scheme

HMS_Powerful_-brasseys_Naval_Annual_1896
HMS Powerful, brasseys Naval Annual 1896

The powerful class cruisers used Harvey armour:
-Gun turrets 6 in (152 mm) face, sides, 1-inch (25 mm) roof.
-Main turrets barbettes 6 in (152 mm)
-Secondary guns casemates 6 in (152 mm) with 2-inch (51 mm) rear plates.
-Conning tower 12-inch (305 mm) plates
-Curved armoured deck 3 feet 6 inches (1.07 m) above the waterline with 6 feet 6 inches (1.98 m) edges below the waterline.
-Armored deck 6 in (152 mm) thick over machinery
-Armored deck 4 in (102 mm) thick over the magazines
-Same, 2.5 inches (64 mm) thick in the middle section.
-Gull bottom 1 foot (0.3 m)
-Upper protective 2.5 inches thick.

Armament

Their roomy configuration above the waterline made them roomy enough to accomodate more ammunition han usual, but their armament and its distribition remained classic for the time, with a majority of their twelve 6-in guns in casemated two-storey sponsons, two twin 9.4-in in fore-aft turrets. In 1904 the Navy still found them underarmed and added four extra 6-in guns on their upper deck. Powerful_class_cruiser_diagram_Brasseys_1897
HMS Powerful naval Brasseys diagram

The Royal Navy great white elephants




Modern historians compared them often to the USN Alaska class of 1943 in that the latter were also ordered after a "Japanese cruiser scare" which proved false, and did not fit anywhere in the Navy's scheme after completion, having little wartime service, and not long afterwards either. Like them, the Powerful class would revealed themselves "overkills" compared to the cruisers they were supposed to match, they were larger, faster, better armed than Rurik, but also the Rossyia and Gromoboi.

Observers in the contemporary magazine "The Engineer" at the time also criticised these for their light armament compared to their great size. White replied in an open letter by pointing out that they could not take additional ammunition due to internal space design, and the need to carry coal instead. He added their armament still "accounted for 27% more in displacement compared to the Edgar class, and rotected by 660 long tons (670 t) of armour, versus 40 long tons (350 t)"

The Admiralty nevertheless did not found the ships satisfactory in service, having a crew 64% larger than the Edgars (so equivalent to two cruisers), while costing 61% more in maintenance with basically the same armament. Naval historian Antony Preston also underlined the "extreme folly of building cruisers to match specific opponents", in that case, a semi-imaginary threat as the Russian curisers never were such a threat in the end. In practice the were created opponents they never met, as their 1902 alliance with Japan had the latter decisively defeat the Russians and liminate the threat in 1905 for good, leving the Royal Navy wih two massive, costly cruisers without purpose. The admiralty instead just wanted affordable ships in larger numbers. No navy would ever match either the Powerful class, that were just too large and expensive for their own good. They faded away in menial roles and were retired faster than other British cruisers.

Links

The Powerful class on wikipedia
On historyofwar.org
Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1860-1905.

Powerful class specifications

Dimensions164 x 21,6 x 7,3 m
Displacement14,200 t FL
Crew894
Propulsion2 screws, 2 VTE steam engines, 48 Belleville WT boilers, 25,000 hp
Speed22 knots (40.7 km/h; 25.3 mph)
Range 7,000 nmi (12,960 km; 8,060 mi) at 14 knots (25.9 km/h; 16.1 mph)
Armament2x 254, 12x 152, 16x 76, 12x 47, 4 TT 457 mm (SM)
ArmorDeck: 2–6 in (51–152 mm) Barbettes: 6 in (152 mm)

Gallery

HMS Powerful
HMS Powerful illustration in 1914.

HMSTerrible
HMS Terrible

H.M.S._Powerful

The Powerful class in action

HMS_Powerful_at_sea_2007

Early in their careers, the two ships were based in China, then rallied South Africa to carry troops and support infantry companies. In 1899, they made the big titles of newspapers when landing vanguard troops to support Ladysmith during the Boer War.

In 1902-1904 they were the subject of a small redesign and were set aside as being considered too expensive for service. Only in 1915 HMS Terrible was reactivated, used as a troop transport. She rallied the Mediterranean, then returned in reserve at Portsmouth, reclassed as an utility ship at anchor until 1920. Renowned Fisgard III she then served as a training ship until 1932.

The HMS Powerful came out of the reserve in 1915 to serve as a training ship in Devonport. Her vast dimensions made it well predestined for this new duty. She continued this service from 1919 under the name Impregnable II until 1929, before being stricken, sold off and later broken up.

HMS Powerful

HMSPowerfulCirca1905
HMS Powerful circa 1905

HMS Powerful was laid down at Vickers Barrow-in-Furness shipyard, on 10 March 1894, launched on 24 July 1895 (Chistened by Louisa Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire) and commissioned on 8 June 1897. Her first commander was Captain Hedworth Lambton, and the cruiser was assigned to the China Station. However she was delayed to prepare and participate in Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee parade, on 26 July 1895. Afterwards, she sailed, at full speed, making a run between Wei Hai Wai in China, and Yokohama in Japan by late July 1898. Her stokers mutinied however as the machinery space probably reached ungodly temperatures, but she arrived in port, and departed later to Port Arthur.

From the China Station to the Boar War

Cruiser_HMS_Powerful_1895

She spent the year 1896, 97 and 98 without incident in the China Station. In 1899, she was recalled home, via the short route through the Suez Canal, but later she was asked to round the southern tip of Africa, showing the flag amidst rising tensions with the Boers. Transiting via Hong Kong, on 17 September she arrived at Simonstown on 13 October. Since two days, the Second Boer War was already started, and Captain Lambton landed a half-battalion of the King's Own Yorkshire from Mauritius.



HMS Terrible (Captain Percy Scott) arrived the following day and the latter provided improvized field carriages with navy 4.7-inch (120 mm) guns and 12-pounder guns. Lieutenant General George White, commander of the besieged forces at Ladysmith asked for artillery support, the cruisers happily provided. Meanwhile HMS Powerful also landed four guns to Durban, arriving on 29 November 1899. Captain Lambton there acquired two extra 12-pdr, sending a naval brigade to Ladysmith via trains. Once Ladysmith freed in late February, Powerful's Marine brigade went back to Simontown on 12 March. Powerful left Simonstown for Portsmouth, arriving on 11 April.

The cruiser at her return was greeted after an article about the "heroes of Ladysmith" had an enormous impact, making Captain Lambton a household name. Queen Victoria sent a congratulation telegram, while the cruiser's staff was welcome in a celebratory march and reception in London, also recorded on film. The naval brigade paraded also in front of Queen at Windsor Castle, on 2 May 1900.

Later career

Powerful-Farm_Cove_Sydney_Harbour_1908_postcard
HMS Powerful at Farm Cove, Sydney Harbour, 1908 (postcard)
HMS Powerful was paid off on 8 June 1900, at Portsmouth, for a long refit between 1902 and 1903. She received four extra 6-inch guns in casemates amidships (or on deck after other sources), had her rig simplified and other detail modifications. Recommissioned in August 1903 (under command of Captain Lionel Halsey) she was rushed to participate to the annual fleet manoeuvres. Afterwards she was reassigned to the reserve on 1 March 1905. The cruiser was later reassigned to Sir Wilmot Fawkes's Australia Station, recommissioned as flagship, and she remained there until 1908.

By December 1905, HMS Powerful was based in Fremantle, Western Australia. She spent the year 1906 without incident, and by 10 October 1907 she headed for in Colombo, Ceylon, based there the remainder the year. On 3 February 1908 the cruiser took part in an experiment, the trans-Tasman radio transmission, from the Tasman Sea. In August she hosted a special correspondent to greet the visit of the sixteen USN Great White Fleet battleships. HMS Powerful departed with a new crew from Colombo on 12 January 1910 and in 1911 visited Auckland in New Zealand, Captain Edward Bruen advising for the buildup there of naval stores facility.

After being ordered home in January 1912, she carried the body of Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, embarked at Port Said in Egypt on her way on March, 9th. AAfter arrival, she was assigned to the 7th Cruiser Squadron, 3rd Reserve Fleet. She was afterwards reclassified as a Boys Training Ship, in Devonport, by August 1912, then she was debaptised, and reclassified as a tender, "HMS Impregnable" in 1913, and served that way until the end of WWI. She was still used for training from 23 September 1919 as "Impregnable I", and the next decade, until paid off on 27 March 1929, sold for BU in August.

HMS Terrible

Cruiser_HMS_Powerful_1895_LocationU
Cruiser HMS Powerful 1895 Location

HMS Terrible was built from 21 February 1894 at J. & G. Thomson Clydebank, launched on 27 May 1895 and fitted out at H. M. Dockyard in Portsmouth from 4 June, commissioned in July 1897 only to participate in the queen's Diamond Jubilee parade, then returned to preparations until commissioned for actual active service, with Captain Charles Robinson in command, on 24 March 1898.

By May 1898, she ferried George Goschen, 1st Lord of the admiralty, and Austen Chamberlain, Civil Lord of the Admiralty, to Gibraltar and then Malta for inspection, also carrying relief crews for the Mediterranean Fleet. Underway, she was pushed full spead ahead, to establish a new record 2,206 nmi (4,086 km; 2,539 mi) in 121 hours in heavy weather, in the Bay of Biscay. The trip from Portsmouth to Gibraltar was made at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph) on average, based on 12,500 ihp, and she made the trip from there to Malta at 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h; 24.7 mph), which were all records for the Royal Navy, as for any other Navy's cruiser at the time.

On 13 March 1899, she suffered a boiler explosion when back to England. One stoker died, there others badly burned but survived and this led to an inquest poiting the finger at the use of salt water. The latter extensive corrosion and eventually reuined the boiler tubes, seven bursting due to overheating. This trigerred a serie of reforms for machinery management in the Royal Navy and better use of water, notably addition of distilling systems separating salt.

HMS Terrible at the Boer War

HMS_Terrible_QE2

Captain Percy Scott became the new ships's captain on 18 September 1899. He received orders to head for the China Station, however believing hostilities were close in South Africa, Captain Scott asked the Admiralty to go there via Cape of Good Hope, the long road, as did HMS Powerful later. HMS Terrible arrived at Simonstown on 14 October, before the war has broke, and Captain Scott soon found he could bring to land some of his naval guns, mounting on improvized wheeled mounts. Her wanted to support the army inland, lacking the range to provide artillery support. Army observers indeed complained about being out-ranged by the Boer's own artillery.




Terrible's ad hoc mounts proved in fact very effective and these 4.7-inch (120 mm) proved invaluable during the siege of Ladysmith. HMS Terrible then headed for Durban (6 November), her captain being appointed as Military Commandant, at the head of an improvized naval brigade, sent as Ladysmith relief force. They departed with two 4.7-inch and eighteen 12-pounder guns fro the cruiser, which proved very useful later at the battles of Colenso in December 1899 and Spion Kop in January 1900, and eventually the relief of Ladysmith, on 28 February. Scott even sent one of his small searchlights, mounted in a train to be used as a signal light, communicating with the besieged garrison. Terrible's party came back to the cruisers as heroes, and Terrible departed Durban on 27 March 1900, this time for China, the other war.

Boxer Rebellion


HMS Terrible, 1st Class Cruiser Built at Barrow in Furness, 1897 Painting

HMS Terrible departed due north, crossed the Indian Ocean and arrived at Hong Kong, on 8 May 1900. Captain Scott immediately prepare to mount another landing party and asked to mount four 12-pounders on field carriages that were embarked at Durban. He also drilled the crew to perform well in marksmanship, knowing they would be inevitably ordered north, to Peking and the international delegation threatened by the Boxers.

On 15 June, Captain Scott was ordered to load three companies of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, then sail to Taku forts (at the mouth of the Yangste). She arrived on the 21st and landed a single 12 pdr gun in support to the relief force; They reached Tientsin on 24 June. The other three guns prepared were landed for another expedition, defeating Chinese forces in Tientsin by mid-July, and from there, constituted the second relief expedition to Peking, arriving at last in August 1900. Terrible's landing party participated in the liberation of the international quarters and returned to the cruiser once situation was clarified. They were back on 7 September.

Scott afterwards, drilled his crew hard to regular marine gunnery practice. He devised ingenious training aids, until his crew reached the very respectable score of 78.8% at the 1900 prize firing. Sent in Hong Kong on 17 December, Scott took part to form a relief party and salvage the capsized dredger Canton River. Two months later the operation was over, and the cruiser participated in another firing prize in 1901, reaching 80%, ending as great winners and best Royal Navy shots.

HMS Terrible 1895 at anchor
HMS Terrible 1895 at anchor

In early 1902 the cruiser participated in reconstructing Hong Kong, between relief and providing condensed water, help quelling an outbreak of cholera and water famine. In July 1902, Captain was ordered back home. The cruiser stopped in Colombo and Aden before reaching the Suez Canal, crossed the Mediterranean via Malta and Gibraltar, and back to Portsmouth (19 September). Although less famous than Powerful's captain and crew -rather unfairly- as the events were now quite distant, 700 of her officers and men nevertheless were greeted in a public dinner in Portsmouth. The cruiser was paid off on 24 October before her refit in John Brown and Co. Clydebank dockyard, notably gaining four extra 6-inch guns. Back in full service on 24 June 1904 , she carried relief crews to the China Station by December.

Last service years

Paid off on 22 December, she was assigned to the reserve on 3 January 1905, but reaactivated in August to escort the HMS Renown, carrying the Prince and Princess of Wales during their tour of India, and back in 1906. HMS Terrible became flagship for the 6th Cruiser Squadron in their annual summer manoeuvres, and back to reserve, the reactivated on 7 November, to ferry relief again new crews to China. Underway back, she lost a propeller, but completed her trip with the remaining engine.

Refitted again in May 1908-April 1909 she joined the 4th Division, Home Fleet but was primarily used as an accommodation ship. On 6 December 1913 she was anchored at the Pembroke Dock, then listed for disposal in July 1914, until WWI started.

HMS Terrible was recommissioned in September 1915, to be used in her best possible role, as the "Royal Navy's liner", ferrying troops to the Dardanelles due to her large size and good speed. To make room, her main 9.2-inch guns were removed as the ammunitions. Off Mudros on 2 October she quickly departed home and arrived at Portsmouth, reaffected as a depot ship, then a tender to HMS Vernon (January 1918) and HMS Fisgard in 1919. By the end of this year, she was hulked, loosing all hopes of a possible military career: She was disarmed, her propulsion machinery almost entirely removed to make room for extra accomodations, as a training ship for engineering apprentices. This started in August 1920, under the new name of HMS Fisgard III. She served as such for the interwar, until January 1932 when she was sold (in July) John Cashmore Ltd. and BU in Newport (Wales).

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or "/"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class CBBs (1918)
Interwar Swedish CBB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies

naval aviation Naval Aviation
Latest entries

USN aviation
Boeing model 2/3/5 (1916)
Aeromarine 39 (1917)
Curtiss VE-7 (1918)
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939) Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)

Curtiss H (1917)
Curtiss F5L (1918)
Curtiss NC (1919)
Curtiss NC4 (1918)
Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1946)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

Japanese WW2 naval aviation
Mitsubishi 1MF
Mitsubishi A5M
Nakajima A4N
Mitsubishi A6M "zeke"

Mitsubishi B1M
Aichi D1A "Susie" (1934)
Aichi D3A "Val" (1940)
Aichi B7A "Grace" (1942)
Mitsubishi B5M (1937)
Nakajima B5N "Kate" (1937)
Nakajima B6N "Jill" (1941)
Yokosuka B4Y "Jean" (1935)
Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" (1942)
Yokosuka MXY-7 "Baka" (1944)
Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" (1935)
Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" (1941)
Yokosuka P1Y1 "Frances" (1943)

Aichi M6A1-K Nanzan (1943)
Kyushu K10W1 "Oak" (1941)
Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942)
Kyushu Q1W1-K "Lorna" (1943)
Mitsubishi K3M "Pine" (1930)
Yokosuka K5Y1 "Willow" (1933)
Yokosuka MXY-7K-1 "Kai" (1944)
Yokosuka MXY-8 Akigusa

Nakajima E4N
Nakajima E14Y
Nakajima E8N "Dave"
Mitsubishi F1M "pete"
Kawanishi E7K
Kawanishi H6K
Kawanishi E11K
Kawanishi K6K
Kawanishi K8K
Kawanishi E15K Shiun
Kawanishi H8K "Emily"
Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex"

Italian WW2 air arm
CANT Z.501 Gabbiano
CANT Z.506 Airone
Fiat RS.14
IMAM Ro.43
IMAM Ro.44
Macchi M5

British Fleet Air Arm
Carrier planes
Fairey Flycatcher (1922)
Blackburn Backburn (1923)
Blackburn Dart (1924)
Fairey IIIF (1927)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Blackburn Shark (1931)
Blackburn Baffin (1934)
Vickers Vildebeest (1933)
Blackburn Ripon (1934)
Fairey Swordfish (1934)
Gloster Gladiator (1938)
Fairey Albacore (1940)
Fairey Fulmar (1940)
Grumman Martlet (1941)
Hawker sea Hurricane (1941)
Brewster Bermuda (1942)
Fairey Barracuda (1943)
Grumman Tarpon (1943)
Grumman Gannet (1943)
Supermarine seafire (1943)
Fairey Firefly (1943)
Blackburn Firebrand (1944)

Floatplanes/seaplanes
Supermarine Southampton (1925)
Blackburn Iris (1926)
Hawker Osprey (1930)
Short Rangoon (1930)
Short Valetta (1930)
Fairey Seal (1930)
Supermarine Scapa (1935)
Supermarine Stranraer (1936)
Supermarine Walrus (1936)
Fairey Seafox (1936)
Short Sunderland (1937)
Saro Lerwick (1940)
Short Shetland (1944)

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
US Navy USN (1990)


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