Germany/Turkey - 1911 (1914)

An unexpected Turkish flagship: The Yavuz

The Yavuz Sultan Selim, aka "Yavuz" became in August 1914 the new flagship of the Turkish Ottoman Navy, until then a motley collection of inoffensive museum pieces with a few modern vessels. Basically the German African squadron, based in Dar-es-Salaam, took refuge in Constantinople, not being able to reach the strait of Gibraltar. This squadron, under command of rear-admiral Wilhelm Souchon flagship Goeben, Moltke class) also comprised the light cruiser Breslau, also brand new.

sms moltke
Profile of the SMS Moltke, identical to the Goeben.

After taking refuge into the only possible sympathetic harbour, the kaiser officially transferred both ships to Turkey. The German officers took the Fez and both ships were renamed while the red flag with crescent replaced the Prussian Jack. SMS Goeben became the Yavuz Sultan Selim, and SMS Breslau became with the Midilli ex-Breslau), and both were soon found the most active Turkish Ottoman fleet, rampaging the black sea and duelling with the Russian Imperial fleet in several occasions. The Midilli was lost in action but the Yavuz survived, was repaired at St. Nazaire in France in the 1930s, and stayed as the best guarantee of neutrality for Turkey during WW2 as well. When she was discarded

w souchon Wilhelm Souchon had little options and sailed towards the east even before the declaration of war, expecting to intercept French troop transports sailing from Oran and Casablanca to mainland France.

Souchon's great escape (August 1914) - Goeben and Breslau

authors map of the escape
Author's map of Souchon's "great escape" in the Mediterranean.

The German "Mediterranean Squadron" in peace time was ordered by Kaiser Wilhelm II in case of war precisely: Both the Goeben and Breslau had two tasks: Either raiding in the western Mediterranean, prevent French troops reinforcements from North Africa, or making it out into the Atlantic, returning home while disrupting commerce en route. The options were left on the squadron commander's discretion. On 3 August 1914, when it was clear war was nearly inevitable the squadron was heading west, towards Algeria, when Wilhelm Souchon received the confirmation of a declaration of war against France. Therefore SMS Goeben immediately proceeded off Philippeville (Skikda, Algeria), shelling the city for about 10 minutes, Breslau doing the same at Bône (Annaba). Yet mobilization just commenced and no troops was recalled to join ships. Von Tirpitz and Hugo von Pohl transmitted secret orders to the admiral, which received the order to run east towards Constantinople. It was a violation of the Kaiser's instructions and apparently not concerted.

SMS Goeben had to resupply coal and headed for neutral Messina, crossing en route (and saluting) the British battlecruisers HMS Indefatigable and Indomitable (UK was still neutral by then). However both British ships (under instructions) turned to follow the Geran squadron closely. Using the night, Souchon ably outruned the British and arrived in Messina by 5 August, proceeding with coaling. Since Italian neutrality was announced on 2 August there was a delay of only 24 hours to proceed.

However sympathetic Italian naval authorities allowed 36 hours to allow crews from a German collier to complete their task. Despite of this, stocks were not enough to make it to Constantinople. Therefore Souchon had to arrange a rendezvous with another collier in the Aegean Sea. The French fleet did not ventured east, as Admiral Lapeyrère believed the the Germans ain objective was either to head for the Atlantic or join Pola in the Adriatic.

hms dublin
HMS Dublin (and camouflage pattern of 1918 - IWM)

Souchon eventually departed Messina early on 6 August, sailing due east. The British battlecruisers were waiting for them 100 miles away. HMS Inflexible in addition was still coaling in Bizerta and not available, and the closest British force was the 1st Cruiser Squadron (HMS Defence, Black Prince, Duke of Edinburgh and Warrior), four recent and capable armoured cruisers under Rear Admiral Ernest Troubridge. The Germans feinted at first a run towards the adriatic to lure Troubridge, which indeed sailed to the mouth of the Adriatic, hoping to catch them there. However he soon reversed course as the Germans veered east again. Light cruiser HMS Dublin and two destroyers were detached to try a torpedo attack but Breslau's lookouts spotted them and soon with darkness falling, both ships evaded again. Troubridge stopped his chase the following morning, on 7 August, therefore leaving Souchon free to join Constantinople...

The Yavuz (Moltke) design

Following the Von der Tann, the Moltke class (Moltke and Goeben) were launched in April 1910 and March 1911 respectively. They were commissioned in March and August 1912. Compared to the Von der Tann they were much improved. The hull revised and reshaped, longer for a gain in top speed. The additional space was enough to accept a supplementary turret at the stern. The forecastle was left free of additional charge for the sake of stability. Armour thickness overall was raised from 50 mm to 100 mm for some vitals, like the blockhaus, citadel, barbettes and casemates but the belt, conning tower and turret were not improved.

The Moltke class ships were 186.6 meters (612 ft 2 in) long, 29.4 m (96 ft) wide, and with a 9.19 m (30 ft 2 in) draft when fully loaded, displacing 25,400 t (25,000 long tons). They were propelled by a set of four Parsons turbines fed by 24 coal-fired Schulz-Thornycroft water-tube boilers. Normal rating was 51,289 shp (38,246 kW) and designed speed 25.5 knots bt they can make much more. At 14 knots they were still capable of a range of 4,120 nautical miles (7,630 km; 4,740 mi). Armament was less than British battlecruisers on paper: Ten 28 cm SK L/50 guns placed in the axis, one forward on the forecastle, two in a superfiring pair aft, and two en échelon abaft the funnels. This was completed by the twelve 15 cm SK L/45 guns in the central casemate and the same number of QF guns, 8.8 cm SK L/45 guns placed in sponsons along the hull and under masks on the superstructure. This was augmented by the usual four 50 cm (20 in) submerged torpedo tubes.

Wartime Modifications
The new guns mounts however had at first a lower elevation, later fixed. During war two to the Goeben's four 152 mm barbette guns were deposed on the Yavuz. In the fall of 1916 the twelve anti-TBs QF 88 mm guns in sponsons were replaced by four 88 mm L/45 Flak AA guns. Both battlecruisers could reach and maintain 28 knots, counting on 85,000 hp. Also at the end of 1916, new fire stations were adopted, placed on the military masts. The latter were strengthened to allow the load. Also additional projectors were placed for night fighting.

A very active career

The transfer

After evading the British (Troubridge would not risk his slower and less well armed cruisers anyway), Goeben and Breslau supplied again off Donoussa near Naxos and in the afternoon of 10 August, before they entered the Dardanelles. Mission complete. Spotted and guided by an Ottoman picket boat, they proceeded in the Sea of Marmara. At that time however, Ottoman Turkey was still neutral. The ships had 24h to stay. The Turks proposed a transfer "by means of a fictitious sale." The Germans at that point still did not approve the transaction whereas it has been already announced and made official on 11 August. The price was 80 million Marks and a formal ceremony took place. Both ships were commissioned in the Ottoman Navy on 16 August. A Turkish flag was raised on their stern pole, and on 23 September, Souchon accepted to command the Turkish fleet. SMS Goeben was renamed Yavuz Sultan Selim and Breslau Midilli while the German crews were given Ottoman uniforms and fezzes, the typical red hat.

The great paradox was Yavuz's own career was perhaps more active and colorful than her sister-ship SMS Moltke. The latter fought at the battle of Dogger bank the first month of the war, being torpedoed by the British submarine and repaired, to score 6 hits on HMS Tiger (Battle of Jutland) in 1916 and was not heard of until the great of April 24 1918, where she lost a propeller, was torpedoed and repaired again until the surrender. Yavuz was regularly raiding the Russian coast and became by far the most active Turkish war vessel during the conflict.

The Great War

Bundesarchiv - Goeben in the Bosporus
Bundesarchiv - Goeben in the Bosporus

On 29 October 1914 Yavuz sailed for her first mission, bombarding Sevastopol. The Ottoman Empire was not yet however at war with the Entente and Souchon decided of the operation to force Turkey into the war on the side of Germany. During this mission, Yavuz took a 25.4 cm (10 in) hit from fortifications guns in the after funnel, failing to detonate, and two others inflicted minor damage. Better than this, both German ships went right through an inactive Russian minefield, and emerged unscaved.

However when closing to Turkish waters, Yavuz crossed the Russian minelayer Prut. The latter scuttled herself with 700 mines on board while escorting Russian destroyer Lieutenant Pushkin was took care of by Yavuz's secondary battery 6-in guns. At last Russia declared war on 1 November, and the Ottomans went on the war foot whereas France and Great Britain ships raided soon the Turkish fortresses of Dardanelles on 3 November 1914, followed by a formal declaration of war two days later. The Russians knowing the presence of the Yavuz started to reinforce the entire Black Sea Fleet and rethink Sevastopol's defences strategy.

Goeben and Breslau entering the Dardanelles
Goeben and Breslau entering the Dardanelles

Yavuz and Midilli would sail again, trying to intercept the Russian Black Sea Fleet. They met the Russians 17 nautical miles off the Crimean coastline on 18 November 1914, just returning from a shelling of Trebizond. It was noon and foggy so mutual spotting was nigh-impossible. The Black Sea Fleet tried a concentrating fire controlled by a "master" ship again as a rsult of the Russo-Japanese war and in this case, Ioann Zlatoust became the master ship. See the battle of Cape Sarytch

Evstafi spotted Yavuz, but Zlaloust did not, wasting precious minutes. The gunnery commands were finally received at 4,000 yards (3,700 m) in excess of Evstafi's estimate of 7,700 yards (7,000 m) so she opened fire with her own data, scoring a hit with her first salvo. Yavuz's 150 mm casemate was penetrated and detonated some ready-use ammunition. The resulting fire filled the casemate, killed thirteen men and wounded three but the fire was contained.

SMS Goeben in Sevastopol
The Yavuz in Sevastopol, 1918 (Cropped). Original

At that point Yavuz returned fire. Evstafi was hit twice in the middle funnel, also loosing the antennae for the fire-control radio so for the remainder of the battle she could no longer correct Ioann Zlatoust's inaccurate data while the other Russian ships relied on her and missed the Yavuz completely. Meanwhile Yavuz hit Evstafi four more times. After 14 minutes of duel however, Souchon decided to retire, his ship having scored four hits claming the killing of 34 men and wounding 24 Russian sailors.

On 5–6 December 1914, Yavuz and Midilli escorted troop transports. On 10 December, Yavuz shelled Batum. On 23 December, Yavuz and Hamidiye escorted three transports to Trebizond. On 26 December after another escort mission however, Yavuz struck a mine beneath the conning tower, on the starboard side, outside the Bosphorus. The 50-square-meter (540 sq ft) gaping hole provoked a flood quickly stopped by the torpedo bulkhead. However barely two minutes later, a second mine detonated on the port side forward of the main battery wing barbette. The bulkhead bowed in 30 cm (12 in) but held again and the ship survived despite some 600 tons of water entering the hull. Since no available dock could service the Yavuz, temporary repairs were made inside tailor-made steel cofferdams pumped out of water to create a dry work area. Holes were patched with concrete, holding until the end of the war. True repairs were made afterwards, by default of a true drydock large enough in the region. Conditions of the hull degraded badly over intensive service. In 1918 she was barely able to maintain 24 knots for an extensive period of time.

Admiral Souchon and staff in Turkish uniforms

Despite taking heavy damage, Yavuz, barely repaired header straight from the Bosphorus on 28 January and helped Midilli on 7 February 1915 escape to the Russian fleet, also covering the return of Hamidiye. Repairs for the damage was done and lasted until May. On 1 April, and still not completely repaired, Yavuz made another raid with Midilli, covering the battleships Hamidiye and the protected cruiser Mecidiye returning from Odessa, after shelling the city and installations. Strong currents to the approaches of the Dnieper-Bug Liman (bay) leading to Nikolayev made the cruiser slow, and after a correction, Mecidiye struck a mine and sank. Yavuz and Midilli raided Sevastopol, sinking two cargo steamers, and drew to them the whole Russian fleet in hot pursuit, launching several destroyers. One, the Gnevny, catch them and and launched torpedoes but missed. But ships were fast and agile and they returned again safe to the Bosphorus.

On 25 April, the day of the Gallipoli landings, a Russian fleet raided the Bosphorus, shelling the forts. Two days later Yavuz raided the coast south of the straits to shell Allied troops at Gallipoli together with the battleship Turgut Reis. Spotted by a kite balloon at dawn however they were greeted soon after by the 15-inch (380 mm) guns of HMS Queen Elizabeth. Seeing the massive water plumes, Yavuz made it close to the cliffs, too close for comfort, to be fired by Queen Elizabeth. She shelled the beach and departed. On 30 April Yavuz did the same, this time, spotted by HMS Lord Nelson which was already taking care of the fortifications at Çanakkale. However she could only fire five rounds before Yavuz disappeared from view, unharmed.

On 1 May, Yavuz was in the Bay of Beikos, trying to catch the Russian raiding the northern fortifications of the Bosphorus. By 7 May, Yavuz made another sortie for the same raid, and chased the ships to Sevastopol. She failed however to bombard Sevastopol, being short of ammunitions. On the morning of 10 May she spotted two Russian pre-dreadnoughts, Tri Sviatitelia and Panteleimon, and the duel started. Ten minutes later she had been hit twice but without serious damaged, and disengaged. At her return she was chased by Russian destroyers but escaped. Between the allied fleet south and Russian superiority it was eventually decided to have her rested, overhauled and repaired. Her secondary 6-in guns (15 cm) were taken ashore as well as four 8.8 cm guns from the aft superstructure. In the fall of 1915 she gained four 8.8 cm AA guns installed in place of her former guns.


Kaiser Whilhelm II visiting the Goeben -(Bundesarchiv) during his stay in Constantinople, October 1917. He came as guest of allied Sultan Mehmed V.

In July, 18, Midilli struck a mine;, taking some 600 long tons of water. She had to abort mission, escorting a coal convoy from Zonguldak to the Bosphorus. Yavuz sailed out to replaced her on 10 August eventually. She covered five coal transports together with the Hamidiye and three torpedo boats. One of the collier was sunk during the trip by the Russian submarine Tyulen. The following day, Tyulen and another submarine reported attacking the Yavuz, but they failed to place them in position to fire. Anoher convoy was later attacked on 5 September by the Russian destroyers Bystry and Pronzitelni. It was protected by the Hamidiye and two torpedo boats and as the first failed to fire her 15 cm (5.9 in) guns as the mechanism soon broke down. A desperate message was sent to the admiralty and Yavuz was called to the rescue, but too late: The Turkish colliers had been beached to avoid capture in between.

On 21 September, Yavuz sortied again to chase off three Russian destroyers again menacing a collier convoy. She made two other escort missions until 14 November. That day, the convoy was attacked by the submarine Morzh. The latter placed in the right position to launch a torpedo attack, two torpedoes near-missing the Yavuz just outside the Bosphorus. Admiral Souchon decided to break off and leave the convoy, not taking the risk and assuming he wuld be approved by the admiralty. The convoy from Zonguldak to Constantinople was made by night, escorted by TBs only. By the end of the summer, the Russian black sea fleet greeted two new dreadnoughts, Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya. They were fast and well protected, making the task of Yavuz even more complicated.

Yavuz sailed to Zonguldak on 8 January trying to met and cover a returning collier, protecting the trip from possible Russian destroyers but eventually failed to do so. The collier was sank. On her return trip she encountered Imperatritsa Ekaterina, both capital ships engaging in a brief artillery duel at 18,500 meters. Yavuz turned to the southwest to present her broadside, firing five salvos but failed to make any hit, whereas she was also near missed in return. In theory she was faster than the Imperatritsa Ekaterina, almost 28 knots versus 21, but since she had seen extensive service since August 1914 without a single stop in a drydock her bottom was badly fouled, her propeller shafts were also degraded and her machines already worn out. So she barely escaped the Russian battleship, which could chased her at 23.5 kn by overheating her pristine machinery.

The Caucasus Campaign saw Russian troops progressing rapidly and Yavuz was used as an improvized troop transport, landing 429 men plus a mountain artillery battery, machine guns, planes, some 1,000 rifles, and 300 ammunitions cases to Trebizond. This happened on 4 February, and one month later the Russians did the same on either side of the port of Atina. The Turks were eventually forced to evacuate. However another landing took place at Kavata Bay, 5 miles east of Trebizond in June 1916. Later this month, a counter attack took place, covered by the guns of Yavuz and Midilli. Thy multiplied these missions and On 4 July, Yavuz raided Tuapse, sinking a steamer and motor schooner. They sailed northward before the two Russian dreadnoughts left Sevastopol and returned to the Bosphorus. At last Yavuz was docked for repairs, which lasted until September. Later on, coal shortages prevented further operations which were few in 1917. An armistice was eventually signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in December after the revolution. Operations then almost ceased completely. The treaty was in Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. The Russian started to deliver coal again for the Turks which were able to resupply.


Goeben (28.3.1911à in the Bosporus, 1917, and disarmed gunboat "Kubanez"

Yavuz Bosporus
The Yavuz in Drydock

On 20 January 1918, Vice Admiral Rebeur-Paschwitz replaced Souchon, back in Germany since September, a well-deserved leave. His intention was to draw Allied naval forces away from Palestine, by raiding with the Yavuz and Midilli this sector and the aegean islands which were used as bases. This became the Battle of Imbros. Yavuz sank the monitors Raglan and M28 at anchor and proceeded to the port of Mudros for further rampage when she was engaged by the British pre-dreadnought HMS Agamemnon. However en route, Midilli struck several mines and sank while Yavuz hit three mines and barely made it back, limping, to the Dardanelles. She was chased by British destroyers HMS Lizard and Tigress, eventually beached near Nagara Point, covered by coastal artillery. Bombers from No. 2 Wing RNAS tried to damage her, in vain. The monitor M17 latter joined the fray and shelled Yavuz on 24 January 1918. She fired ten rounds and missed, while nearly be sank by a vigrous Turkish artillery fire. The submarine E14 later sailed and tried to locate the Turkish capital ship, without luck. Yavuz has been towed by the Turgut Reis out of harm up to Constantinople. Seriously crippled, the war was nearly over for her, as repaired lasted from 7 August to 19 October.

Before that, she escorted a delegation of the Ottoman Armistice Commission to Odessa on 30 March 1918, sailed in May to Sevastopol for a drydock maintenance, and sailed for Novorossiysk on 28 June, only to find scuttled Soviet ships when she arrived. Yavuz returned to Sevastopol, laid up from July to August with her fouling scrapped, leaks repaired, returned to Constantinople to be placed in a concrete cofferdam in order to repair her mines damage. According to peace conditions, the German navy would have to repatriate the Yavuz in order to have her interned at Scapa Flow. Instead, the Geran government transferred the ship to the Turkish government officially on 2 November. She fell under the Treaty of Sèvres conditions and was to handed over to the Royal Navy as war reparations. However soon the Turkish government fell into a War of Independence, Greece meanwhile attempting to seize territory. With the victory of the nationalistic "young turks", the Treaty of Sèvres was discarded, and the Treaty of Lausanne was signed the next year in 1923, allowing the new Turkish republic to retain the Yavuz.

The Interwar years: The great refit of the Yavuz

The new Turksh stated feeble navy was now composed of really worn out and obsolete vessels, only compensated by the sold presence of the Yavuz. The capital ship of the new navy however needed to be refurbished and if possible modernized; She became also a precious instrument of diplomacy and dissuasion towards the Greeks. Indeed the latter had two pre-dreadnoughts and and armourr cruisers inferior in speed to the Yavuz. The battlecruiser was stationed in İzmit until 1926 however, without care and doing much service. At that stage an admiralty report ed only two boilers in working order, steering almost inoperant and still some mine damage unrepaired, which deformed the hull and made her loosing speed. At last a budget was secured to purchase a 26,000-metric-ton (26,000-long-ton) floating dock from Germany. Indeed the admiraklty could not contemplate to see her joining any drydock nearby large enough for the tasks at hand.

Yavuz could not be towed anywhere without risk. When the new dock arrived, the admiralty had secured the help of the French company Atelier et Chantiers de St. Nazaire-Penhöet in December 1926 to oversee the refit. This took place off the Gölcük Naval Shipyard in the new floating dydock, lasting over three years until 1930. There were some mishaps and delays however. Recurring problems with the drydock were so bad, an investigation was launched as the new Minister of Marine Ihsan Bey was convicted of embezzlement. Further delays were caused by other fraud charges whereas the Ministry of Marine was abolished. The refit was now in the hands of the Turkish Military's Chief of Staff, Marshal Fevzi, which slowed down or stopped all naval building programs. Only with the threat of a Greek large-scale naval exercise off Turkey in September 1928, worked resumed, whereas the government ordered four destroyers and two submarines from Italian shipyards. The Greek Government tried to oppose the completion of Yavuz's refit, but in vain, while the Turks which claimed the Yavuz was to oppose the Soviet threat of the black sea fleet instead.

For the Yavuz, the refit was not still a reconstruction: The mine damage was completely repaired, her hull streamlined, displacement increased to 23,100 t by the addition of bulges and new compartments, revision of the protection. The hull was reduced in length by 50 cm but larger of 10 cm. The powerplant was entirely rejuvenated, with new boilers, a French fire control system for her main artillery. Another two 15 cm barbette guns were removed from the casemate.

The Turkish capital ship was at last recommissioned in 1930, as flagship of the new Turkish Navy. Her speed trials showed excellent performances, like in 1913, and her new gunnery and fire control trials went smoothly as well. In addition she was now accompanied by four brand new, modern destroyers, entering service in 1931-1932. With the Yavuz back in the game, the Soviet Navy ordered the battleship Parizhskaya Kommuna and cruiser Profintern to be transferred from the Baltic to the Black Sea Fleet in 1929, while the Greeks ordered two destroyers.

In 1933, Yavuz carried the minister İsmet İnönü from Varna to Istanbul and later the Shah of Iran from Trebizond to Samsun in 1934, while her name, formally 'Yavuz Sultan Selim' was shortened to 'Yavuz Sultan' in 1930 and 'Yavuz' in 1936. In 1938 she was refitted again, and in the fall of the year carried the remains of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk from Istanbul to İzmit. Evaluated by the British Naval Attache in 1937, her substandard AA armament made her considered obsolete. However the Turkish admiralty was well aware of this and planned to expand and modernize the navy again, plans including two 10,000 ton cruisers and twelve destroyers (which never took place). One of these cruisers was intended to replace the Yavuz in 1945 and later a new capital ship of 23,000 ton from 1950. The building program were cancelled as WW2 broke out and Yavuz stayed as the Turkish capital ship until 1945.

The Yavuz in World War two

Yavuz in 1945.
Yavuz in 1945.

In November 1939 the press started to compared the only capital ships of the black sea, Yavuz and Parizhskaya Kommuna. The former was made a winner because of the poor conditions of the second. In 1941, Yavuz at last had her anti-aircraft battery strengthened to four German Rheinmetall 88 mm (3.5 in) guns and ten 40 mm (1.6 in) guns, plus four 20 mm (0.79 in). As the war progressed, this AA armament was increased again to twenty-two 40 mm guns and twenty-four 20 mm guns, making her even more potent as a battleship, despite her weak protection in modern standards. Turkey stayed neutral until the war ended and Yavuz mostly remained inactive in Constantinople, also as a guarantee of neutrality. She was camouflaged at an unknown date, with a class Mediterranean pattern, of blues and greys in straight lines.

Yavuz in Istambul in April 1946
Yavuz in Istambul in April 1946

The Cold War

In April 1946, the USS Missouri, cruiser USS Providence, and destroyer USS Power entered Istanbul to return the remains of Turkish ambassador Münir Ertegün and make a sate visit. Yavuz greeted the ships, the ships exchanging courtesy salutes. From 1948, Yavuz was stationed İzmit and Gölcük alternatively. She was decommissioned on 20 December 1950, stricken on 14 November 1954. Turkey joined NATO in 1952 and Yavuz, renamed hull number B70, was offered back to the West German government in 1963; The proposal intended she could be turned into a museum ship, as she was the only ww1 german capital ship of that era and the last surviving battlecruiser in the world. The offer was declined however as the German Government has new priorities. Eventually the ship was sold instead to the company M.K.E. Seyman in 1971 for scrapping, towed to the yard on 7 June 1973. Her hull was completely dismantled in February 1976. At that time only the USS Texas survived from that era.

Specifications (1945 as modernized)
-Displacement: 22,979 t, 25,400 t Fully Loaded
-Dimensions: 186.6 x 30 x 9.2 m (612 x 98 x 30 ft)
-Propulsion: 4 shafts Parsons turbines, 12 boilers 85,000 hp. 29 knots max.
-Range: 4,120 nmi (7,630 km; 4,740 mi) at 14 kn (26 km/h; 16 mph)
-Crew: 1010 +43
-Armour: Belt: 280–100, Barbettes 230, turrets 230, deck 76.2–25.4, CT 350 mm
-Armament: 10 × 280 mm, 8 × 150 mm, 8 × 88 mm AA, 22 x 40 mm AA, 24 x 2
mm AA Read More Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1905-1921
Whitley, M. J. (1998). Battleships of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia.
Barlas, D. Lek; Güvenç, Serhat (2002). "To Build a Navy with the Help of Adversary: Italian-Turkish Naval Arms Trade, 1929–32
Bennett, Geoffrey (2005). Naval Battles of the First World War.
Brice, Martin H. (1969). S.M.S. Goeben/T.N.S. Yavuz: The Oldest Dreadnought in Existence
Campbell, N. J. M. (1978). Battle Cruisers. Warship Special. 1.
Güvenç, Serhat; Barlas, Dilek (2003). "Atatürk's Navy: Determinants of Turkish Naval Policy, 1923–38
Herwig, Holger H. (1998) [1980]. "Luxury" Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918
Second Hague Convention, Section 13
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moltke-class_battlecruiser

illustration of the Yavuz 1914
Rendition of the Yavuz Sultan Selim in 1914

illustration of the Yavuz 1945
Rendition profile of the Yavuz in 1945

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAAnti-Aircraft
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AdmAdmiral
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASAntisubmarine
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASROCASW Rockets
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
BBBattleship
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
ccirca
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
Capt.Captain
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
cmcentimeter(s)
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
CoCompany
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
commcommissioned
compcompleted
convconverted
convlconventional
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
cucubic
CylCylinder(s)
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
cwtHundredweight
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DDDestroyer/drydock
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
D/FDirection(finding)
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
DyDDockyard
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FFarenheit
FCSFire Control System
FFFrigate
fpsFeet Per Second
ftFeets
FYFiscal Year
galgallons
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRPFiberglass
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
hphorizontal
HQHeadquarter
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
inInche(s)
ircironclad
KCKrupp, cemented
kgKilogram
KNC// non cemented
kmKilometer
kt(s)Knot(s)
kwkilowatt
ibpound(s)
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
mmetre(s)
MModel
MA/SBmotor AS boat
maxmaximum
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLSMinelayer/Sweeper
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
minminute(s)
MkMark
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
mmmillimetre
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
Number
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
oaOverall
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
pdrpounder
ppperpendicular
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRadio-control/led
RCRreturn connecting rod
recRectangular
revRevolver
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
sbSmoothbore
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
SGSteeple-geared
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
sqsquare
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
subsubmerged
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TNTTrinitroluene
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
wksWorks
wlwaterline
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
YdYard
Organizations
GIUKGreenland-Iceland-UK
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
JMSDFJap.Mar.Self-Def.Force
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
NATO
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)

Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)
Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Norge class (1900)
Haarfarge class (1897)
Norwegian Monitors
Cr. Frithjof (1895)
Cr. Viking (1891)
DD Draug (1908)
Norwegian ww1 TBs
Norwegian ww1 Gunboats
Sub. Kobben (1909)
Ml. Fröya (1916)
Ml. Glommen (1917)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 US Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 USN destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 US Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1944)
Majestic class (1945)
Centaur class (started 1945)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST
LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class
British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)
WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)
WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)
WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)
WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN AMCs
IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Destroyers
Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Minesweepers/layers
Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Cruisers
Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Destroyers
Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Frigates
Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Submarines
Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Coastguard
Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs
Cold War Naval Aviation
Carrier planes
(to come)
Seaplanes
  • Grumman Mallard 1946
  • Edo OSE-1 1946
  • Short Solent 1946
  • Chetverikov TA-1 1947
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver 1947
  • Grumman Albatross 1947
  • Hughes H-4 Hercules (completed & first flight, prototype)
  • Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 1947 (jet fighter seaplane prototype)
  • Short Sealand 1947
  • Beriev Be-8 1947
  • Martin P5M Marlin 1948
  • Supermarine Seagull ASR-1 1948 (prototype successor to the Walrus)
  • Nord 1400 Noroit 1949
  • Norsk Flyindustri Finnmark 5A (interesting Norwegian prototype)
  • SNCASE SE-1210 French prototype flying boat 1949
  • Beriev Be-6 1949
  • Convair R3Y Tradewind USN patrol flying boat 1950
  • Goodyear Drake (proto seaboat) 1950
  • de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter 1951 (RCAN)
  • Saunders-Roe Princess 1952 (RN requisition possible)
  • Beriev R-1 turbojet prototype seaplane 1952
  • Convair F2Y Sea Dart Prototype delta jet fighter seaplane 1953
  • Martin P6M SeaMaster strategic bomber flying boat 1955
  • Beriev Be-10 1956
  • Ikarus Kurir H 1957
  • Beriev Be-12 Chaika 1960
  • Shin Meiwa UF-XS prototype 1962
  • Shin Meiwa PS-1 patrol flying boat 1967
  • Canadair CL-215 1967 water bomber, some operated by the RCAN
  • GAF Nomad patrol australian land/floatplane 1971
  • Harbin SH-5 Main PLAN patrol flying boat 1976
  • Cessna 208 Caravan transport flotplane (some navies) 1982
  • Dornier Seastar prototype 1984
  • Beriev Be-40/A-40 Albatross prototypes 1986

Patrol Planes
(to come)
Navy Helicopters
    Chinese PLAN:
  • Harbin Z-5 (1958)
  • Harbin Z-9 Haitun (1981)
  • Changhe Z-8 (1985)
  • Harbin Z-20 (in development)
  • Italy:
  • Agusta Bell AB-205 (1961)
  • Agusta Bell AB-212 (1971)
  • Agusta AS-61 (1968)
  • India:
  • Hal Dhruv (Indian Navy)
  • France:
  • Alouette II (1955)
  • Alouette III (1959)
  • Super Frelon (1965)

  • Cougar ()
  • Panther ()
  • Super Cougar H225M ()
  • Fennec ()
  • MH-65 Dolphin ()
  • UH-72 Lakota ()
  • Germany:
  • MBB Bo 105 (1967)
  • NHIndustries NH90
  • Japan:
  • Mitsubishi H-60 (1987)
  • Poland:
  • PZL W-3 Sokół (1979)
  • Romania:
  • IAR 330M (1975)
  • United Kingdom:
  • Westland Lynx (1971)
  • Westland Scout (1960) RAN
  • Westland Sea King (1969)
  • Westland Wasp (1962)
  • Westland Wessex (1958)
  • Westland Whirlwind (1953)
  • Westland WS-51 Dragonfly (1948)
  • USA:
  • Gyrodyne QH-50 DASH
  • Hiller ROE Rotorcycle (1956)
  • Piasecki HRP Rescuer (1945)
  • Bell UH-1N Twin Huey (1969)
  • SH-2 Seasprite (1959)
  • SH-2G Super Seasprite (1982)
  • CH-53 Sea Stallion (1966)
  • SH-60 Seahawk (1979)
  • Sikorsky S-61R (1959)
  • MH-53E Sea Dragon (1974)
  • USSR:
  • Kamov Ka 20 (1958)
  • Ka-25 "Hormone" (1960)
  • Ka-27 "Helix" (1973)
  • Ka-31 (1987)
  • Ka-35 (2015)
  • Ka-40 (1990)
  • Mil-Mi 2 (1949)
  • Mil Mi-4 (1952)



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