French WW1 Torpedo Boats

350 Torpedo Boats (1870s-1914)

Introduction: French doctrine about TBs

The French did not invented the torpedo boat, which was, for all purposes, merely a British crossed invention. Robert Whitehead indeed invented the modern torpedo concept in 1866, later refined by French and German innovations. John Thornycroft brings the turbine with her Turbinia in 1894, which really gave the impetus for modern TBs. Prior to that, improved TE engines did the job.

What really gave the French the impetus to develop TBs (by 1880, the second world's largest fleet and most serious rival of the Royal Navy) was the "young school" ("Jeune Ecole") doctrine. In order to compensate the gap, a strong coastal defensive force was to bring some balance before main guns were to be shown. France experimented with torpedo-spar vessels in the 1860s already, an trials in 1875 ended with propositions for fast crafts, either sea-going vessels for the North Sea, and smaller vessels for harbor defense. For that purpose, one TB was ordered from yarrow and two from Thornycroft, on French specs. Tests and trials however ended inconclusively. Thornycroft TBs however, after a pause of 10 years were eventually ordered, twelve ships, followed by invitation to French yards to submit their own designs. Three, eventually, were so and the design was called 27 metres (88 feets).

Sultanhisar, Turkish Ottoman TB of the 35m type
Sultanhisar, Turkish Ottoman TB of Schneider 38m type, launched 1907

Production started in 1879, with a standard and an improved 27 metres design. Aside, there was also a small group of "torpilleurs-vedettes" (micro-TBs) specific for the use of the Foudre TB carrier, another spawn from the Young School. Normand shipyards then gained considerable credit for their design, and sizeable exports too. However, if its attempt at a 33 metres design was a success, the Young School pretty much resisted any real upgrade in size. The resulting 35 metres of 1885-90 were much the choice of Admiral Aube, another firm believer in the Young School thoughts, and this prolific class was anything but successful, noticeable compared to foreign designs, that had almost twice the range and a much better armament. After 1886 these were known as the "torpilleurs de défense mobile", a byword for coastal TBs, of no use for high seas operations.

meanwhile, Normand prepared the highly successful 126 class that was to be the next French standard. Although still light, this type had better capabilities and was produced in droves until 1908. Sea-going models studies started in 1884, the Balny class being the first (still small), followed by Ouragan class, also barely fit for "high seas". Prototypes were then submitted by Thornycroft, Normand and La Seyne, on the same, enlarged design.

Type 201 TB

At last, they were really true sea-going models, despite struggling for long with delays caused by experimental watertube boilers problems. Another serie followed in 1891, trying to reach 27 knots. Normand's Chevalier prototype was excellent, and improved later with the Forban (capable of 30 kts), the model for all subsequent large TBs, like the Mistral and Cyclone classes from 1898. However at that stage, they were outmatched by destroyers. It should be noticed that alongside TBs, the Young School insisted also on the use of coastal battleships, torpedo-cruisers and actively lobbied for submarines.

1875-76 TB Prototypes

The first French TBs were in fact prototypes of various origin ordered for trials by the admiralty and numbered 1 to 7. There were two types, most of which were small TBs for harbor defense flotillas. No 1 was a Claparède design and the largest of all (102 tons, 38.61 m, 2 TTs). It was laid down on 29/05/1875 and commissioned in may 1876. After some service it was affected to the defence of Cherbourg as aviso 3rd class, rearmed with a spar torpedo and two 47mm guns, and eventually stricken in 1889. No 2, 3 and 7 were French designs ordered from Rochefort, Claparède and Brest respectively.

Fatum, an Italian 1888 armoured Torpedo Boat (the concept was later tried and sold to the Navy by Normand).

They ranged from 22 to 31 tons, were 14.8 to 21.5 m in length, had a locomotive boiler coupled with one shaft, a top speed of 13-14 kts, and were armed with a spar torpedo, and a complement of 8. Accommodations were minimalist as their were intended only for local harbor defense flotillas. At last there were the British prototypes, No 4 from Yarrow and No 5 and 6 from Thornycroft. Still small (21, 22 m, 12-14 tons) they had or two spar torpedoes and the same complement of 8. The Thornycroft boats in particular gave excellent results and were kept for instruction and for the defense of Rochefort. These models motivated further orders, still from Thornycroft.

Thornycroft TBs (1877)

These harbor defense TBs numbered No 8 to 19 were slightly heavier at 26 tons, longer and larger, with a more powerful locomotive engine (300 hp) providing a top speed of 18 knots. Armament was stilla single spar torpedo, of course no reloads. Orders started in March 1877, and they were all completed in 1878. They were generally seen as excellent sea boats and served for 15 years. 14 was reassigned as a tug, with a new boiler in 1894, 10 and 16 tested two Maupou TTs. The last of the serie had a new Trépardoux boiler, 2 TTs and two funnels. All were stricken until 1899.

N°63, French 3rd class TB

No 1-18 specifications
Dimensions26.57 x 3.30 x 1.5 m
Displacement 26 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 screw & shaft, loco boiler, 300 ihp
Speed18 knots (33 km/h; 20.7 mph)
Armament 1 spar torpedo

27-metre class (1877-82)

This prolific serie represented an attempt to copy the Thornycroft design by French yards, Normand (11), Claparède (9), and La Seyne (9). On average they were 30-32 tons, 26-27 m long, for 3.3-3.6 m wide, 1 spar torpedo or two TTs (Claparède boats).The Normand group were propelled by a shaft VCR, the two other groups 3 cyl. CR (compound reciprocating), engines with loco boilers. 320 to 500 ihp were produced, for 18 knots. By 1883 they were all redesignated 2nd class TBs and sold/stricken 1896-1908.

Specifications (Normand boats)
Dimensions26 x 3.28 x 0.91 m
Displacement 30 tons as design, 32-35 trials
Propulsion 1 shaft VCR, loco boiler, 320 ihp
Speed18 knots (33 km/h; 20.7 mph)
Armament 1 spar torpedo (No 54, No 55: 2 TT bow)

Torpilleurs Vedettes (1878)

Literally "Torpedo-boat launches" these had been one of the pet projects of the Young School for years. The idea was to carry and operate at sea a flotilla of TBs by a larger ship, providing a protection screen to the fleet. This process started with a study by the Commission on Underwater Defence, examining a Thornycroft 4-6 tons boat to be carrier aboard large navy ship such as cruisers and battleships, but eventually ruling out these as too small. Another pair of larger boats was ordered to Yarrow in 1878. Tests were performed onboard the converted transport Japon. These were not successful in 1881-86, and a purpose-built carrier cruiser was laid down for the task, called La Foudre.

Torpilleurs vedette

However La Foudre entered service in 1892, although it was able to carry properly 8 boats, the type was already obsolete. The 18 knots boats were judged too small for effective service due to rough seas. In total, 17 , of these boats had been built, in three groups. Thornycroft (6) in 1878-81 numbered 29, 30, 56, 57, 58, 59 and tested on Japon; Yarrow (2) 31 and 32 in 1879 (the largest at 27 tons, 27 metres, 2 TCs and later 2 Maupou TTs). The last serie (specs below) were numbered "A" to "I", and of the Schneider type in 1894-98. They were reasonable seaboats, maneuverable, with a 100 nautic miles radius and were capable on trials of 17.5 knots. Soon after it was decided to drop the concept and convert La Foudre as a seaplane carrier, they were sent to the colonies, spending the rest of their carrier as Saigon's harbor own defense flotilla, before being scrapped in 1908.

Schneider A specifications
Dimensions18.5 x 3 x 1.4 m (60 x 9 x 4 in)
Displacement 17 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft CR, Du Temple boiler, 250 ihp
Speed17 knots (30 km/h; 20 mph)
Armament 1 x 305 mm (14 in) TT

Barcezo, Normand-built 1880s TB
Barcezo, Normand-built 1880s TB

1879 Prototypes

These were three prototypes designated N0 26, 27 and 28 by La Seyne, Normand and Claparède respectively in 1878-79. These were attempts to design a sea-going boat with better characteristic of range and armament, and possible integration into a fleet. These three boats were 43-44 tons, had a complement of 11-12, a 2 or 3 cylinder VCR engine, 1 shaft, 1 loco boiler, 320/500 ihp, and a designated top speed of 18 knots. Armament was one single 343 mm (15 in) TT and two 37 mm revolver cannons.

high seas TB Carabine

33 Metre type (1882)

These 15 ships were built between 1882 and 1885 at Normand, based on the successful N°27. From N°65 to 74 these ships had a ram bow and modified armament of 14in torpedo tubes rather than 15in. The ram bow was considered in service as a failure as they create a visible wave, betraying the ships's approach. The smaller caliber TTs were also required due to these modifications, and also proved difficult to manage. They had a rather large radius of actions, being economical steamers, reaching 850 nautical miles at 10 knots and being able to run 20, up to 21 knots when forced heated. The later serie was once required to be rebuilt as destroyers, but only N°68 was converted, with a new standard bow and four 37mm Hotchkiss revolver guns. None saw action in WW1 as they were all stricken by 1900.

Early serie N°60-65 specifications
Dimensions33 x 3.28 x 1.1 m
Displacement 45 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft VCR, 1 loco boiler, 500 hp
Speed21 knots (41 km/h; 26 mph)
Armament 2 x 15in TTs bow, 6 torpedoes

35 Metre type (1887)

Although these types never fought in WW1, being stricken from 1900 onwards, they has been one of the most important and prolific class of French TBs prewar. 51 indeed has been delivered by various shipyards from 1887 to 1889, numbered 75 to 125. These yards were Chantiers de la loire (Nantes/Claparède), Cail (Paris), Schneider, La Seyne, Granville, and Gironde. They were based on the 33m design but longer, slightly larger (3.35 vs 3.28 m) but with a smaller draught (0.89 vs 1.10 m). The other big difference was their raised turtleback forecastle section for improved seaworthiness, second stern rudder in tandem, and new CR locomotive engine producing 525 hp (no better speed however because of the weight surplus). Armament in a way was reduced, two torpedoes less being carried. However they received in service two 37mm revolver guns. Introduction was slowed down because of the decision to change their boilers, without any speed benefit. In service they showed clear limitations, being unstable, rolling badly in bad weather. Despite sacrificing two torpedoes, in practice they rarely met their design speed of 20 knots.

35m type TB
35m type TB

N°75-125 specifications
Dimensions35 x 3.35 x 0.98 m
Displacement 53 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft CR, 1 loco boiler, 525 hp
Speed20 knots (40 km/h; 25 mph)
Armament 2 x 15in TTs bow, 4 torpedoes, 2x37 mm QF guns

Cluseup of a reconstruction from blueprints of the N°297

Normand 36 Metre type (1889)

Normand was not involved in the 35 metre type design, being largely a navy design partly inspired by the 33 metre. Normand was very critical of it, and submitted their own type, unofficially named 36 metre. These were four ships built in 1889-1990 which had two trainable TTs in single mountings, two QF guns and a reworked hull which proved very stable. In addition they received a larger boiler and better engine, much more powerful, and were faster at 21 knots. They even received a light schooner rig. They has been extensively tested and used in maneuvers until stricken in 1908 and 1914, but inspire a brand new generation of "défense mobile" TBs.

Original Blueprint of a 1st class TB, N°315

N°126-129 specifications
Dimensions35.95 x 3.92 x 1.15 m
Displacement 58 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft CR, 1 loco boiler, 900 hp
Speed21 knots (41 km/h; 26 mph)
Armament 2 x 15in TTs, 6 torpedoes, 2x37 mm QF guns

Normand 34 Metre type (1890)

Impressed by the new Normand design, the Navy ordered a serie called the "34 metre" type, lighter than the former. They had been built by Normand but also Chantiers de la loire, 15 in all, the last being launched in 1892. They were many differences with the previous design but overall not a clear improvement but for the adoption for the first time of a vertical tube Du Temple boiler to fed a triple expansion engine. These made them economical steamers, good seaboats, but not faster despite their weight down to 52 tonnes. Armament was reduced to one spar torpedo, one trainable 15 in TT and two 37 mm revolver cannons. By 1910 all had been relegated to auxiliaries, and stricken before or during the war, only N°135 managing to survive until 1921.

Torpilleur N°295
Blueprint interpretation of the Torpilleur N°295-96 design

N°130-144 specifications
Dimensions34 x 3.50 x 0.90 m
Displacement 52 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft TE, 1 Vert. boiler, 720 hp
Speed21 knots (41 km/h; 26 mph)
Armament1 spar, 1 x 15in TT, 4 torpedoes, 2x37 mm QF guns

Torpilleur N°228

Torpilleur N°294, Bordeaux Nyd 1904

Normand improved 36 Metre type (1891)

Not quite satisfied with the 34 meter, Normand submitted to the Navy her new improved N°126 type. 25 were built until 1893, at Normand, Chantiers de la Gironde, Granville/Le Havre, F&C de la mediterrannée, and Schenider, with engines made by Cail near Paris and various types of boilers, Normand, Oriole, Thornycroft, Dion-Bouton or Trépardoux. Basically they were repeats of the N°126, more powerful at 1000 hp and reaching 21 knots with ease, with one trainable TT in single mount and one fixed in the bow, plus two revolver guns. None saw action in WW1, only N°158 survived as an auxiliary boat.

1st class TB

Torpilleur N°311 with Pdt Fallieres, Bruson and Dubosts, 1911 Toulon naval review

A second serie was started in 1892, 29 ships in total, with the same specs, although N°192 to 200 were one meter longer to accommodate larger boilers. The power was raised to 1350 ihp, but can reach up to 1700 ihp on trials with forced heating, for speeds ranging from 21 to above 22 knots depending of the builder, which provided its own boilers. Navy design speed was 23 knots but most in practice stayed at 22 knots, with the exception of Normand boats (24 knots and more), N°191 reaching 25.38 knots. All these ships were stricken prior to WW1.

N°145-149 specifications
Dimensions35.94 x 3.90 x 1.15 m
Displacement 78 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft TE, (?)boilers, 1000 hp
Speed21 knots (41 km/h; 26 mph)
Armament1 bow, 1 x 15in TT, 6 torpedoes, 2x37 mm QF guns

Torpilleur N°318

Torpilleur N°315

Normand 37 Metre type (1897)

This serie of no less than 92 ships was the most famous and prolific, providing the backbone of French coastal defence in WW1. They aso were influential and met export success. These were designed as larger versions of the previous Type 36 metre (never an official record only used there for simplification), being exactly 37 m long (121.6 in at the waterline). They were wider also at 4.20 m (13 feets 9 in) and with larger draught of 1.22 m (4 feets). These specifications changed a little according to local manufacturers. The serie was produced up to 1904. Most of the design work was aimed to providing more power with various engine and boiler configurations, Normand being ahead of this game, producing ships with 2000 ihp normal (more when forced heating) and reaching their design speed of 24 knots.

Armament was the same as above, with a bow TT and a single trainable TT at the rear, and two centerline 37 mm QF revolver guns between the funnels, two because of their two boilers for the first time. Economical steamers their range was better. N°243 tested a Rateau turbine. In service, sixteen ships were shipped and stationed in Saigon and six at Diego-Suarez base in the Indian Ocean. Part of the ships were stricken before and during WW1, the others in 1919-23.

National Marine Museum FR Model

N°201-292 specifications
Dimensions37 x 4.20 x 1.22 m
Displacement 83-90 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft TE, 2 boilers, 1500-2000 hp
Speed24-26 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph)
Armament1 bow, 1 x 15in TT, 6 torpedoes, 2x37 mm QF guns

Turbine Prototypes (1904)

Following the test of N°243, three other prototypes were built in 1904 (293, 294) and 1905 (Libellule).

-The N°293 was a Normand design, 94 tonnes, 39.50m long (129 ft 8 in) fitted with three shaft Parson turbines fed by two watertube Normand Boilers producing 2000 ihp in all. The hull was modified to accommodate the british turbines. She succeeded in making 27.3 knots in trials, reduced to 26 in service, but was plagued by a high fuel consumption which caused a limited range. She was stricken in 1910 but served until 1916 as a tender at Brest.

-The N°294 was ordered from Bréguet (subcontracting to Chantiers de la Gironde), testing its own turbine design. These two Bréguet-Laval types were fed by two Du Temple vertical tubes boilers. She only reached 25.14 knots on trials, and had no cruising speed. range was even lower. She was stricken in 1910, but served as a tender in Brest until 1914.

Torpilleur N°353

-The Libellule was quite a smaller ship, 39 tonnes, 36.40 m long (119 feets 6 in), ordered at the initiative of Emile Bertin in March 1898 and conceived as a new type of "torpilleur vedette" to experiment the Renard steam generator. To gain design time, the hull was a repeat of the 34 meter type, built at F&C de la Mediterranée. The delicate and complex renard system made the construction process subject to many revisions, so the prototype required six years of tuning. In service it proved capricious, and eventually very disappointing, the speed of 15.2 knots being the only one reachable. After trials Libellule was decommissioned and stricken in 1910.

A group of coastal TBs in Algiers Admiralty yard, 1899 SOURCE

38 metre Type (1905)

Large serie of seventy-five ships built in 1905-1908 by various yard for the "Défense Mobile". They were slightly heavier and longer at 38 m (124 fts 9 in), larger by 20 cm, with a 1,88 m draught (6 ft 2in) but a conventional powerplant: 1 shaft VTE (Triple expansion) engine fed by two Normand or Du Temple boilers which produced 2000 ihp, procuring a top speed of 26 knots. In reality it was capped for some to 23 knots at sea. The major difference was the adoption of two trainable TTs on one single mount instead of one, placed head to tail, of greater caliber: 18 in, or 460 mm. However they retained their relatively light 37 mm/20 cal Hotchkiss guns Mle 1885 despite some criticism about their low velocity and very short range. Only three ships out of seventy-five were not fitted with engines and boilers designed by Normand. So these were fast and capable boats, and good steamers. The three experimental ships were N°366, 368 and 369, fitted respectively with Lentz engines, or Delaunay Belleville (next two) with forced lubrications and lower power (1800 ihp). The latter were more economical and had greater range, but at the expense of speed.

Closeup of the Nantes-built Normand design N°340

They formed the backbone of WW1 French coastal TB force, but outside deployments in the Mediterranean, they saw little action, at least compared to their "great sisters", the high seas TBs (see after). Below is the carrer of a late one, N°359. In fact they were used with little enthusiasm as by 1910 the Young School theories were considered obsolete, or more as the whole concept of défense mobile. They were seen at best as a backup last line of defence, almost a reserve but which trapped able sailors that would be more useful in more capable ships elsewhere. Losses were a few: 300, 317, 319 and 235 were sunk by mines and the rest soldiered on until the 1920s, some beyond in auxiliaries duties. These were the last french coastal TBs. After that, high seas TBs, experimented since the 1880s were preferred, giving birth eventually to proper destroyers. This is chapter 2 in this long post.

Precise builder specifications (Torpilleur 359): -Hull entirely constructed of sheet metal and steel angles.
-8 waterproof sections. 3 torpedo tubes, 450 mm model 1892.
-1 Thirion service bilge pump with a capacity of 9000 liters/h.
-7 steam ejectors of of 40 tx/h, 2x20tx/h capacity.
-1 80 V steam dynamo.
-Motorization: 1 steam alternative engine, triple expansion Type Pilon, built by Schneider et Cie, 3 cylinders, 1,900 Cv, 2 boilers Guyot-Du Temple system, built by Du Temple stamped at 17 kg, heating surface 110 m2,Top speed: 26 knots Built by Société des Chantiers de Normandie, Haute-Normandie, 76, Grand-Quevilly.

This particular torpedo boat actively served in ww1. After tests in Cherbourg in 1906, the T 359 was assigned from 1907 to 1914 to the 1st fleet of the Mediterranean torpedo boats Sqn in Toulon, where its boilers would be restored in 1914. She was in operations at the Dardanelles in 1915 and at Salonica in 1916. She was based at Bizerte, to the Patrol Division of Tunisia, from 1917 to 1919. Stricken in 1920, her hull was sold in June 1921.

Complete blueprints and original plans (Nantes Shipyard)

N°295-369 specifications
Dimensions38 x 4.40 x 1.88 m
Displacement 96-101 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft TE, 2 Normand/Du Temple boilers, 2000 hp
Speed23 knots (45 km/h; 29 mph)
Armament1 bow+ 2 x 18in TTs, 5 torpedoes, 2x37 mm QF guns

French high seas Torpedo Boats

Just like in Germany, the need of greater range, armament, and command facilities for their use as squadron leaders, dictated the building of larger ships, called by lack of other worlds, torpedo boats for the high seas due to their greater tonnage. Their lineage eventually gave birth to the first French destroyers in the 1890s. Their larger size also allowed the use of turbines, helping them reaching better speeds while retaining a good range, all with better seaworthiness and heavier firepower. They had so many advantages over coastal TBs of the défense mobile it's no wonder that they superseded them, from leaders to main classes.

Forban High Seas Torpedo Boat

Doudard de Lagrée class (1886)

This class of nine ships were ordered from Normand, Claparède and St Nazaire (three each) on the basis of the torpedo boat Poti ordered by Russia by Normand and reluctantly gave to other builders by order of the ministry in 1884. There is no indication of their use as leaders, but just as an experiment for high seas TBs. For 58 tons and 40 m (1908' 38 metre type had almost twice this tonnage !) they were considered too small and fragile for high seas and were relegated to coastal duties in 1890. They served until 1903-1913.

De Lagrée specifications
Dimensions40,74 x 3.33 x 1.15 m
Displacement 58 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft CR, 1 loco boiler, 580 ihp
Speed19 knots (40 km/h; 25 mph)
Armament2 bow 14in TTs, 4 torpedoes, 2x37 mm QF guns

High Seas TB Téméraire, Ouragan class Source

Ouragan class (1887)

These five ships were all ordered at Nantes, Loire shipyards. In fact the Ouragan was a private speculation, in the hope the Navy would adopt it, which happened. She was bough in september 1886 and tested, an order for four more following in December 1888. These were large ships compared to the previous De Lagrée, 177 tonnes at full load after modifications, 104 empty as designed. Moreover, despite using two loco boilers, they swapped to modern quadruple expansion steam engine, their power rising to 1400 ihp. This was not enough however to maintain a speed better than 19 knots, although the builder assured they could reach 23 knots. On trials the first approached 19.21 knots, but the four others did better. Trials went on for two years, and in between they received better boilers and their hull was strengthened. They were launched in 1887-89 but therefore operational in 1891, showing a three-masted rig (the foremast was later deleted). In 1897-99 they received again new boilers but despite of this were considered poor seaboats, only with the advantage of a 2000 nautic miles range and potent armament. The latter consisted in four single 14 in TTs (356 mm) mounted on each side abreast of the conning tower and aft, completed by two Hotchkiss Revolver guns.

Ouragan specifications (final, 1891)
Dimensions46,72 x 3.82 x 1.79 m
Displacement 177 tonnes FL
Propulsion 1 shaft QE, 2 loco boiler, 1400-1700 ihp
Speed19 knots (40 km/h; 25 mph)
Armament4x 14in TTs, 2x37 mm QF guns

Grondeur in Bordeaux

Coureur class (1888)

These three ships were a test design ordered from Thornycroft for their watertube boiler, boasting a very impressive power to weight ratio. These were almost identical to the Spanish Ariete, all in steel, with two rudder ahead and aft of the propellers, and achieved more than 23.6 knots on trials. two funnels, three masted rig, unusually roomy this 1888 prototype was followed by two French copies ordered at Graville in the Mediterranean launched in 1891 and 1892. They had heavier scantling, being poor seaboats. The first two were discarded and sold in 1910-12 an the third managed to survive as an auxiliary vessel until 1926.

Coureur specifications (1888)
Dimensions44,94 x 4.34 x 1.35m
Displacement 117/125 tonnes FL
Propulsion 2 shaft TE, 2 Thorn. boilers, 1750 ihp
Speed23.5 knots (42 km/h; 27 mph)
Armament2x 14in bow TTs, 2x47 mm QF guns

Avant-garde class (1889)

This was a Normand design of 1888 (launched 1889), and an enlarged version of the '126' type. A pragmatic approach that made this serie reliable, robust and seaworthy, and also reasonably fast, 20.93 knots on trials for the lead ship. They had two funnels and a three-masted rig. However the Avant-garde was wercked on 25.2.1890 and a replacement was ordered and her parts were reused on the following Archer (launched 1893). The Navy, impressed, ordered two more from Loire NyD (Nantes) and three more from Normand, launched in 1891-92. The Normand boats reached 25 knots on trials, but the Loire boats were capped to 21, their designed speed. The class comprised the Archer, Turco, Zouave, Dragon, Grenadier and Lancier.

There were differences between these. The first Normand pair, Avant-Garde and Archer were 128 tonnes fully loaded vs 127 for the Loire boats and 129 for the next three Normand. Size varied from 137' 8'' ro 138', machinery also with Du temple TE or Loco CR, or Oriole, for 1250 ihp and 21.5, 1750 ihp for the others but diverging speeds because of their hull shape. The torpedo tubes were two, one in the bow, one trainable at the rear, with 4 in reserve, while the Avant-Garde had a spar torpedo and two 14 in TTs. All were stricken before the war, but Grenadier went throughout, presumably as an auxiliary vessel.

High seas TB Zouave

Avant-Garde specifications (1889)
Dimensions42 x 4.51 x 1.30m
Displacement 116/128 or 127, 129 tonnes FL
Propulsion 2 shaft TE/CR, 2 boilers, 1250-1750 ihp
Speed21 knots (40 km/h; 26 mph)
Armament2x 14in bow TTs, 4 torpedoes, 2x47 mm QF guns

Agile class (1889)

The director of La Seyne Yard (Mediterranean) submitted his own design to the ministry and a prototype pair was ordered in 3.8.1888. Not as fast as the Normand ships (perhaps 19 knots), but were still robust and economical steamers with their loco boiler, ensuring a better range (3000 nautical miles at 10.5 knots), and stable. This first pair had a single shaft, boiler and funnel, and two masts. The following three (and the two Gironde's boats) had heavier scantlings but also two watertube boilers, two funnels and reached 21.5 knots on trials. They had 2 thornycroft boilers, and Babillot (Gironde), for 1100 ihp and 20 knots, with a consumption of 14.5 tons of coal, for 35 tons total. All ships but the last three had three 14 in TTs (2 sides, 1 trainable?) or two 15 in TTs, one in the bow, fixed, one trainable at the rear.

The class comprised the Agile, Audacieux, Eclare, Kabyle, orage, Sarrazin and Tourbillon. The Gironde boats had a diverging design and experience a lot of engine troubles, culminating with the Sarrazin explosion in 1894. Their Cail engines were deemed unreliable and their boilers were changed for Du temple models. Even then, they could barely reach 18 knots. These ships were no longer in service when WW1 broke out, Audacieux was sunk in a collision in 1896, the other were sold for scrap in 1908-1912 with the exception of Orage (1921).

Agile specifications (1889)
Dimensions43.55/44.15 x 4.55 x 1.10m
Displacement 102/119 or 129 tonnes FL last pair
Propulsion 2 shaft TE, 2 boilers, 1100 ihp
Speed20 knots (39 km/h; 25 mph)
Armament3x 14in/2 x 15in, 3x37 mm QF guns

Prototypes (1892-96)

This serie comprises thirteen ships, all from different yards and on various designs submitted to the admiralty fo the FY1900 planned class. There were two "classes" of a couple of ships that has been integrated. Most of these designs had for purpose to test machine arrangements, boilers and half saw WW1, mostly for training and guarding duties. Corsaire: built at Loire, St denis (1892) near Paris, 168 tonnes FL, 50.50m long, with 2 shafts TE, Du temple boilers and 2500 ihp for 25.5 knots. She had two 15 in TTs, 4 torpedoes in reserve and two 37mm Revolvers. Bad steamer and poor seabot she was relegated to the défense mobile and BU in 1913.

Mousquetaire: Built by Graville (Med) in 1892, 123 tonnes FL, 48m long, 2 shafts TE, 2 boilers Du temple and for the first time two 18 in TTs. Initially she made bad trials, but her engine was revised by Normand. She was reasonably fast (24.5 knots), reliable and sturdy, good seaboat but not agile. Sold 1911. Chevalier: Normand built, launched 1893, 44 m long for 118/135 tonnes FL, she was the fastest of the three prototypes, 27.6 knots on trials, at that time a world record. Well-built, sturdy, agile and good seaboboat her TE enhine fed by Du Temple boilers gave 2200 ihp for little vibrations. She was reboilered again in 1902 and served through WW1 as a patrol boat.

The experimental Lansquenet never went out of trials! Source

Lansquenet: An experimental TB fitted with Oriolle boilers, and built also by this company based in nantes, that previously had no experience in shipbuilding. She looked odd with a ram bow, three well-raked funnels, a turtle-like superstructure. She looked fast and the builder promised 26 knots but she did 24. Trials went on for seven years and her service from 1900 was shortened, as she was caught in a collision and was mothballed until 1905.

Averne: Graville built two more TBs, heavily-inspired by Normand design of the Avant-garde class. She and the Dauphin were launched in 1893 and 1894, and made 25.4 knots on trials. Both were good seaboats and Averne served in WW1. 113/131 tonnes, 43.85m long, but 15 in TTs and two 47 mm QF guns.

High seas TB Averne in 1916 at Corfu Source

Argonaute: Another pair of ships inspired by Normand's Avant-Garde, this time from Loire Yards, Argonaute and Tourmente. 113/129 tonnes, 43 m long, 23.5 knots for 2000 ihp, and same armament as above. The were reboilered and received two rudders. Both were sold in 1910-11.

Filibustier: A small group of three ships (also Ariel and Aquilon) ordered from Normand, which excelled once more. 123 tonnes, 42 m long, same armament as above, launched 1894-95. They ade 25 knots on trials, and served in WW1, although Filibustier was rammed and sunk by Friant in 1898 during a night exercize.

The Forban was the fastest TB of its day Source

Forban: This was a large experimental ship from Normand (121/150 tonnes), 44 m long, with two Normand boilers which gave 3260 ihp for a top speed of 29 knots, even 31 knots in trials, another world record. She received 18 in TTs and attracted a lot of attention at that time.

Mangini: An imporved Tourmente built by Loire yard, Nantes, she was named after the chief engineer that died in the Sarrazin accident. Launched 1896 she was considered a good seaboat, reaching 25 knots but able to sustain this speed for long. 127/140 tonnes, 45m long, 2x 15in TTs and two 37mm guns. She was sold in 1911.

Cyclone class (1898)

Five ships in two groups, Bourrasque, rafale (Normand) and Borée, tramontane (Gironde), plus the experimental Cyclone, all on a Normand design, based on the excellent Forban. They made 30.5 knots on trials, and their hull was tailor-built to reduce vibrations, with nickel-steel of lighter scantlings, and they possessed twice the range of the Forban at 2000 nautic miles @10 knots. Despite this, they were versed to the défense mobile, they served through WW1.

Cyclone specifications (1898)
Dimensions45 x 5 x 1.50m
Displacement 119/165 tonnes FL
Propulsion 2 shaft TE, 2 Normand boilers, 3800 ihp
Speed29 knots (50 km/h; 30 mph)
Armament2x 15in TTs, 4 torpedoes, 2x47 mm QF guns

Mistral class (1901)

Six ships all launched in 1901, built at Normand, Graville, and loire NYds. Normand design, based on the Cyclone, but introducing for the first time splinter armour, the first TBs to be properly armoured. An armoured box, 25mm thick in nickel-steel was built round their engine room. There wa also a 9mm thick deck. Normand at that time of tension with UK described it proof against British 6 and 12 pdrs. Of course this traduced in 18 net tons in weight taken, and therefore speed loss despite of the powerful engine delivering 4200 ihp. They all served actively in WW1 and were broken up in 1924-1928.

Mistral specifications
Dimensions45 x 5.15 x 1.60m
Displacement 113/183 tonnes FL
Propulsion 2 shaft TE, 2 Normand boilers, 4200 ihp
Speed36 knots (45 km/h; 28 mph)
Armament2x 15in TTs, 4 torpedoes, 2x47 mm QF guns


French TBs on
French maritime strategy of the Jeune École in the Belle Époque
Tons of photos on Forumarine
The Jeune École: The Strategy of the Weak, by Arne Roksund

Naval History

❢ Abbrev. & acronyms
AAW// warfare
AASAmphibious Assault Ship
AEWAirbone early warning
AGAir Group
AFVArmored Fighting Vehicle
AMGBarmoured motor gunboat
APArmor Piercing
APCArmored Personal Carrier
ASMAir-to-surface Missile
ASMDAnti Ship Missile Defence
ASW// Warfare
ASWRL/// rocket launcher
ATWahead thrown weapon
avgasAviation Gasoline
awAbove Waterline
AWACSAirborne warning & control system
bhpbrake horsepower
BLBreach-loader (gun)
BLRBreach-loading, Rifled (gun)
BUBroken Up
CAArmoured/Heavy cruiser
CalCaliber or ".php"
CGMissile Cruiser
CICCombat Information Center
C-in-CCommander in Chief
CIWSClose-in weapon system
CECompound Expansion (engine)
ChChantiers ("Yard", FR)
CLCruiser, Light
CMBCoastal Motor Boat
CMSCoastal Minesweeper
CNOChief of Naval Operations
CpCompound (armor)
COBCompound Overhad Beam
CODAGCombined Diesel & Gas
CODOGCombined Diesel/Gas
COGAGCombined Gas and Gas
COGOGCombined Gas/Gas
COSAGCombined Steam & Gas
CRCompound Reciprocating
CRCRSame, connecting rod
CruDivCruiser Division
CPControlled Pitch
CTConning Tower
CTLconstructive total loss
CTOLConv. Take off & landing
CTpCompound Trunk
CVAircraft Carrier
CVA// Attack
CVE// Escort
CVL// Light
CVS// ASW support
DADirect Action
DASHDrone ASW Helicopter
DCDepht Charge
DCT// Track
DCR// Rack
DCT// Thrower
DEDouble Expansion
DEDestroyer Escort
DDE// Converted
DesRonDestroyer Squadron
DFDouble Flux
DPDual Purpose
DUKWAmphibious truck
EOCElswick Ordnance Co.
ECMElectronic Warfare
ESMElectronic support measure
FCSFire Control System
fpsFeet Per Second
FYFiscal Year
GMMetacentric Height
GPMGGeneral Purpose Machine-gun
GRTGross Tonnage
GUPPYGreater Underwater Prop.Pow.
HAHigh Angle
HCHorizontal Compound
HCR// Reciprocating
HCDA// Direct Acting
HCDCR// connecting rod
HDA// direct acting
HDAC// acting compound
HDAG// acting geared
HDAR// acting reciprocating
HDMLHarbor def. Motor Launch
H/FHigh Frequency
HF/DF// Directional Finding
HMSHer Majesty Ship
HNHarvey Nickel
HNCHorizontal non-condensing hp
HPHigh Pressure
HRHorizontal reciprocating
HRCR// connecting rod
HSHarbor Service
HS(E)Horizontal single (expansion)
HSET// trunk
HTHorizontal trunk
HTE// expansion
ICInverted Compound
IDAInverted direct acting
IFFIdentification Friend or Foe
ihpindicated horsepower
IMFInshore Minesweeper
KCKrupp, cemented
KNC// non cemented
LALow Angle
LCLanding Craft
LCA// Assault
LCAC// Air Cushion
LFC// Flak (AA)
LCG// Gunboat
LCG(L)/// Large
LCG(M)/// Medium
LCG(S)/// Small
LCI// Infantry
LCM// Mechanized
LCP// Personel
LCP(R)/// Rocket
LCS// Support
LCT// Tanks
LCV// Vehicles
LCVP/// Personal
LCU// Utility
locolocomotive (boiler)
LSCLanding ship, support
LSD// Dock
LSF// Fighter (direction)
LSM// Medium
LSS// Stern chute
LST// Tank
LSV// Vehicle
LPlow pressure
lwllenght waterline
MA/SBmotor AS boat
MGMachine Gun
MGBMotor Gunboat
MLMotor Launch
MMSMotor Minesweper
MTMilitary Transport
MTBMotor Torpedo Boat
HMGHeavy Machine Gun
MCM(V)Mine countermeasure Vessel
MLMuzzle loading
MLR// rifled
MSOOcean Minesweeper
NCnon condensing
nhpnominal horsepower
nmNautical miles
NBC/ABCNuc. Bact. Nuclear
NSNickel steel
NTDSNav.Tactical Def.System
NyDNaval Yard
OPVOffshore Patrol Vessel
PCPatrol Craft
PDMSPoint Defence Missile System
psipounds per square inch
PVDSPropelled variable-depth sonar
QFQuick Fire
QFC// converted
RAdmRear Admiral
RCRreturn connecting rod
RFRapid Fire
RPCRemote Control
rpgRound per gun
SAMSurface to air Missile
SARSearch Air Rescue
SBShip Builder
SCSub-chaser (hunter)
SSBNBallistic Missile sub.Nuclear
SESimple Expansion
SET// trunk
shpShaft horsepower
SHsimple horizontal
SOSUSSound Surv. System
SPRsimple pressure horiz.
SSSubmarine (Conv.)
SSMSurface-surface Missile
sfsteam frigate
SLBMSub.Launched Ballistic Missile
spfsteam paddle frigate
STOVLShort Take off/landing
SUBROCSub.Fired ASW Rocket
tton, long (short in bracket)
TACANTactical Air Nav.
TBTorpedo Boat
TBD// destroyer
TCTorpedo carriage
TETriple expansion
TER// reciprocating
TFTask Force
TGBTorpedo gunboat
TGTask Group
TLTorpedo launcher
TLC// carriage
TSTraining Ship
TTTorpedo Tube
UDTUnderwater Demolition Team
UHFUltra High Frequency
VadmVice Admiral
VCVertical compound
VCE// expansion
VDE/ double expansion
VDSVariable Depth Sonar
VIC/ inverted compound
VLFVery Low Frequency
VQL/ quadruple expansion
VSTOLVertical/short take off/landing
VTE/ triple expansion
VTOLVertical take off/landing
VSE/ Simple Expansion
WTWireless Telegraphy
xnumber of
BuShipsBureau of Ships
DBMGerman Navy League
GBGreat Britain
DNCDirectorate of Naval Construction
EEZExclusive Economic Zone
FAAFleet Air Arm
FNFLFree French Navy
MDAPMutual Def.Assistance Prog.
MSAMaritime Safety Agency
RAFRoyal Air Force
RANRoyal Australian Navy
RCNRoyal Canadian Navy
R&DResearch & Development
RNRoyal Navy
RNZNRoyal New Zealand Navy
USSRUnion of Socialist Republics
UE/EECEuropean Union/Comunity
UNUnited Nations Org.
USNUnited States Navy
WaPacWarsaw Pact

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Numancia (1863)
Tetuan (1863)
Vitoria (1865)
Arapiles (1864)
Zaragosa (1867)
Sagunto (1869)
Mendez Nunez (1869)

Spanish wooden s. frigates (1861-65)
Frigate Tornado (1865)
Frigate Maria de Molina (1868)
Spanish sail gunboats (1861-65)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Ironclad Kaiser (1850-70)
Drache class BD. Ironclads (1861)
Kaiser Max class BD. Ironclads (1862)
Erzherzog F. Max class BD. Ironclads (1865)
SMS Lissa Ct. Bat. Ships (1869)

SMS Novara Frigate (1850)
SMS Schwarzenberg Frigate (1853)
Radetzky class frigates (1854)
SMS Helgoland Sloop (1867)

Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Lindormen (1868)

Hellenic Navy 1870 Nautiko Hellenon
Basileos Giorgios (1867)
Basilisa Olga (1869)
Sloop Hellas (1861)

Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)

French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Formidabile class (1861)
Pr. de Carignano class (1863)
Re d'Italia class (1864)
Regina maria Pia class (1863)
Roma class (1865)
Affondatore turret ram (1865)
Palestro class (1865)
Guerriera class (1866)
Cappelini class (1868)
Sesia DV (1862)
Esploratore class DV (1863)
Vedetta DV (1866)
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Ruyjo (1864)
Ironclad Kotetsu (1868)
Frigate Fujiyama (1864)
Frigate Kasuga (1863)
Corvette Asama (1869)
Gunboat Raiden (1856)
Gunboat Chiyodogata (1863)
Teibo class GB (1866)
Gunboat Mushun (1865)
Gunboat Hosho (1868)
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Prinz Adalbert (1864)
Arminius (1864)
Friedrich Carl (1867)
Kronprinz (1867)
K.Whilhelm (1868)
Arcona class Frigates (1858)
Nymphe class Frigates (1863)
Augusta class Frigates (1864)
Jäger class gunboats (1860)
Chamaleon class gunboats (1860)
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Russkiy Flot
Ironclad Sevastopol (1864)
Ironclad Petropavlovsk (1864)
Ironclad Smerch (1864)
Pervenetz class (1863)
Charodeika class (1867)
Admiral Lazarev class (1867)
Ironclad Kniaz Pojarski (1867)
Bronenosetz class monitors (1867)
Admiral Chichagov class (1868)
S3D Imperator Nicolai I (1860)
S3D Sinop (1860)
S3D Tsessarevich (1860)
Russian screw two-deckers (1856-59)
Russian screw frigates (1854-61)
Russian screw corvettes (1856-60)
Russian screw sloops (1856-60)
Varyag class Corvettes (1862)
Almaz class Sloops (1861)
Opyt TGBT (1861)
Sobol class TGBT (1863)
Pishtchal class TGBT (1866)
Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Ericsson class monitors (1865)
Frigate Karl XIV (1854)
Frigate Stockholm (1856)
Corvette Gefle (1848)
Corvette Orädd (1853)
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
Skorpionen class (1866)
Frigate Stolaf (1856)
Frigate Kong Sverre (1860)
Frigate Nordstjerna (1862)
Frigate Vanadis (1862)
Glommen class gunboats (1863)
⚑ 1890 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class (1873)
La Plata class (1875)
Pilcomayo class (1875)
Ferre class (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Custoza (1872)
Erzherzog Albrecht (1872)
Kaiser (1871)
Kaiser Max class (1875)
Tegetthoff (1878)

Radetzky(ii) class (1872)
SMS Donau(ii) (1874)
SMS Donau(iii) (1893)

Erzherzog Friedrich class (1878)
Saida (1878)
Fasana (1870)
Aurora class (1873)

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 Imperial Chinese Navy

Hai An class frigates (1872)
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)
Skjold (1896)
Cruiser Fyen (1882)
Cruiser Valkyrien (1888)

Hellenic Navy 1898 Nautiko Hellenon
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne

Gunboat St Michael (1970)
Gunboat "1804" (1875)
Gunboat Dessalines (1883)
Gunboat Toussaint Louverture (1886)
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class Arm.Ram (1870)
Tonnerre class Br.Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br.Monitors (1876)
Tonnant ironclad (1880)
Furieux ironclad (1883)
Fusee class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm.Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class (1892)
Bouvines class (1892)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 Nihhon Kaigun
Ironclad Fuso (1877)
Kongo class Ironclads (1877)

Cruiser Tsukushi (1880)
Cruiser Takao (1888)
Cruiser Yaeyama (1889)
Cruiser Chishima (1890)
Cruiser Tatsuta (1894)
Cruiser Miyako (1898)

Frigate Nisshin (1869)
Frigate Tsukuba (acq.1870)
Kaimon class CVT (1882)
Katsuragi class SCVT (1885)
Sloop Seiki (1875)
Sloop Amagi (1877)
Corvette Jingei (1876)
Gunboat Banjo (1878)
Maya class GB (1886)
Gunboat Oshima (1891)
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliche Marine

Ironclad Hansa (1872)
G.Kurfürst class (1873)
Kaiser class (1874)
Sachsen class (1877)
Ironclad Oldenburg (1884)

Ariadne class CVT (1871)
Leipzig class CVT (1875)
Bismarck class CVT (1877)
Carola class CVT (1880)
Corvette Nixe (1885)
Corvette Charlotte (1885)
Schwalbe class Cruisers (1887)
Bussard class (1890)

Aviso Zieten (1876)
Blitz class Avisos (1882)
Aviso Greif (1886)
Wacht class Avisos (1887)
Meteor class Avisos (1890)
Albatross class GBT (1871)
Cyclop GBT (1874)
Otter GBT (1877)
Wolf class GBT (1878)
Habitch class GBT (1879)
Hay GBT (1881)
Eber GBT (1881)
Rhein class Monitors (1872)
Wespe class Monitors (1876)
Brummer class Arm.Steamers (1884)
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Russkiy Flot

Petr Velikiy (1872)
Ekaterina class ICL (1886)
Imperator Alexander class ICL (1887)
Ironclad Gangut (1890)
Admiral Ushakov class (1893)
Navarin (1893)
Petropavlovsk class (1894)
Sissoi Veliky (1896)

Minin (1866)
G.Admiral class (1875)
Pamiat Merkuria (1879)
V.Monomakh (1882)
D.Donskoi (1883)
Adm.Nakhimov (1883)
Vitiaz class (1884)
Pamiat Azova (1886)
Adm.Kornilov (1887)
Rurik (1895)
Svetlana (1896)

Gunboat Ersh (1874)
Kreiser class sloops (1875)
Gunboat Nerpa (1877)
Burun class Gunboats (1879)
Sivuch class Gunboats (1884)
Korietz class Gunboats (1886)
Kubanetz class Gunboats (1887)
TGBT Lt.Ilin (1886)
TGBT Kp.Saken (1889)
Kazarski class TGBT (1889)
Grozyaschi class AGBT (1890)
Gunboat Khrabri (1895)
T.Gunboat Abrek (1896)
Amur class minelayers (1898)
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen
Monitor Loke (1871)
Svea class CDS (1886)
Berserk class (1873)
Sloop Balder (1870)
Blenda class GB (1874)
Urd class GB (1877)
Gunboat Edda (1885)
Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Lindormen (1868)
Gorm (1870)
Odin (1872)
Helgoland (1878)
Tordenskjold (1880)
Iver Hvitfeldt (1886)

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts


☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Centurion class (1892)
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
N3 class (1920)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
WW1 British Monitors
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Cruiser Nadezhda (1898)
Drski class TBs (1906)
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Skjold class (1896)
Herluf Trolle class (1899)
Herluf Trolle (1908)
Niels Iuel (1918)
Hekla class cruisers (1890)
Valkyrien class cruisers (1888)
Fyen class crusiers (1882)
Danish TBs (1879-1918)
Danish Submarines (1909-1920)
Danish Minelayer/sweepers

Greek Royal Navy Greece
Kilkis class
Giorgios Averof class

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Eversten class (1894)
Konigin Regentes class (1900)
De Zeven Provincien (1909)
Dutch dreadnought (project)

Holland class cruisers (1896)
Fret class destroyers
Dutch Torpedo boats
Dutch gunboats
Dutch submarines
Dutch minelayers

Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway
Almirante Grau class (1906)
Ferre class subs. (1912)

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal
Coastal Battleship Vasco da Gama (1875)
Cruiser Adamastor (1896)
Sao Gabriel class (1898)
Cruiser Dom Carlos I (1898)
Cruiser Rainha Dona Amelia (1899)
Portuguese ww1 Destroyers
Portuguese ww1 Submersibles
Portuguese ww1 Gunboats

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania

Elisabeta (1885)
Spanish Armada Spain
España class Battleships (1912)
Velasco class (1885)
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Cataluna class (1896)
Plata class (1898)
Estramadura class (1900)
Reina Regentes class (1906)
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Torpedo Boats
Spanish Sloops/Gunboats
Spanish Submarines
Spanish Armada 1898
Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Svea classs (1886)
Oden class (1896)
Dristigheten (1900)
Äran class (1901)
Oscar II (1905)
Sverige class (1915)
J. Ericsson class (1865)
Gerda class (1871)
Berserk (1873)
HMS Fylgia (1905)
Clas Fleming class (1912)
Swedish Torpedo cruisers
Swedish destroyers
Swedish Torpedo Boats
Swedish gunboats
Swedish submarines


✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1942)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)
WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)
WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)
WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British Gunboats

WW2 British Sloops
WW2 British Frigates
WW2 British Corvettes
WW2 British Misc.
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1921)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1934)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
IJN Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1940)
Zuiho class (1937)
Ruyho (1933)
Hiyo class (1941)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Taiho (1944)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)
Ioshima class (1944)
WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

⚑ Neutral Navies

✈ Naval Aviation

Latest entries WW1 CW
naval aviation USN aviation
Aeromarine 40 (1919)
Douglas DT (1921)
Naval Aircraft Factory PT (1922)
Loening OL (1923)
Huff-Daland TW-5 (1923)
Martin MO (1924)
Consolidated NY (1926)
Vought FU (1927)
Vought O2U/O3U Corsair (1928)
Berliner-Joyce OJ (1931)
Curtiss SOC seagull (1934)
Grumman FF (1931)
Grumman F2F (1933)
Grumman F3F (1935)
Northrop BT-1 (1935)
Vultee V-11 (1935)
Grumman J2F Duck (1936)
Curtiss SBC Helldiver (1936)
Vought SB2U Vindicator (1936)
Brewster F2A Buffalo (1937)
Douglas TBD Devastator (1937)
Vought Kingfisher (1938)
Curtiss SO3C Seamew (1939)
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat (1939)
Douglas SBD Dauntless (1939)
Grumman F4F Wildcat (1940)
Northrop N-3PB Nomad (1941)
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer (1941)
Grumman TBF/TBM Avenger (1941)
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf (1941)
Grumman F6F Hellcat (1942)
Vought F4U Corsair (1942)
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver (1942)
Curtiss SC Seahawk (1944)
Douglas BTD Destroyer (1944)
Grumman F7F Tigercat (1943)
Grumman F8F Bearcat (1944)
Ryan FR-1 Fireball (1944)
Douglas XTB2D-1 Skypirate (1945)
Douglas AD-1 Skyraider (1945)

Naval Aircraft Factory PN (1925)
Douglas T2D (1927)
Consolidated P2Y (1929)
Hall PH (1929)
Douglas PD (1929)
Douglas Dolphin (1931)
General Aviation PJ (1933)
Consolidated PBY Catalina (1935)
Fleetwings Sea Bird (1936)
Sikorsky VS-44 (1937)
Grumman G-21 Goose (1937)
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (1937)
Beechcraft M18 (1937)
Sikorsky JRS (1938)
Boeing 314 Clipper (1938)
Martin PBM Mariner (1939)
Grumman G-44 Wigeon (1940)
Martin Mars (1943)
Goodyear GA-2 Duck (1944)
Edo Ose (1945)
Hugues Hercules (1947)

⚔ WW2 Naval Battles

The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Cold War Aircraft Carriers
Centaur class (1947)
HMS Victorious (1950)
HMS Eagle (1946)
HMS Ark Royal (1950)
HMS Hermes (1953)
CVA-01 class (1966 project)
Invincible class (1977)

Cold War Cruisers
Tiger class (1945)

Daring class (1949)
1953 design (project)
Cavendish class (1944)
Weapon class (1945)
Battle class (1945)
FADEP program (1946)
County class GMD (1959)
Bristol class GMD (1969)
Sheffield class GMD (1971)
Manchester class GMD (1980)
Type 43 GMD (1974)

British cold-war Frigates
Rapid class (1942)
Tenacious class (1941)
Whitby class (1954)
Blackwood class (1953)
Leopard class (1954)
Salisbury class (1953)
Tribal class (1959)
Rothesay class (1957)
Leander class (1961)
BB Leander class (1967)
HMS Mermaid (1966)
Amazon class (1971)
Broadsword class (1976)
Boxer class (1981)
Cornwall class (1985)
Duke class (1987)

British cold war Submarines
T (conv.) class (1944)
T (Stream) class (1945)
A (Mod.) class (1944)
Explorer class (1954)
Strickleback class (1954)
Porpoise class (1956)
Oberon class (1959)
HMS Dreanought SSN (1960)
Valiant class SSN (1963)
Resolution class SSBN (1966)
Swiftsure class SSN (1971)
Trafalgar class SSN (1981)
Upholder class (1986)
Vanguard class SSBN (started)

Assault ships
Fearless class (1963)
HMS Ocean (started)
Sir Lancelot LLS (1963)
Sir Galahad (1986)
Ardennes/Avon class (1976)
Brit. LCVPs (1963)
Brit. LCM(9) (1980)

Ton class (1952)
Ham class (1947)
Ley class (1952)
HMS Abdiel (1967)
HMS Wilton (1972)
Hunt class (1978)
Venturer class (1979)
River class (1983)
Sandown class (1988)

Misc. ships
HMS Argus ATS (1988)
Ford class SDF (1951)
Cormorant class (1985)
Kingfisger class (1974)
HMS Jura OPV (1975)
Island class OPVs (1976)
HMS Speedy PHDF (1979)
Castle class OPVs (1980)
Peacock class OPVs (1982)
MBT 538 class (1948)
Gay class FACs (1952)
Dark class FACs (1954)
Bold class FACs (1955)
Brave class FACs (1957)
Tenacity class PCs (1967)
Brave class FPCs (1969)
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskiy flot
Cold War Soviet Cruisers (1947-90)
Chapayev class (1945)
Kynda class (1961)
Kresta I class (1964)
Kresta II class (1968)
Kara class (1969)
Kirov class (1977)
Slava class (1979)

Moksva class (1965)
Kiev class (1975)
Kusnetsov class aircraft carriers (1988)

Cold War Soviet Destroyers
Skoryi class destroyers (1948)
Neustrashimyy (1951)
Kotlin class (1953)
Krupny class (1959)
Kashin class (1963)
Sovremenny class (1978)
Udaloy class (1980)
Project Anchar DDN (1988)

Soviet Frigates
Kola class (1951)
Riga class (1954)
Petya class (1960)
Mirka class (1964)
Grisha class (1968)
Krivak class (1970)
Koni class (1976)
Neustrashimyy class (1988)

Soviet Missile Corvettes
Poti class (1962)
Nanuchka class (1968)
Pauk class (1978)
Tarantul class (1981)
Dergach class (1987)
Svetlyak class (1989)

Cold War Soviet Submarines
Whiskey SSK (1948)
Zulu SSK (1950)
Quebec SSK (1950)
Romeo SSK (1957)
Foxtrot SSK (1963)
Tango class (1972)
November SSN (1957)
Golf SSB (1958)
Hotel SSBN (1959)
Echo I SSGN (1959)
Echo II SSGN (1961)
Juliett SSG (1962)
Yankee SSBN (1966)
Victor SSN I (1965)
Alfa SSN (1967)
Charlie SSGN (1968)
Papa SSGN (1968)
Delta I SSBN (1972)
Delta II SSBN (1975)
Delta III SSBN (1976)
Delta IV SSBN (1980)
Typhoon SSBN (1980)
Victor II SSN (1971)
Victor III SSN (1977)
Oscar SSGN (1980)
Sierra SSN (1982)
Mike SSN (1983)
Akula SSN (1984)
Kilo SSK (1986)

Soviet Naval Air Force
Kamov Ka-10 Hat
Kamov Ka-15 Hen
Kamov Ka-18 Hog
Kamov Ka-25 Hormone
Kamov Ka-27 Helix
Mil Mi-8 Hip
Mil Mi-14 H?
Mil Mi-4 Hound

Yakovlev Yak-38
Sukhoi Su-17
Sukhoi Su-24

Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle
Myasishchev M-4 Bison
Tupolev Tu-14 Bosun
Tupolev Tu-142
Ilyushin Il-38
Tupolev Tu-16
Antonov An-12
Tupolev Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-95
Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-22

Beriev Be-6 Madge
Beriev Be-10 Mallow
Beriev Be-12
Lun class Ekranoplanes
A90 Orlan Ekranoplanes

Soviet MTBs/PBs/FACs
P2 class FACs
P4 class FACs
P6 class FACs
P8 class FACs
P10 class FACs
Komar class FACs (1960)
Project 184 FACs
OSA class FACs
Shershen class FACs
Mol class FACs
Turya class HFL
Matka class HFL
Pchela class FACs
Sarancha class HFL
Babochka class HFL
Mukha class HFL
Muravey class HFL

MO-V sub-chasers
MO-VI sub-chasers
Stenka class sub-chasers
kronstadt class PBs
SO-I class PBs
Poluchat class PBs
Zhuk clas PBs
MO-105 sub-chasers

Project 191 River Gunboats
Shmel class river GB
Yaz class river GB
Piyavka class river GB
Vosh class river GB
Saygak class river GB

Soviet Minesweepers
T43 class
T58 class
Yurka class
Gorya class
T301 class
Project 255 class
Sasha class
Vanya class
Zhenya class
Almaz class
Sonya class
TR40 class
K8 class
Yevgenya class
Olya class
Lida class
Andryusha class
Ilyusha class
Alesha class
Rybak class
Baltika class
SChS-150 class
Project 696 class

Soviet Amphibious ships
MP 2 class
MP 4 class
MP 6 class
MP 8 class
MP 10 class
Polocny class
Ropucha class
Alligator class
Ivan Rogov class
Aist class HVC
Pomornik class HVC
Gus class HVC
T-4 class LC
Ondatra class LC
Lebed class HVC
Tsaplya class HVC
Utenov class
US Navy USN (1990)
Aircraft carriers
United States class (1950)
Essex SBC-27 (1950s)
Midway class (mod)
Forrestal class (1954)
Kitty Hawk class (1960)
USS Enterprise (1960)
Nimitz Class (1972)

Salem Class (1947)
Worcester Class (1948)
USS Norfolk (1953)
Boston Class (1955)
Galveston Class (1958)
Albany Class (1962)
USS Long Beach (1960)
Leahy Class (1961)
USS Bainbridge (1961)
Belknap Class (1963)
USS Truxtun (1964)
California Class (1971)
Virginia Class (1974)
CSGN Class (1976)
Ticonderoga Class (1981)

Mitscher class (1952)
Fletcher DDE class (1950s)
Gearing DDE class (1950s)
F. Sherman class (1956)
Farragut class (1958)
Charles s. Adams class (1958)
Gearing FRAM I class (1960s)
Sumner FRAM II class (1970s)
Spruance class (1975)

Dealey class (1953)
Claud Jones class (1958)
Bronstein class (1962)
Garcia class (1963)
Brooke class (1963)
Knox class (1966)
OH Perry class (1976)

Guppy class Submarines (1946-59)
Barracuda class SSK (1951)
Tang class SSK (1951)
USS Darter SSK (1956)
Mackerel class SSK (1953)
USS Albacore SSK (1953)
USS X1 Midget subs (1955)
Barbel class SSK (1958)

USS Nautilus SSN (1954)
USS Seawolf SSN (1955)
Skate class SSN (1957)
Skipjack class SSN (1958)
USS Tullibee SSN (1960)
Tresher/Permit class SSN (1960)
Sturgeon class SSN (1963)
Los Angeles class SSN (1974)
Seawolf class SSN (1989)

USS Grayback SSBN (1954)
USS Growler SSBN (1957)
USS Halibut SSBN (1959)
Gato SSG (1960s)
E. Allen class SSBN (1960)
G. Washington class SSBN (1969)
Lafayette class SSBN (1962)
Ohio class SSBN (1979)

Migraine class RP (1950s)
Sailfish class RP (1955)
USS Triton class RP (1958)

Amphibious/assault ships
Iwo Jima class HC (1960)
Tarawa class LHD (1973)
Wasp class LHD (1987)
Thomaston class LSD (1954)
Raleigh class LSD (1962)
Austin class LSD (1964)
Anchorage class LSD (1968)
Whibdey Island class LSD (1983)
Parish class LST (1952)
County class LST (1957)
Newport class LST (1968)
Tulare class APA (1953)
Charleston class APA (1967)
USS Carronade support ship (1953)

Mine warfare ships
Agile class (1952)
Ability (1956)
Avenger (1987)
USS Cardinal (1983)
Adjutant class (1953)
USS Cove (1958)
USS Bittern (1957)
Minesweeping boats/launches

Misc. ships
USS Northampton CS (1951)
Blue Ridge class CS (1969)
Wright class CS (1969)
PT812 class (1950)
Nasty class FAC (1962)
Osprey class FAC (1967)
Asheville class FACs (1966)
USN Hydrofoils (1962-81)
Vietnam Patrol Boats (1965-73)

Hamilton class (1965)
Reliance class (1963)
Bear class (1979)
cold war CG PBs

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